North Vietnam South Vietnam Hanoi Gulf of Tonkin Laos Cambodia Thailand China Burma South China Sea
Smart Start: Part One 1. What do we already know about Vietnam? 2. What more do we want to know? WHY? 3.Why would Vietnam be classified as one of the turning points in American History? 4.What are some justifiable reasons as to why a country would go to war?
Reading on Background of Vietnam Practice Close Reading Highlight information that you feel is important In the margins, briefly explain why you highlighted the information Be ready to discuss
French Control French control Indochina – Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia from 1893-1941 (Age of Imperialism) Japan takes over Indochina during WWII Japan leaves Indochina in 1945 French want control again: WHY?
The French are back After WWII France assumes they will get their colonies back 1946 France sends troops into Vietnam and gain control of southern half 1950 US enters Vietnam struggle and sends aid to France-WHY?
Primary Source: Vietnamese Account of Mistreatment at the hands of French Colonial Officials, 1914 Using historical thinking skills of Contextualization and Close Reading
Ho Chi Minh 1930 became leader of the Indochinese Communist Party During WWII was in Russia and China 1945 Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam and independent state Asked Truman to honor Atlantic CharterAtlantic Charter Read Aloud: Call for the Revolutionary League for the Independence of Vietnam (1941)
Vietminh Group that wants Vietnam’s independence Formed in the North under Ho Chi Minh
Domino Theory (Read aloud US fears if one country falls to communism after WWII it will be a domino effect One country, then the next and so on 1954 Pres Eisenhower explains this theory on tv 1954 French begin to pull out of Vietnam after a defeat by the Vietminh http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QP9QDRDLw6c http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QP9QDRDLw6c
Geneva Accords May – July 1954 France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, China, Cambodia, Laos and the Vietminh Met in Geneva Switzerland Divide Vietnam at 17 th Parallel North Vietnam – Ho Chi Minh – Hanoi South Vietnam – Ngo Dinh Diem – Saigon Elections to reunite in 1956
No Elections Everyone realizes the communists will win the elections Therefore the elections aren’t held and the country remains divided Kennedy sends in military “advisors” to South Vietnam 16,000 (Early 1960’s)
Buddhist protests Diem is Catholic and limits rights of Buddhists Most of the South believes in Buddhism Buddhist monks burn themselves in protest 1963 in the streets of Saigon Diem has hundreds arrested and Buddhist temples destroyed
President Kennedy Inaugural Speech : “The Torch Is Passed” What is the message behind this address? What is going to be the mission of the JFK administration? How does this set the tone for 1960s and Vietnam?
Kennedy’s View on Vietnam Press Conference Press Conference Statement Statement What is the tone of Kennedy’s voice as questioned about Vietnam? Primary Source: One solider sister’s letter to the president..early 1963.
US can no longer support Diem November 1, 1963 US supports a coup Overthrow Diem Diem is executed against Pres Kennedy’s wishes
Death of a President and its impact on the nation
Reading from textbook Conflict Deepens and fighting the war Frustration grows
Gulf of Tonkin Johnson fears losing Vietnam South Vietnam is even more unstable after Diems assassination August 4, 1964 Pres announces North Vietnamese torpedo boats attached a US destroyer – NV say US ship was conducting a naval raid US allege a second incident
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution August 7, 1964 Pres Johnson gets the support of Congress Without having a formal declaration of war Congress gives Pres Johnson broad military powers in Vietnam Operation Rolling Thunder – bombing raids of NV begin
Presenter on Robert McNamara The Best and the Brightest reading
General William Westmoreland US commander in South Vietnam Continued to request more troops Work with ARVIN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) South Vietnamese soldiers War of attrition – gradual wearing down of the enemy by continuous harassment
Video on Pres. Johnson Reaction so far…Is it fair to placed the entire blame on Vietnam on Johnson? If you were Johnson, what would you have done? Be sure to explain your response to both questions.
Smart Start What made Vietnam so difficult to tackle? What is meant by a living room war? How would this play into the difficulties with Vietnam?
Presenter on Landscape Video clip from Forest Gump List what Forrest Gump encountered when they arrived in Vietnam
Reflect: What do we know so far about Vietnam? Let’s take a more personal look at how some Veteran’s experience changed them forever. Reading Assignment: Chapter 30: Section 3 (Vietnam years at Home)
Living Room War Footage of combat appeared on the nightly news What people saw was not what they were hearing from the government Youth begin to protest
Media Role in Vietnam As you listen/watch: take note on how media played a vital role in persuading public opinion of the conflict.
Draft 18-26 Deferments – medical, join National Guard, college, marriage 80 % of US soldiers were from lower economic levels African Americans accounted for 20% of deaths in Vietnam but only made up 10 % of US population
Women Still non combat 7500 army and navy nurses Red Cross USO – United States Organization – hospitality and entertainment of troops
Protests College campuses Sit-ins Marches Doves = people that think the US should withdraw Hawks = use all US military power to defeat North Vietnam
Johnson’s “Peace without Conquest” Speech Questions 1. What is the tone of the speech? 2. Why did Pres. Johnson give this speech? (Provide specific evidence from the speech) 3. Going back to our chart in the beginning, why must we go to war?
March on Washington April 1965 20,000 protestors 1966 Pres Johnson changed college deferments – had to be in good academic standing Small number of Vietnam vets protested the war as well
Presenter on the Music Credence Clear Revival “Fortunate Son” Credence Clear Revival “Fortunate Son” Country Joe McDonald “We all gonna die” Country Joe McDonald “We all gonna die” Protests Songs Protests Songs Edward Stanton “War” Edward Stanton “War” Bryds: Turn, Turn, Turn. Bryds: Turn, Turn, Turn. 8 th of November (Big and Rich) 8 th of November (Big and Rich) What is the tone of the song? What is the message? Reaction?
Tet Offensive January 30, 1968 Vietnamese New Year Festival known as the Tet Part of celebration are funeral processions with firecrackers, flutes Viet Cong hid weapons in coffins 100 South Vietnam cities were surprise attached and 12 US air bases Went on for over one month VC = 32,000 ARVIN and US = 3000 soldiers
Nation turns on Johnson After Tet Offensive Johnson’s popularity plummeted Pres Johnson chooses not to run for reelection March 1968
US Democratic Primary in Chicago Delegates and protesters in Chicago Mayor Daily worried about violence Mobilized 12000 police and 5000 National Guard Protestors put in a park – chaos erupted Police beat protesters with nightsticks and sprayed them with Mace The whole world watched on TV
Republican Nixon Wins During election campaign promised to end the war in Vietnam By summer 1969, announced the 1 st US troops would withdraw from Vietnam Vietnamization – plan to gradually withdraw US troops and the South Vietnamese take on the combat role
Secret War Nixon ordered massive bombing raids against supply lines and bases on North Vietnam Bombed neighboring countries of Laos and Cambodia that had Viet Cong in the area
Presenter on Hmong If not presenter: Read Article on the Hmong in the Secret War Reflection
Hmong In mountains of Laos Some side with Viet Cong Some side with US CIA US allies help rescue downed pilots, plant mines on Ho Chi Minh Trail, set up US air base in Northern Laos, and were pilots themselves
Mai Lai Massacre March of 1969 Massacre in the paper in November 1969 Mai Lai small village in North Vietnam No signs of Viet Cong US military rounded up villagers and shot them – 100 innocent women and children We were following orders 25 officers charged with massacre and cover-up
Other Masacres http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1tQt go4hKsM&feature=fvsr http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1tQt go4hKsM&feature=fvsr
Invasion of Cambodia April 30, 1970 Nixon reports US troops had invaded Cambodia to clear out supplies for Viet Cong College students erupted in protest 1.5 million on 1200 campuses
Pentagon Papers Nixon had not told Congress about Cambodia invasion Nixon lost support December 31, 1970 Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution June 1971 – former defense employee 7000 pages – plans that US govt never planned to end the war
Article on Pentagon Papers Read through with a partner not near to where you are sitting As you read, highlight important facts and details After you read, go back and in the margins, write in your own words why you chose the detail/fact.
Nixon’s re-election 1972 Watergate – unknown at the time US and Vietnam had been meeting Talks ended in December 1972 Nixon ordered Christmas bombings 100000 bombs 11 days 2 cities – Hanoi and Haiphong
“Peace with Honor” Handout Examine the essential questions on the handout as you listen and follow the speech. Be ready to discuss your perspective of the speech
War is over January 27, 1973 US signed and agreement ending war Nixon promised the use full force if peace agreement was not kept March 29, 1973 last US combat troops left for US
Nixon leaves office August 8, 1974 Nixon goes on tv and says he will resign Nixon admitted no guilt Gerald Ford becomes the 38 th Pres of the USA
Fall of Saigon Within two months the 1973 cease fire between N and S was broken March 1975 NV launched full scale invasion of SV America provided money but would not send troops April 30, 1975 NV capture Saigon and SV surrenders
Impact of War US 58000 killed 365000 wounded SV 1.5 million killed War in Cambodia Hmong that helped US no longer safe in Laos flee to Thailand 3.3 million soldiers PTSD 1975 First Hmong refugees arrive in US 1982 Vietnam Wall