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Vietnam War 1954-1975 North Vietnam South Vietnam Hanoi Gulf of Tonkin Laos Cambodia Thailand China Burma South China Sea.

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Presentation on theme: "Vietnam War 1954-1975 North Vietnam South Vietnam Hanoi Gulf of Tonkin Laos Cambodia Thailand China Burma South China Sea."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Vietnam War

3 North Vietnam South Vietnam Hanoi Gulf of Tonkin Laos Cambodia Thailand China Burma South China Sea

4 Smart Start: Part One 1. What do we already know about Vietnam? 2. What more do we want to know? WHY? 3.Why would Vietnam be classified as one of the turning points in American History? 4.What are some justifiable reasons as to why a country would go to war?

5 Let’s talk history

6 Reading on Background of Vietnam  Practice Close Reading  Highlight information that you feel is important  In the margins, briefly explain why you highlighted the information  Be ready to discuss

7 French Control  French control Indochina – Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia from (Age of Imperialism)  Japan takes over Indochina during WWII  Japan leaves Indochina in 1945  French want control again: WHY?

8 The French are back  After WWII France assumes they will get their colonies back  1946 France sends troops into Vietnam and gain control of southern half  1950 US enters Vietnam struggle and sends aid to France-WHY?

9 Primary Source: Vietnamese Account of Mistreatment at the hands of French Colonial Officials, 1914  Using historical thinking skills of Contextualization and Close Reading

10 Presenter on Ho Chi Minh

11 Ho Chi Minh  1930 became leader of the Indochinese Communist Party  During WWII was in Russia and China  1945 Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam and independent state  Asked Truman to honor Atlantic CharterAtlantic Charter  Read Aloud: Call for the Revolutionary League for the Independence of Vietnam (1941)

12 Declaration of Independence for Vietnam 1945

13 Vietminh  Group that wants Vietnam’s independence  Formed in the North under Ho Chi Minh

14 Domino Theory (Read aloud  US fears if one country falls to communism after WWII it will be a domino effect  One country, then the next and so on  1954 Pres Eisenhower explains this theory on tv  1954 French begin to pull out of Vietnam after a defeat by the Vietminh 

15 Stop: Book Reading

16 Geneva Accords  May – July 1954  France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, China, Cambodia, Laos and the Vietminh  Met in Geneva Switzerland  Divide Vietnam at 17 th Parallel  North Vietnam – Ho Chi Minh – Hanoi  South Vietnam – Ngo Dinh Diem – Saigon  Elections to reunite in 1956

17 Handout on Diem

18 No Elections  Everyone realizes the communists will win the elections  Therefore the elections aren’t held and the country remains divided  Kennedy sends in military “advisors” to South Vietnam 16,000 (Early 1960’s)

19 Buddhist protests  Diem is Catholic and limits rights of Buddhists  Most of the South believes in Buddhism  Buddhist monks burn themselves in protest 1963 in the streets of Saigon  Diem has hundreds arrested and Buddhist temples destroyed

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21 President Kennedy Inaugural Speech : “The Torch Is Passed” What is the message behind this address? What is going to be the mission of the JFK administration? How does this set the tone for 1960s and Vietnam?

22 Kennedy’s View on Vietnam  Press Conference Press Conference  Statement Statement  What is the tone of Kennedy’s voice as questioned about Vietnam?  Primary Source: One solider sister’s letter to the president..early 1963.

23 US can no longer support Diem  November 1, 1963  US supports a coup  Overthrow Diem  Diem is executed against Pres Kennedy’s wishes

24 Death of a President and its impact on the nation

25 Reading from textbook  Conflict Deepens and fighting the war  Frustration grows

26 Presenter on Pres. Johnson

27 Presenter on Gulf of Tonkin

28 Gulf of Tonkin  Johnson fears losing Vietnam  South Vietnam is even more unstable after Diems assassination  August 4, 1964 Pres announces North Vietnamese torpedo boats attached a US destroyer – NV say US ship was conducting a naval raid  US allege a second incident

29 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution  August 7, 1964 Pres Johnson gets the support of Congress  Without having a formal declaration of war  Congress gives Pres Johnson broad military powers in Vietnam  Operation Rolling Thunder – bombing raids of NV begin

30 Presenter on Robert McNamara  The Best and the Brightest reading

31 Presenter on Gen. Westmoreland

32 General William Westmoreland  US commander in South Vietnam  Continued to request more troops  Work with ARVIN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) South Vietnamese soldiers  War of attrition – gradual wearing down of the enemy by continuous harassment

33 Video on Pres. Johnson  Reaction so far…Is it fair to placed the entire blame on Vietnam on Johnson?  If you were Johnson, what would you have done?  Be sure to explain your response to both questions.

34 Smart Start  What made Vietnam so difficult to tackle?  What is meant by a living room war?  How would this play into the difficulties with Vietnam?

35 Presenter on Weapons and Tactics

36 North Vietnamese Tactics  Hit and run  Ambush  Booby traps  Land mines  Elaborate tunnel system connecting villages

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38 US tactics  War of attrition  Napalm – gasoline based bomb set fire to jungle  Agent Orange – leaf killing toxic chemical  Search and Destroy

39 Presenter on Agent Orange and Napalm

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41 Presenter on Landscape  Video clip from Forest Gump  List what Forrest Gump encountered when they arrived in Vietnam

42 Reflect: What do we know so far about Vietnam?  Let’s take a more personal look at how some Veteran’s experience changed them forever. Reading Assignment: Chapter 30: Section 3 (Vietnam years at Home)

43 Living Room War  Footage of combat appeared on the nightly news  What people saw was not what they were hearing from the government  Youth begin to protest

44 Media Role in Vietnam  As you listen/watch: take note on how media played a vital role in persuading public opinion of the conflict.

45 Presenter on Draft and Youth Protests

46 Draft   Deferments – medical, join National Guard, college, marriage  80 % of US soldiers were from lower economic levels  African Americans accounted for 20% of deaths in Vietnam but only made up 10 % of US population

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48 Women  Still non combat  7500 army and navy nurses  Red Cross  USO – United States Organization – hospitality and entertainment of troops

49 Protests  College campuses  Sit-ins  Marches  Doves = people that think the US should withdraw  Hawks = use all US military power to defeat North Vietnam

50 Johnson’s “Peace without Conquest” Speech  Questions 1. What is the tone of the speech? 2. Why did Pres. Johnson give this speech? (Provide specific evidence from the speech) 3. Going back to our chart in the beginning, why must we go to war?

51 March on Washington  April 1965  20,000 protestors  1966 Pres Johnson changed college deferments – had to be in good academic standing  Small number of Vietnam vets protested the war as well

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53 Presenter on the Music  Credence Clear Revival “Fortunate Son” Credence Clear Revival “Fortunate Son”  Country Joe McDonald “We all gonna die” Country Joe McDonald “We all gonna die”  Protests Songs Protests Songs  Edward Stanton “War” Edward Stanton “War”  Bryds: Turn, Turn, Turn. Bryds: Turn, Turn, Turn.  8 th of November (Big and Rich) 8 th of November (Big and Rich) What is the tone of the song? What is the message? Reaction?

54 Presenter on the Tet Offensive

55 Tet Offensive  January 30, 1968 Vietnamese New Year Festival known as the Tet  Part of celebration are funeral processions with firecrackers, flutes  Viet Cong hid weapons in coffins  100 South Vietnam cities were surprise attached and 12 US air bases  Went on for over one month  VC = 32,000 ARVIN and US = 3000 soldiers

56 Nation turns on Johnson  After Tet Offensive Johnson’s popularity plummeted  Pres Johnson chooses not to run for reelection March 1968

57 Handout: Let’s see why the Nation turns

58 Violence in the US  April 4, 1968 MLK, Jr assassinated  100 cities across the US erupted in violence  June 4, 1968 Robert Kennedy assassinate  College campuses continued to have protests

59 1968: The year that changed everything

60 US Democratic Primary in Chicago  Delegates and protesters in Chicago  Mayor Daily worried about violence  Mobilized police and 5000 National Guard  Protestors put in a park – chaos erupted  Police beat protesters with nightsticks and sprayed them with Mace  The whole world watched on TV

61 Republican Nixon Wins  During election campaign promised to end the war in Vietnam  By summer 1969, announced the 1 st US troops would withdraw from Vietnam  Vietnamization – plan to gradually withdraw US troops and the South Vietnamese take on the combat role

62 Video Clip of Nixon  Presenters on Nixon

63 Presenter on Secret War

64 Secret War  Nixon ordered massive bombing raids against supply lines and bases on North Vietnam  Bombed neighboring countries of Laos and Cambodia that had Viet Cong in the area

65 Presenter on Hmong  If not presenter: Read Article on the Hmong in the Secret War  Reflection

66 Hmong  In mountains of Laos  Some side with Viet Cong  Some side with US CIA  US allies help rescue downed pilots, plant mines on Ho Chi Minh Trail, set up US air base in Northern Laos, and were pilots themselves

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68 Presenter on Mai Lai Massacre

69 Mai Lai Massacre  March of 1969 Massacre in the paper in November 1969  Mai Lai small village in North Vietnam  No signs of Viet Cong  US military rounded up villagers and shot them – 100 innocent women and children  We were following orders  25 officers charged with massacre and cover-up

70 Other Masacres  go4hKsM&feature=fvsr go4hKsM&feature=fvsr

71 Invasion of Cambodia  April 30, 1970 Nixon reports US troops had invaded Cambodia to clear out supplies for Viet Cong  College students erupted in protest  1.5 million on 1200 campuses

72 Presenter on Kent State and Youth Protests

73 Kent State  In Ohio  May 4, 1970  National Guard fired on a crowd of student protestors throwing rocks at them  9 wounded 4 killed

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75 Presenter on Pentagon Papers

76 Pentagon Papers  Nixon had not told Congress about Cambodia invasion  Nixon lost support  December 31, 1970 Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution  June 1971 – former defense employee 7000 pages – plans that US govt never planned to end the war

77 Article on Pentagon Papers  Read through with a partner not near to where you are sitting  As you read, highlight important facts and details  After you read, go back and in the margins, write in your own words why you chose the detail/fact.

78 Nixon’s re-election  1972  Watergate – unknown at the time  US and Vietnam had been meeting  Talks ended in December 1972  Nixon ordered Christmas bombings  bombs 11 days 2 cities – Hanoi and Haiphong

79 “Peace with Honor”  Handout  Examine the essential questions on the handout as you listen and follow the speech.  Be ready to discuss your perspective of the speech

80 War is over  January 27, 1973  US signed and agreement ending war  Nixon promised the use full force if peace agreement was not kept  March 29, 1973 last US combat troops left for US

81 Nixon leaves office  August 8, 1974 Nixon goes on tv and says he will resign  Nixon admitted no guilt  Gerald Ford becomes the 38 th Pres of the USA

82 Fall of Saigon  Within two months the 1973 cease fire between N and S was broken  March 1975 NV launched full scale invasion of SV  America provided money but would not send troops  April 30, 1975 NV capture Saigon and SV surrenders

83 Presenter on Paris Peace Accords

84

85 Presenter on Legacy of the War

86 Impact of War  US killed wounded  SV 1.5 million killed  War in Cambodia  Hmong that helped US no longer safe in Laos flee to Thailand  3.3 million soldiers PTSD  1975 First Hmong refugees arrive in US  1982 Vietnam Wall

87      intro.htm        /www.47ipsd.us/47diary1.htm&h=203&w=145&sz=9&tbnid=wn1SvAB0IPYJ:&tbnh=98&tb nw=70&hl=en&start=2&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgeneral%2Bwestmoreland%26hl%3Den %26lr%3D /www.47ipsd.us/47diary1.htm&h=203&w=145&sz=9&tbnid=wn1SvAB0IPYJ:&tbnh=98&tb nw=70&hl=en&start=2&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgeneral%2Bwestmoreland%26hl%3Den %26lr%3D  en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Vietnam_War    s/KSU.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.vw.cc.va.us/vwhansd/HIS122/HIS122NotesP2.html&h=4 75&w=717&sz=386&tbnid=rv93pYaHiisJ:&tbnh=91&tbnw=137&hl=en&start=4&prev=/im ages%3Fq%3Dkent%2Bstate%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D   H389%2520Scandals/Scandals%2520Photos/Nixon%2520Resigns.jpg&imgrefurl=http://c ampus.queens.edu/depts/history/Syllabi/H389%2520Scandals/&h=190&w=233&sz=25&t bnid=TWu_r9wCjUUJ:&tbnh=84&tbnw=103&hl=en&start=6&prev=/images%3Fq%3DNIx on%2Bresigns%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D  fall_of_saigon.jpg&imgrefurl=http://winds.typepad.com/life/2004/10/&h=419&w=640&sz= 129&tbnid=bNOVIauTLI8J:&tbnh=88&tbnw=134&hl=en&start=3&prev=/images%3Fq%3 Dfall%2Bof%2Bsaigon%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D


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