Presentation on theme: "Fowler Ch. 6 The Major Education Policy Actors"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fowler Ch. 6 The Major Education Policy Actors Dr. Nith Bunlay and Dr. Wayne E. WrightRoyal University of Phnom Penh
2 Focus Questions Who are the major participants in the policy process? Which participants are the most influential?How can educational leaders identify the major players in their own states and obtain information about them?How can educational leaders follow educational policy making?
3 The Dramatis Personae of the Policy Drama We can think of policy making as a play or movieIndividuals actively involved in the policy process are called policy actorsTogether they make up the dramatis personae – the cast of characters.
4 Most Influential Policy Actors Research suggests that the following is the rank order of the most influential policy actors1. Individual legislators2. Legislature as a whole3. Chief state school officer4. Education interests groups combined5. Teachers’ organizations6. Governor and executive staff7. Legislative staff8. State Board of education9. School boards’ associations10. Administrators’ associations11. Courts12. Federal Government13. Noneducator groups14. Lay groups15. Education research organizationsActivity:Make a list of the Education Policy Actors in Cambodia. Rank them in order of influence. Compare it with this list.
5 Presentation Overview Major government actorsElected and appointed officialsNon-government actorsInterest groupsPolicy planning organizationsMediaPractical suggestions for identifying policy actors and getting information about them.
6 Government Actors The Legislative Branch The legislatureMajor function is the development and passage of statues, one type of law.Before developing bills, will hold public hearings, and seek expert opinionReview existing lawsContinue themAmend (change) themRepeal (eliminate) themApprove the government’s budgetInvestigate issues of importance or concern
7 Government Actors The Legislative Branch In the United StatesMost legislatures have two chambers or “houses”SenateSmaller number of representativesGenerally serve longer terms (4-6 years)House of RepresentativesIn some states called the Assembly, General Assembly, or House of DelegatesGenerally serve shorter terms (2 years)Each chamber or house has committees that work on specific issuesEx: Education CommitteeA separate committee determines how much money will be budgeted for a new lawCalled the Finance Committee, Appropriations Committee, or the Ways and Means CommitteeMembers of these education and finance committees are major education policy actorsStaff members of the legislatures work behind the scenes, but can also be very important education policy actors
8 Government Actors The Executive Branch GovernorsIn the U.S. the leader of each state government is called the governorTend to less influence on educational policy than legislators and other actors, but still have substantial influenceGovernors often act as “issue catalysts” in state policy making.They select key issues, publicize them in speeches, and leads the public and the legislature to focus on them.National Governors’ OrganizationOrganization of the governors of the 50 statesHas its own headquarters in Washington DCConducts its own research and lobbies the federal governmentHas helped to set national educational policy issues
9 Government Actors The Executive Branch State Boards of EducationA group of 9 to 11 membersIn 2/3 of the states, members are appointed by the governorMost members are not educatorsDutiesDeveloping and/or approving rules and regulations in implementing educational laws enacted by the legislatureDeveloping certification requirements for K-12 teachers and administratorsApproving and monitoring educational assessment programs, like state testsSetting minimum high-school graduation requirementsDetermining accreditation standardsHearing appeals from teachers and administrators
10 Executive Branch Chief State School Officer Each state has a chief state school officerSimilar to the Minister of Education in CambodiaIn 35 states, they are appointed by the State Board of EducationUsually an experienced educatorLikely to work independently from the governor and follow their own educational agendaIn 9 states they are appointed by the GovernorVery likely to follow the governor’s education prioritiesIn 15 states, they are elected by the peopleUsually a politician outside of the education systemMost likely to push their own education agenda, which may not be in agreement with the governor, legislature, or state board of education
11 Executive Branch State Department of Education Each state has its own state department of educationSimilar to MOEYS in CambodiaOne of the most important education policy actors in the stateThe Chief State School Office is the leader of the departmentDutiesProvide the legislature with data and informationDevelop the rules and regulations for implementing policiesProviding assistance to schools in implementing policiesMonitor schools to ensure compliancePolicy InfluenceWhile officially only a bureaucratic institution, the Department of Education’s resources are used to push the Chief State School Officers policy agendaBut individuals within the department might oppose and work against the agenda.
12 The Judicial Branch State Department of Education State CourtsFederal CourtsU.S. Supreme CourtJudges can have significant influence over education policyDecisions issued in education-related lawsuits often result in new policies that must be acted up by state legislatures and state departments of educationEx: Brown vs. Board of Education in the 1950s led the eventual desegregation of American Schools.Made it possible for Black and White students to attend the same schools
13 Local Government Actors Local Boards of EducationEach school district has its own board of educationSet local policy within the requirements of state and federal policySuperintendentsAppointed by the local school boardIs responsible for running the day-to-day operations of the schoolsChief enforcer of local, state, and federal policies within the school districtTypically are active in fighting for changes to education policy and for developing new policies
14 Nongovernmental Policy Actors Interest GroupsAn association of individuals or organizations that, on the basis of one or more shared concerns, attempt to influence public policy in their favorEducation interest groups include teachers and administrator organizationsNational Education AssociationAmerican Federation of TeachersAmerican Association of School AdministratorsInterest groups have their own offices, staff, resources, and hire lobbyist to work with and influence the legislature.
15 Nongovernmental Policy Actors Noneducation interest groups who try to influence education policyBusiness groupsReligious groupsEthnic groupsCivil Liberties and human rights groupsPolicy Planning OrganizationsOften called “Think Tanks”Usually funded by rich individuals, corporations, or foundationsSupport the agenda of the fundersConduct research and issues policy papersLobbying efforts to influence the legislature
16 The MediaMass MediaPrint media (newspapers, magazines)Broadcast media (TV, Radio)InternetReport on policy issues and the policy making processInfluence policy issues and the policy making processHelp raise education problems to become policy issues by raising awareness and reporting on themOften reflect the policy agenda of the paper’s editor and/or funding sourcePublish opinion pieces written by the editors, columnists, policy actors, or members of the publicOften take official positions related to policy debatesOften endorse specific candidates in elections
17 Identifying and Learning about Policy Actors In order to interact with and influence policy actors, you first must find out who they are, what they do, and what issues they care about.Sources for informationWebsites of government organizationsWebsites of non-government education organizationsOfficial telephone directoriesNewspaper articles about policy issuesRecent policy reports
18 Discussion QuestionsLook at your list of the major policy actors in Cambodia from the opening activity. Discuss why you ranked these the way you did.In Cambodia one major policy actor is the Education NGOs. Describe their role and influence in Cambodia on the education policy process?What are the best resources for getting information about individual education policy actors in Cambodia?
19 Policy Discussion Circle (#3) Break into 3 small groupsAs a group, read and discuss the article on p in the textbook.Case Study: “Stop the Bullies!” The Politics of AccountabilityOn a sheet of paperWrite Policy Discussion Circle #3Write down all the members of the groupDiscuss and write down the answers for questions 1 -3.Give the sheet of paper to the instructor at the end of the classReport to the whole groupEach group will present their answers to one of the questions.