Presentation on theme: "ICT in the Development of the Kingdom of Cambodia Kelly Hutchinson PhD Candidate School of BIT Methodological Dilemma."— Presentation transcript:
ICT in the Development of the Kingdom of Cambodia Kelly Hutchinson PhD Candidate School of BIT Methodological Dilemma
Topic How does a national government harness the potential of ICTs for development? Cambodia is navigating the policy versus program nexus on a national and regional level. ICT policies and programs are key to narrowing the development gap. This is an examination of how the Royal Government of Cambodia is responding to the digital divide.
Cambodia: Quick Facts Population estimated 13.2million in 2001 Urban rural spilt is approx 15% : 85% Population under 15 years: 43% (2001) Adult literacy rate 68.2% (1999) GDP per capita: approximately US$ 280 Khmer is the national language of Cambodia. Sanskrit based it has no uniform computer font at present and it awaiting Unicode The Kingdom of Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy established in 1992 after the Paris Peach Accord brokered peace with Khmer Rouge. As an emerging democracy it has held 3 national elections the latest being held in July 2003. Currently there is no government as negotiations between the 3 political parties is ongoing. Cambodia remains heavily dependent on Official Development Assistance (ODA). Net ODA donors pledged $635 million in June 2002. Cambodia has one of the lowest fixed telephone lines yet one of the highest mobile connections. There are an estimated 1500 privately run internet cafes in Phnom Penh, where for 200Riel or AUD$1 per hour people now can access the internet.
Theory & Methodology Theoretical Context ICT ICT for Development E-Governance Knowledge Management International Development Development Economics Social Capital Ontology Interpretivist Constructivist Theoretical Approach Actor/Network theory Appreciative Inquiry Methodologies Case Studies Focus Groups Interviews Participant Observation
The Plan… Develop model of best practice for technology adoption and policy development to assist the Cambodian Government to best utilise ICTs as an enabler for development in the Kingdom 1. Identify the intersection of the different agendas and objectives: Between regional bodies UNDP/APDIP and ASEAN Between these bodies and the National Government 2. Examine other developing countries as examples of best practice: Nepal, Vietnam & India 3. Identify the gaps between policy and programs using: Adapt Heeks’ Design Reality Gap model Interpretive Inquiry Approach
A Map Regional Policies National Government ICT Policy Development UNDP/APDIP -Digital Opportunity Initiative Framework ASEAN -eASEAN Framework - Initiative of ASEAN Integration (IAI) Development Aims/Agendas UNDP/APDIP -Poverty Alleviation -Millennium Development Goals ASEAN -Reducing development gap within ASEAN Existing Policies -National Poverty Reduction Strategy -Economic Policy GAPGAP PROGRAMS POLICY Adaptation of Heeks Theory? Partnership Technical Assistance
Outcomes Outcomes Policy/program coherence model Recommendations for partnerships and technical assistance to ensure successful transition of ICT Policy to Programs ASEAN ICT Assessment Index Develop an index using an evaluative tool made up of criteria from the IAI and EAF Assess the old and new members of ASEAN to identify areas that require improvement