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Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – 1975 - 1979 The Cambodian genocide of 1975-1979, in which approximately 1.7 to 2.0 million.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – 1975 - 1979 The Cambodian genocide of 1975-1979, in which approximately 1.7 to 2.0 million."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – The Cambodian genocide of , in which approximately 1.7 to 2.0 million people lost their lives (21% of the country's population), was one of the worst human tragedies of the last century. As in Nazi Germany, and more recently in East Timor, Guatemala, Yugoslavia, and Rwanda, the Khmer Rouge regime headed by Pol Pot combined extremist ideology with ethnic animosity and a diabolical disregard for human life to produce repression, misery, and murder on a massive scale.

3 Mr. Weiss Major Genocides of the 20 th Century – The Century of Genocide

4 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Adopted by Resolution 260 (III) A of the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December Article 1 The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish. Article 2 In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

5 Mr. Weiss Genocide There are four kinds of people in every genocide: Perpetrators: 1. Perpetrators: people committing genocide Victims: 2. Victims: the people who the perpetrators are committing acts of genocide on Bystanders: 3. Bystanders: the people who stand by and just watch the genocide. Upstanders: 4. Upstanders: the people who stand up to the perpetrators and try to stop the genocide. (One of the key questions is how do we turn bystanders into upstanders.) Dr. Roger Smith

6 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Cambodia traditionally has suffered from ethnic rivalry between the substantial Vietnamese minority and the Buddhist Khmer majority – Independence - Prince Norodom Sihanouk took charge of the newly born state A revolution led by General Lon Nol temporarily dispelled the government. They attempted to suppress the Communist and Vietnamese presence Small Communist group, the Khmer Rouge, grew in popularity and was able to take over, proclaiming the Republic of Democratic Kampuchea. Cambodia traditionally has suffered from ethnic rivalry between the substantial Vietnamese minority and the Buddhist Khmer majority – Independence - Prince Norodom Sihanouk took charge of the newly born state A revolution led by General Lon Nol temporarily dispelled the government. They attempted to suppress the Communist and Vietnamese presence Small Communist group, the Khmer Rouge, grew in popularity and was able to take over, proclaiming the Republic of Democratic Kampuchea.

7 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – to 1978 – a campaign of “cleansing” by The Kampuchean Communist Party They required destruction of cities and the foreign- educated elite in order to rustify, or to make rural, the country. The goal was a centralized communal organization of atheistic factory workers and peasant farmers free of external support. Cities were raided and people relocated to communal farms. Most people were left to starve or work to death to 1978 – a campaign of “cleansing” by The Kampuchean Communist Party They required destruction of cities and the foreign- educated elite in order to rustify, or to make rural, the country. The goal was a centralized communal organization of atheistic factory workers and peasant farmers free of external support. Cities were raided and people relocated to communal farms. Most people were left to starve or work to death.

8 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Duch, head of the Tuol Sleng prison complex, was a former schoolteacher named Kang Kech Eav Comrade Duch (pronounced Doik),

9 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Duch Duch - His Status Today: (2007) context : context : Cambodia Cambodia judgment place : judgment place : Cambodia Cambodia status : status : Indicted particulars : particulars : Awaiting trial before the Extraordinary Chambers for the crimes committed by the Khmer rouge in Cambodia position : position : Director of the Tuol Sleng detention and torture center

10 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – The exhumation of the Killing Fields at Choeung Ek in 1980 by the People's Republic of Kampuchea was one of the first concrete proofs to the outside world that something terrible had happened in Democratic Kampuchea. Photograph by Ben Kiernan, 1980

11 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Khmer Rouge Prisoners – Almost All Prisoners Died

12 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Khmer Rouge Prisoners – Almost All Prisoners Died

13 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Young Khmer Rouge soldiers in Cambodian people leaving Phnom Penh after Khmer Rouge forces seized and emptied the Cambodian capital on the 17 April AFP PHOTO/Agence Khmere de Presse

14 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Map of Asia Cambodia

15 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Map of Cambodia Map of Southeast Asia Phom Penh - Capital

16 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – The Killing Fields (1984) 1984 Sydney Schanberg is a New York Times journalist covering the civil war in Cambodia. Together with local representative Dith Pran, they cover some of the tragedy and madness of the war. When the Americans forces leave, Dith Pran sends his family with them, but stays behind himself to help Schanberg cover the event. As an American, Schanberg won't have any trouble leaving the country, but the situation is different for Pran; he's a local, and the Khmer Rouge are moving in.

17 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – S21 The Khmer Rouge Killing Machine (2002) In , the Khmer Rouge waged a campaign of genocide on Cambodia's population. 1.7 million Cambodians lost their lives to famine & murder as the urban population was forced into the countryside to fulfill the Khmer Rouges' dream of an agrarian utopia. In S21, Panh brings two survivors back to the notorious Tuol Sleng prison (code-named "S21"), now a genocide museum where former Khmer Rouge are employed as guides. Painter Vann Nath confronts his former captors in the converted schoolhouse where he was tortured, though by chance he did not suffer the fate of most of the other 17,000 men, women & children who were taken there, their "crimes" meticulously documented to justify their execution. The ex-Khmer Rouge guards respond to Nath's provocations with excuses, chilling stoicism or apparent remorse as they recount the atrocities they committed at ages as young as 12 years old. To escape torture, the prisoners would confess to anything, & often denounce everyone they knew, though their final sentence was never in doubt.

18 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Ex-Khmer Rouge minister arrested in Cambodia The Associated Press Sunday, November 11, 2007 PHNOM PENH, Cambodia: Ieng Sary, who served as foreign minister in Cambodia's brutal Khmer Rouge regime, was brought before the country's U.N.-backed genocide tribunal with his wife on Monday to face charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes.

19 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Apology at genocide trial – April 1, 2009 Cambodian is accused of role in Khmer Rouge The man accused of being the Khmer Rouge's chief torturer put down his prepared speech, removed his eyeglasses and gazed at the courtroom audience Tuesday as he pleaded for forgiveness from the country he helped terrorize three decades ago. "At the beginning I only prayed to ask for forgiveness from my parents, but later I prayed to ask forgiveness from the whole nation," Kaing Guek Eav (pronounced "Gang Geck Ee-uu") -- better known as Duch ("Doik") -- recounted on the second day of his trial before Cambodia's genocide tribunal. The man accused of being the Khmer Rouge's chief torturer put down his prepared speech, removed his eyeglasses and gazed at the courtroom audience Tuesday as he pleaded for forgiveness from the country he helped terrorize three decades ago. "At the beginning I only prayed to ask for forgiveness from my parents, but later I prayed to ask forgiveness from the whole nation," Kaing Guek Eav (pronounced "Gang Geck Ee-uu") -- better known as Duch ("Doik") -- recounted on the second day of his trial before Cambodia's genocide tribunal.

20 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Apology at genocide trial – April 1, 2009 Cambodian is accused of role in Khmer Rouge The tribunal's proceedings are the first serious attempt to fix responsibility for the deaths of an estimated 1.7 million Cambodians from starvation, medical neglect, slave-like working conditions and execution under the rule of the Khmer Rouge, whose top leader, Pol Pot, died in Duch, 66, is charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity as well as murder and torture and could face a maximum penalty of life in prison. Cambodia has no death penalty. He commanded the group's main S-21 prison, also known as Tuol Sleng, where as many as 16,000 men, women and children are believed to have been brutalized before being sent to their deaths.

21 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Cambodia's torture prison survivors testify at tribunal Updated July 3, :56:25 In Cambodia, evidence is being heard against the former head of the notorious Tuol Sleng prison, Comrade Duch. Only a handful of prisoners survived Tuol Sleng, during the four years of Khmer Rouge rule. Yesterday, a former child survivor, now aged 39, cried as he told the Khmer Rouge Tribunal of being separated from his mother at the jail.

22 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – Posted on May 28, 2010 Verdict Nears in Cambodian Genocide TrialVerdict Nears in Cambodian Genocide Trial – 8:15 Verdict Nears in Cambodian Genocide Trial

23 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – The Phnom Penh Post FRIDAY, 22 OCTOBER :02 THOMAS MILLER Khmer Rouge tribunal staff stand with faculty and students during a court outreach event. K HMER Rouge tribunal officials yesterday told a standing-room-only auditorium of roughly 350 students at the Royal University of Law and Economics in Phnom Penh that they should learn from July ’ s verdict in the case of Tuol Sleng prison chief Kaing Guek Eav, alias Duch, as they work to strengthen Cambodia ’ s judicial system. “ What is important for you to remember – and this is probably my most important lesson for you today – you are the judicial reform, ” said Knut Rosandhaug, deputy director of administration at the tribunal. “ If you don ’ t do it, nobody will. ” On July 26, the Trial Chamber found Duch guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity and sentenced him to 30 years in prison, a sum that took into consideration his unlawful pretrial detention.

24 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – FRIDAY, 22 OCTOBER :02 THOMAS MILLER February 8, 2012 The Khmer Rouge's Perfect Villain By THIERRY CRUVELLIER International criminal courts usually begin their work with a mid-ranking defendant and impose a heavy sentence after their first conviction. The war crimes tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia were the first to do so. On Friday, the appeals chamber of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia — a mixed tribunal based in Phnom Penh and tasked with trying the worst offenders of the Pol Pot regime — followed in their footsteps: it imposed a life sentence on Kaing Guek Eav, also known as Duch, the 69-year-old former commander of the Khmer Rouge’s infamous S-21 prison in Phnom Penh, where between 1975 and 1979 more than 12,000 people were detained, tortured and sent for execution. This decision brought the appeals process to a close after Duch’s 2010 conviction for war crimes and crimes against humanity and sentencing to 30 years in prison.

25 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – FRIDAY, 22 OCTOBER :02 THOMAS MILLER Nuon Chea is viewed as the chief ideologue of the movement Khmer Rouge leaders facing trial A UN-backed genocide tribunal in Cambodia is set to begin its second trial, this time of the top-most leaders of the Khmer Rouge regime. Up to two million people were killed or starved to death under Khmer Rouge rule in the 1970s. Three main leaders - Nuon Chea, Khieu Samphan and Ieng Sary - will be in court. Another, Ieng Thirith, has been found incapable of standing trial because of ill health. 18 November 2011

26 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – FRIDAY, 22 OCTOBER :02 THOMAS MILLER 2 Khmer Rouge Leaders Are Convicted in Cambodia Soum Rithy, center, who lost his father and three siblings during the Khmer Rouge regime, hugged another survivor after the verdict was delivered. DAMIR SAGOLJ / REUTERS

27 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – FRIDAY, 22 OCTOBER :02 THOMAS MILLER AUGUST 6, 2014 By THOMAS FULLER and JULIA WALLACE - AUGUST 6, 2014 PHNOM PENH, Cambodia — A court on Thursday found the two most senior surviving leaders of the Khmer Rouge, which brutalized Cambodia during the 1970s, guilty of crimes against humanity and sentenced them to life in prison. The chief judge, Nil Nonn, said the court found that there had been a “widespread and systematic attack against the civilian population of Cambodia” and that the two men had been part of a “joint criminal enterprise” that bore responsibility. They were convicted of murder and extermination, among other crimes. More than 1.7 million people died under the rule of the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to The proceedings of the tribunal, a joint effort of the Cambodian government and the United Nations, have been criticized for being extremely belated and for covering only a narrow sliver of the Khmer Rouge’s crimes. The judgments against the two men — Nuon Chea, 88, and Khieu Samphan, 83 — were the first handed down against the Khmer Rouge leadership, although a lower-ranking official, who ran a notorious prison for the regime in Phnom Penh, was convicted in Both defendants will appeal, their lawyers said. extremely belatedconvicted in 2010extremely belatedconvicted in 2010

28 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – FRIDAY, 22 OCTOBER :02 THOMAS MILLER

29 Mr. Weiss The Cambodian Genocide – FRIDAY, 22 OCTOBER :02 THOMAS MILLER


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