Presentation on theme: "SMALLHOLDER RUBBER RESEARCH: The Cambodian Experience International Conference: Lessons Learnt from Support Programs to Smallhoder Rubber Plantations Panel."— Presentation transcript:
SMALLHOLDER RUBBER RESEARCH: The Cambodian Experience International Conference: Lessons Learnt from Support Programs to Smallhoder Rubber Plantations Panel 3 : Current challenges in research for smallholder rubber plantations Cambodiana Hotel 24 June 2009 Dr. Yin Song Director Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI)
Presentation Outline 1. Background 2. Main Research Activities and Status of SRRC Trials 3. Research Methodology on Clonal Tests and Results 4. Research Methodology on Fertilizer Tests and Results 5. Research Activities in CRRI Station to Support the S’holders 6. Conclusion
Increasing the NR production is one of the most desirable objectives of the Government. Along with the divestment, the government has assured S’holder that rubber will be treated as any other crops. The Gvm’t had expected that more farmers will be planting this crop in the future. To develop Rubber S’holders, 2 projects were formulated: i) A pilot project, funded by AFD, which is intended to develop a sustainable rubber based farming system for extension and plantation funding implemented by General Directorate of Rubber (GDR), and ii) A component of the Agricultural Productivity Improvement Project (APIP) which is called S’holder Rubber Research Component (SRRC), funded by WB and implemented by GDR that subcontracted to CRRI. 1. Background
Objectives of SRRC 1.Identification of the geographical areas (soils and climate) and the clones that are likely suitable. 2. Production of the technical data needed to confirm Cambodia’s suitability for Smallholder Rubber Development. 3. Sustainable good rubber yield for smallholders.
2. Main research activities & Status of SRRC Trials Main research activities of the SRRC involved on 4 agronomical tests : - clonal comparison tests - fertilizer tests - planting material tests - intercropping tests. Status of SRRC Trials: -1998 – 2002, 53 trials established with farmers in 8 different areas. - In 2004, 48 trials in 7 locations monitored - First trials planted in 1998 tapped in 2004.
Location Type of trials Total CloneFertilization Inter- crop Planting Material - Chamcar Andong 448 - Kompong Som 1113 - Kompong Thom 22116 - Memot 4318 - Mondolkiri 1214 - Rattanakiri 43310 - Snuol 431210 - Trapaeng Russey 224 Total22205653 SRRC trials by locations
SRRC trials planted from 1998 to 2002 by type Type of Trials Planting yearTotal 19981999200020012002 Clone4268222 Fertilizer4157320 Intercropping325 Planting materials26 Total831520753
Soil map in Cambodia PHF/ AFD, 1999 – 2005 APIP/ SRRC 1998 - 2005 Map of the SRRC Trials
3. Research methodology on clonal tests & Results Four clones ( GT1, RRIM600, IRCA18, PB260) are compared according to their characteristics of growth and production Experimental sites: Chamcar Andong, Trapaeng Russey, Snuol, Memot, Kompong Thom, Ratanakiri Experimental design: - planting pattern 6 x 3m - 5 lines per clone - 160 plants per clone - Trial dimension:20 rows x 32 plants = 640 pl - Surface: 1.15 ha
Preliminary results of clonal tests (1) Clones GT1 Locations Kg.Thom Snoul Ch.Andong Tr.Russey Mean 37.52 d 42.34 b 39.40 c 43.97 a F Value 190.1 (P) 0.001 Note: a>b>c>d, P<0.001 Clones PB 260 Locations Kg.Thom Snoul Ch.Andong Tr.Russey Mean 36.99 c 40.91 b 41.74 b 43.79 a F Value 265.3 (P) 0.001 Note: a>b>c>d, P<0.001 Table 1. Girth at 5 years after planting
Preliminary results of clonal tests (2) Clones IRCA18 Locations Kg.Thom Snoul Ch.Andong Tr.Russey Mean 38.56 c 41.81 b 44.40 a 45.16 a F Value 294.8 (P) 0.001 Note: a>b>c>d, P<0.001 Clones RRIM600 Locations Kg.Thom Snoul Ch.Andong Tr.Russey Mean 38.07 c 39.99 b 38.82 bc 43.58 a F Value 170.3 (P) 0.001 Note: a>b>c>d, P<0.001
Girth increment one year after opening at clonal test Trials Years 2006-2007 Girth increment (cm) per clone GT1PB260IRCA18RRIM600 CATC014.103.844.624.15 CATC023.762.793.024.28 TRTC012.922.372.362.27 TRTC023.492.572.482.86 Preliminary results of clonal tests (3)
Average production g/t for 2 years of tapping YearGT1IRCA18PB260RRIM600 12004915 100% 1510 165% 1405 154% 1285 140% 220051575 100% 2520 160% 2310 147% 2315 147% YearGT1IRCA18PB260RRIM600 12004294 100% 469 160% 528 180% 350 119% 22005665 100% 1039 156% 1111 167% 953 143% Average annual yield kg/ha for 2 years of tapping Preliminary results of clonal tests (3)
4. Research methodology on fertilizer tests & Results Each trial compares 3 increasing levels of fertilizer Two clones are compared according to their characteristics of growth and production Planting materials (Clones: GT1, RRIM600) Treatments: Half dose, Standard dose, Double dose Experimental sites: Chamcar Andong, Trapaeng Russey, Snuol, Memot, Kompong Thom, Ratanakiri Experimental design: - planting pattern 6 x 3m - 5 lines per clone - 160 plants per clone - Trial dimension:15 rows x 32 plants = 480 pl - Surface: 0.90 ha
Girth at 6 years after planting for clone GT1 TreatmentT0T1T2 Girth (cm) Index 48.66 97% 50.08 100% 52.54 105% Girth at 6 years after planting for clone RRIM600 TreatmentT0T1T2 Girth (cm) Index 47.46 98% 48.36 100% 49.78 103% Preliminary results of fertilizer tests (1)
Preliminary result of fertilizer tests (2) YearClonesT0T1T2 12004GT1 RRIM600 507 79% 342 84% 635 100% 404 100% 698 109% 482 119% 22005RRIM600814 88% 919 100% 942 102% Annual yield kg/ha for 2 years of tapping YearClonesT0T1T2 12004GT1 RRIM600 22.15 93% 16.10 104% 23.86 100% 15.43 100% 28.14 118% 18.84 122% 22005RRIM60023.67 111% 21.21 100% 22.52 106% Yield g/t/t for 2 years of tapping
Summary Regarding all clones girth after 5 years trial, faster growing was observed in Trapeang Russey than in other locations Girth of clone IRCA18 is the best at all locations, after 5 years trial Average of clones girth increment is 6-10 cm every year in immature period Fertilizer did affected the girth of the trees during immature period Actually, the cumulated Kg/ha were higher for treatments with fertilizer. Constraints:- farmer did not follow fully recommendations - difficulty in collection of data of rubber production. - No further support project after SRRC completion in 2006.
Latex collection at SRRC trial in Trapeang Russey
6. Research Activities In CRRI Station to Support S’holder Development Setting up Large Scale Clone Trials (LSCT): - 9 LSCT Agronomy - Fertilizer Tests - Test on Planting Methods - Multi Annual Comparison of materials and data of replacement etc…. Yield Potential of Hevea Clones in Cambodia - Effect of the number of Ethephon stimulation on clones IRCA230, GT1 etc….
Application of Fertilizer on SRRC Trials in CRRI Station
The development of rubber s’holder in Cambodia can be performed with a good technical assistance. The potential is real in terms of agronomy and socio- economic. It does exist a strong motivation for rubber growing in certain area. The development of s’holder has to rely on adapted technical recommendations different from those that are listed in big estates. However, it is important to continue such research SRRC in new site. The good working of SRRC required to make available to the CRRI: -The necessary financial means -The scientific and technical competencies. 7. CONCLUSIONS