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Approaches to managing invasive agricultural and forestry pests in Northern Ireland Archie K. Murchie, Sam Clawson & Stephen Jess.

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Presentation on theme: "Approaches to managing invasive agricultural and forestry pests in Northern Ireland Archie K. Murchie, Sam Clawson & Stephen Jess."— Presentation transcript:

1 Approaches to managing invasive agricultural and forestry pests in Northern Ireland Archie K. Murchie, Sam Clawson & Stephen Jess

2 Invasive pests threaten both agriculture and the environment (biodiversity) Pest of potatoes Aphidophagous predator Outcompetes native species Agriculture Biodiversity Biocontrol Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis Take two beetles

3 Colorado potato beetle Native range Current distribution Origin of the potato Belfast May 2005 Colorado potato beetle (c. 80) intercepted in parsley from Italy Parsley is not a host plant 99 boxes of parsley destroyed Dispersal of parsley traced Ireland & UK have Protected Zone status (EC Plant Health Directive) Established in England in 1976 but eradicated Numerous interceptions and outbreaks Destructive Insect Act 1877

4 Harlequin ladybird Lisburn November 2007 Single female Harlequin ladybird Sweet celery Murchie et al. 2008 Ir. Nat. J. 29: 25-26 Native to eastern Asia Introduced as biocontrol agent in the US and Europe Brown et al. 2008 BioControl 53:5–21 Legislation prohibits deliberate introduction but eradication? The Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985 (under review) Proposal M “…provide a discretionary general power for the Department to take action to control, contain or eradicate invasive non-native species and provide associated powers of entry…” Photo © S. Hopkin Antenna Jul 2005

5 Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) article 8 (h) In the case of many invasive terrestrial invertebrates: Environmental protection legislation overlaps with agricultural legislation World Trade Organisation CBD RPPOs (e.g.EPPO) Int. Plant Protection Convention Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement EC Plant Health Directive Regional Plant Protection Organisations (Scientific guidance e.g. Pest Risk Analyses)

6 EC Plant Health Directive (2000/29/EC) provides legislative framework for Plant Health in the European Community Enacted in NI by The Plant Health Order (Northern Ireland) 2006 ( “…any plant pest not normally present in Northern Ireland and in respect of which there is, in the opinion of the inspector, an imminent danger of its spreading or being spread in Northern Ireland.” List of pests and diseases & plant material The Plant Health (Wood and Bark) Order (Northern Ireland) 2006 The Bee Diseases and Pests Control Order (Northern Ireland) 2007

7 Quality Assurance Branch Inspection, enforcement Horticulture team Crops team e.g. DARD structure re Plant Health Forest Service Inspection, enforcement Agri-Food & Biosciences Inst. Identification, scientific guidance Farm Policy Branch Legislation, coordination e.g. Entomology Plant pathology Nematology Molecular biology Checks on plant passporting Routine inspections of producers’ facilities Surveys for specific pests and diseases Detention and destruction of affected material Plant health Inspections at the airports and seaports Provision of phytosanitary certificates for exports Identification of suspect organisms by morphological or molecular means Pest risk analyses Horizon scanning incl. invasive alien species & climate change implications Biological information, e.g. overwintering survival, ability to spread…etc Guidance on monitoring and control

8 Belfast February 2004 Routine examination for quarantine pests Living invertebrates were found (larval Diptera, mites and rhabditid nematodes) Galleries typical of Ips typographus were seen in some bark pieces Detention order served, ship reloaded and fumigated Cost > £150, 000 From incubated bark samples, two live Ips typographus emerged 9,000 cubic metres of wood bark from Estonia Apparently, had been fumigated with methyl bromide Accompanied by a Phytosanitary Certificate

9 ‘The New Zealand flatworm’ Arthurdendyus triangulatus (Dendy) (Tricladida: Terricola) ‘The New Zealand flatworm’ Arthurdendyus triangulatus (Dendy) (Tricladida: Terricola) Decline in earthworm- feeding wildlife Reduction in soil fertility

10 An invasive alien species, an agricultural pest and a threat to biodiversity? (Diagram from Fraser, Boag (1998) Pedobiologia 42: 542-553) Considerable debate (Norway, Denmark, Iceland & Sweden) led to the concept of an indirect plant pest EPPO guidelines on flatworm published IPPC Secretariat, 2005. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 2003. Rome, Italy: FAO

11 WTO - Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures must not constitute a disguised restriction to international trade Trade & cost/benefit analyses Managed or acceptable risk, rather than zero risk c.f. ‘precautionary principle’ * Fertilisers and lime = £83.9 M* Earthworms increase grass yield ~ 25% (NZ Stockdill, 1982) Flatworms reduce earthworm biomass by 14% (experimental plots) Reduction in yield of 3.5% Economic impact £2.9 M per annum

12 Control priority stage Effective control unlikely without massive resource input Eradication priority stage Quarantine priority stage Invasion The New Zealand flatworm has been in Ireland and Scotland for over 45 years Invader abundance Carrying capacity Time Adaptation by prey New predators

13 Conclusions Acknowledgements Wilf Weatherup, DARD Quality Assurance Branch Alan Bell, AFBI Paul Moore, AFBI Scope for using Plant Health mechanisms for invasive terrestrial invertebrates, e.g. the Harlequin ladybird Plants, aquatic species, vertebrates pose different problems ( Coordination “The Plant Health Services’ response to this organism was based on the fact that ‘no one else would take it’.” Oct 2000

14 Plant Health Interception & Outbreak Chart 21 – 27 August 2005 (DEFRA) Pathways Initial pathway was probably: containerised plants (e.g. roses) or daffodil bulbs or potatoes (Faroe Islands) Equipment for hunting monsters? An American freshwater flatworm (Phagocata woodworthi) was thought to have been introduced into Loch Ness on monster hunting equipment Reynoldson, Smith & Maitland (1981). A species of North American triclad (Paludicola; Turbellaria) new to Britain found in Loch Ness, Scotland. Journal of Zoology, 193 : 531 - 539.

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