Presentation on theme: "Amendment #1 The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion,"— Presentation transcript:
Amendment #1 The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that comprise the Bill of Rights. United States Constitutionrespecting an establishment of religionfree exercise of religionfreedom of speechfreedom of the pressright to peaceably assemblepetitioning for a governmental redress of grievancesBill of Rights
1 st Amendment Famous Court Cases Engel v. Vitale, 1948 Government-directed prayer in public schools violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, even if the prayer is denominationally neutral and students may remain silent or be excused from the classroom during its recitation.Establishment Clause of the First Amendment
Engel v. Vitale, 1948 The parents of ten pupils in the New Hyde Park schools objected to the prayer. They filed suit in a New York State court seeking a ban on the prayer, insisting that the use of this official prayer in the public schools was contrary to their own and their children's beliefs, religions, or religious practices. The State appeals court upheld the use of the prayer, “so long as the schools did not compel any pupil to join in the prayer over his or his parents' objection.”
1 st Amendment Famous Court Cases Bethel School District v. Fraser, 1986 The First Amendment, as applied through the Fourteenth, permits a public school to punish a student for giving a lewd and indecent, but not obscene, speech at a school assembly. Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded.
Bethel School District v. Fraser, 1986 Expulsion did not violate 1 st amendment of free speech, Student was not entitled to a 3-month continuance until Thanksgiving break, to attend expulsion proceeding, Expulsion did not violate equal protection Student had no expectation of privacy in his website, Evidence supported decision to expel student.
1 st Amendment Famous Court Cases Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 1969 The First Amendment, as applied through the Fourteenth, did not permit a public school to punish a student for wearing a black armband as an anti-war protest, absent any evidence that the rule was necessary to avoid substantial interference with school discipline or the rights of others. Eighth Circuit reversed and remanded.
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 1969 John and Mary Beth Tinker of Des Moines, Iowa, wore black armbands to their public school as a symbol of protest against American involvement in the Vietnam War. When school authorities asked that the Tinkers remove their armbands, they refused and were subsequently suspended. The Supreme Court decided that the Tinkers had the right to wear the armbands, with Justice Abe Fortas stating that no one expects students to “shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.”