Presentation on theme: "Presented by Heidi Engel, PT, DPT"— Presentation transcript:
1ICU Liberation: How Physical Therapy Is Part of Reducing the Harms of Critical Illness Presented by Heidi Engel, PT, DPTUCSF Department of Rehabilitative ServicesUniversity of California San Francisco Medical CenterFebruary 2015
2DisclosuresAcademic work in the ICU setting for Heidi Engel, PT, DPT is funded by a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
3ObjectivesExplain the importance of providing early physical rehabilitation to patients in the ICUReinforce and define the role of Physical Therapists in providing care to critically ill patients as part of an inter-professional collaborative care ICU teamDefine the barriers to ICU early physical rehabilitation and suggest solutions to overcome those barriersCite patient case studies that illustrate Physical Therapy clinical decision making in the ICU setting
4Course OutlineComplex ICU case presentation emphasizing unique psycho-social aspects of ICU early physical rehabilitationConsequential harms to patients as a result of an ICU stay- weakness, immobility, delirium, long term functional and cognitive impairmentsRecommendations from Society of Critical Care Medicine outlinedExample ICU early rehabilitation programsAssessing how we are doingBarriers- looking at 3 issues at the bedside keeping patients immobile- immobility is safety, timing and priorities, staffing and equipmentICU case presentation illustrating unique role of Physical Therapists
5Society of Critical Care Medicine ICU Liberation- Free Your Patients from Potential Harms ICU Acquired Weakness (ICUAW) Immobility Delirium Long term cognitive impairments Functional decline Inability to return to previous employment or activities of daily living
6Why Early ICU Patient Mobility? Diaphragm muscle thinning and atrophy begins within 18 to 48 hours after intubationLevine, S., T. Nguyen, et al. (2008).Grosu HB, Lee YI, Lee J, Eden E, Eikermann M, Rose KM: (2012).Rectus Femoris protein breakdown begins within 24 hours of ICU admission, cross sectional area declining rapidly during first weekPuthucheary ZA, Rawal J, McPhail M, Connolly B, Ratnayake G, Chan P, Hopkinson NS, Padhke R, Dew T, Sidhu PS et al (2013).
7ICU Acquired WeaknessChange in architecture of muscle fibers within 18 to 69 hoursLoss of bone mineral density, bone adapts to the load placed on it, ALI patients have 19% greater risk of fracturing, 10 day study with average patient age of 55Frailty: Fried Frailty Index, hallmark is neuromuscular weakness, every 1 pt increase equal to 3X increased risk of 6 month mortality, 82% of older Icu survivors qualify as frailKress JP, Hall JB (2014).Puthucheary ZA, Rawal J, McPhail M, Connolly B, Ratnayake G, Chan P, Hopkinson NS, Padhke R, Dew T, Sidhu PS et al (2013)Baldwin MR, Reid MC, Westlake AA, Rowe JW, Granieri EC, Wunsch H, Dam TT, Rabinowitz D, Goldstein NE, Maurer MS et al: (2014).
8Why Early ICU Patient Mobility? The duration of bed rest during critical illness was consistently associated with weakness throughout 24-month follow-up.Fan E, Dowdy DW, Colantuoni E, Mendez-Tellez PA, Sevransky JE, Shanholtz C, Himmelfarb CR, Desai SV, Ciesla N, Herridge MS et al (2013).Based on available evidence, early exercise/PT seems to be the only treatment yet shown to improve long-term physical function of ICU survivors.Calvo-Ayala E, Khan BA, Farber MO, Ely EW, Boustani MA (2013).
9Interpretation of PAD Guidelines Society of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Pain, Agitation, and Delirium (PAD) Guidelines Barr J, et al., Critical Care Medicine 2013Interpretation of PAD GuidelinesQuality of evidence: statements and recommendationsHigh (A)Moderate (B)Low/Very Low (C)Strength of recommendations: recommendations onlyEither strong (1) , weak (2), or none (0)Either in favor of an intervention (+) or against an intervention (-)
10Outcomes Associated with Delirium in ICU Patients Delirium is associated with increased mortality in adult ICU patients (A).Delirium is associated with prolonged ICU and hospital lengths of stay in adult ICU patients (A).Delirium is associated with the development of post-ICU cognitive impairment in adult ICU patients (B).
11Depth of Sedation in ICU Patients Light levels of sedation associated with improved clinical outcomes (e.g., shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and a shorter ICU length of stay) (B).Light levels increase physiologic stress response, but is not associated with an increased incidence of myocardial ischemia (B).The association between depth of sedation and psychological stress in these patients remains unclear (C).
12Depth of Sedation in ICU Patients (cont.) Recommend that sedative medications be titrated to maintain a light rather than a deep level of sedation, unless contraindicated (+1B).Recommend routinely using either daily sedation interruption or targeting light level of sedation in MV patients (+1B).
13Delirium PreventionWe recommend performing early mobilization of adult ICU patients whenever feasible to reduce the incidence and duration of delirium (+1B)Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, Ely EW, Gelinas C, Dasta JF, Davidson JE, Devlin JW, Kress JP, Joffe AM et al (2013)Schweickert WD, Pohlman MC, Pohlman AS, Nigos C, Pawlik AJ, Esbrook CL, Spears L, Miller M, Franczyk M, Deprizio D et al: (2009)Needham DM, Korupolu R, Zanni JM, Pradhan P, Colantuoni E, Palmer JB, Brower RG, Fan E (2010).
14Functional Decline Related to ICU Stay Long Term Problem3.3 year median follow up after d/c from trauma ICU 100 patients70% consider themselves less active than pre-injury49% returned to work.Livingston DH, Tripp T, Biggs C, Lavery RF (2009).More than 6 years after a surgical ICU admission, HRQOL is largely reduced. Many patients still have a variety of health problems, including decreased cognitive functioning.Timmers, T. K., M. H. Verhofstad, et al. (2011).
15ICU Liberation Project of SCCM &SYMPTOMS PAD GUIDELINESMONITORINGTOOLSCARE ABCDEF BUNDLEPAINBPSNPSCPOTAssess / Treat PainAwakening Trials - SATsBreathing Trials SBTsCoordination of CareChoice of SedativesDelirium ReductionDiseases, Drug Removal, Environmente.g., sleep, noise, eye glasses, hearing aidsEarly mobility and ExerciseFamily - Communication and InvolvementAGITATIONRASSSAS DELIRIUMCAM-ICUICDSC
16Neurocognitive and Functional Benefits to ICU Patients Schweickert WD, Pohlman MC, Pohlman AS, et al. (2009).RCT- 104 patients on mechanical ventilationintervention group- PT median of 1.5 days intubationcontrol group PT median of 7.4 daysIntervention group-less days of delirium and MV59% return to independent function at hospital discharge 35% in control group.
17Role Models- LDS Medical Center LDS Medical Center Mobility ProtocolWalk 200’ prior to extubationWalk 400’ prior to ICU dischargeWhen patients appear not to have strength to do both reconditioning and weaning, support reconditioning first, then weaning.Support work of breathing during physical activity.Advance activity aggressively NOT progressively, patients will do the most that they can do at any given time.
18UCSF ICU Early Mobilization Started March 1st, 2010 9 ICU Physical Therapy coverage 8 hours/day5 or 6 days/week in 9 ICUObjective- referrals for physical therapy within 48 hours of patient admission to the ICUObjective- most ICU patients ambulating during their ICU stayGoals-patients wean ventilators fastersleep better/experience less deliriumleave the ICU sooner
19Staffing and Equipment UCSF- one full time PT addedNo additional RN or RT staffICU platform walker, ear plugs, eye masks, seating cushionsPTs mobilize patients to higher level than RNsGarzon-Serrano, J., C. Ryan, et al. (2011).
20UCSF Exclusion Guidelines Patients with immediate plans to transfer to outside hospitalPatients who require significant doses of vasopressors for hemodynamic stability (maintain MAP> 60)Mechanically ventilated patients who require FiO2 .8 and/or PEEP >12, or have acutely worsening respiratory failurePatients maintained on neuromuscular paralyticsPatients in an acute neurological event (CVA,SAH, ICH) with re-assessment for mobility every 24 hoursPatients with RASS less than -3 or greater than +2Patients with unstable spine or extremity fracturesPatients with a grave prognosis- transferring to comfort carePatients with open abdomen, at risk for dehiscence
21How Are We Doing? Point Prevalence Studies: Nydahl P, Ruhl AP, Bartoszek G, Dubb R, Filipovic S, Flohr HJ, Kaltwasser A, Mende H, Rothaug O, Schuchhardt D et al: (2014)In this 1-day point-prevalence study conducted across Germanyonly 24% of all mechanically ventilated patients OOBonly 8% of patients with an endotracheal tube were mobilized out of bed as part of routine care.
22How Are We Doing? Point Prevalence Studies: Berney SC, Harrold M, Webb SA, Seppelt I, Patman S, Thomas PJ, Denehy L (2013).45% were mechanically ventilated140 patients (28%) completed an in-bed exercise regimen93 (19%) sat over the side of the bed182 (37%) sat out of bed124 (25%) stood89 (18%) walkedPredefined adverse events occurred on 24 occasions (5%)No patient requiring mechanical ventilation sat out of bed or walked
23How Are We Doing? Point Prevalence Studies: Terri Hough University of Washington Medical Center, Presenting at The 7th International Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of Critically Ill Patients Meeting 5/17/2014, Across the US:64% of ICU patients experienced any activity50% of those were bed level activity20% of those were transfers to a chair10% of those were walkingProfoundly variable practice patterns
24How Are We Doing? ICU Early Mobility Protocols Critical Care Medicine February 2014Survey of 69 ICUs across the United States looking at structure, process, and outcomes97-99% have protocols for ventilator management, infection control, nutrition, and VTEs36% have an Early Mobility protocol, all requiring a MD Order to initiate (A Process Barrier)Checkley W, Martin GS, Brown SM, Chang SY, Dabbagh O, Fremont RD, Girard TD, Rice TW, Howell MD, Johnson SB et al :(2014).
25Resulting Harm to Patients “ Tracheostomy, female gender, higher Charlson Comorbidity Index and lack of early ICU mobility were associated with readmissions or death during the first year.Although the mechanisms of increased hospital readmission are unclear, these findings may provide further support for early ICU mobility for patients with acute respiratory failure.”Morris PE, Griffin L, Berry M, Thompson C, Hite RD, Winkelman C, Hopkins RO, Ross A, Dixon L, Leach S et al (2011).
26How are we doing in the hospital overall? 32 % of older patients not engaged by an RN in ANY mobility event during an 8-hour period.Mean duration of ambulation was less than 2 minutes.Mean age 74.6, 55.3% using an assistive device, 95.6% had an MD order for out of bed activity, none met criteria for dependent patient.Average length of stay 6.7 daysDoherty-King B, Yoon JY, Pecanac K, Brown R, Mahoney J (2014)
27After Patients Leave the ICU? Of the 72 patients who participated in the study65 had either a physical therapy consultation or a request for nursing assistance with ambulation at ward transfer (90%)Activity level decreased in 40 participants (55%) on the first dayOf the 61 participants who ambulated 100 ft or more on the last RICU day (85%)14 did not ambulate, 22 ambulated less than 100 ft (59%)25 ambulated 100 ft or more on the first ward day (41%)Hopkins RO, Miller RR, 3rd, Rodriguez L, Spuhler V, Thomsen GE: (2012).
28Mobility is Medicine Improves blood sugar homeostasis Health Benefits of Physical ActivityImproves blood sugar homeostasisEnhances cardiovascular functionEnhances endothelial functionDecreases chronic inflammationRegulates hormone levelsPreserves musculoskeletal and neuromuscular integrityDecreases depression and improves cognitionWarburton DE, Nicol CW, Bredin SS. (2006).
29Barriers to Implementation Nervous or skeptical cliniciansMinimal resources allocatedAwkward equipmentPT referrals still too lateUnclear protocolMobility prior to extubation is difficult conceptRotating and changing personnelVariations in sedation practicesNew hospital and discharge course predictions required for ICU and floor personnelPawlik AJ, Kress JP. (2012).
303 Common Issues Keeping an ICU Patient Immobile Are we patient centered or screen centered in our practices? Immobility is Safety Timing and Priorities Staffing and Equipment
31Issue # 1. Immobility is Safety: The patient is too sick, or too big TRUE:New onset sepsis or respiratory distress (think of hours NOT days)Unstable bleeding or surgical siteTerminal disease (comfort care measures),ComatoseAcute unstable cardiovascular event
32Solution # 1. Awake and Mobile is Safer Collaborate with RN,RT, MD Use Clinical judgment Every diagnosis in context Delay increases risk later
33Essential Information to Share Medical History- impact of the chronic, plus current level of acuityPhysiologic ReserveMotivation and Goals- what are patient expectations?Cognition- anxiety, delirium, co-morbidityPainSedation- why is this patient being sedated?Extubation- how is the patient tolerating breathing trials?Procedures- dialysis, IR, CT scan?
34Context Is it a beautiful sunny day after so much rain, or are we in the middle of a drought?
35Solution # 1. Awake and Mobile is Safer The patient is too sick, or too bigFALSE: The patient has a DVT (reference the American College of Chest Physicians 2012 guidelines: people with acute DVT do not need a period of bed rest)FALSE: The obese patient was admitted able to walk at home (think of how crucial prevention can be)FALSE: The patient is on ARDS Net ProtocolFALSE: The patient is a new admit to the ICU
36Consider the Patient Physiologic Reserve, their Personal Fitness Account Did this patient walk into your hospital? What has the patient done in the past 2days, 2 weeks, 2 months, 2 years? What are your assumptions?
37Issue # 1. Immobility is Safety Excuse: The patient is too lethargic, tired? RASS -2 to -4 Hypoactive delirious Target RASS vs Actual RASS Goal targeted sedation?
38Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) icudelirium.org +4 Combative Overtly combative, violent, immediate danger to staff+3 Very agitated Pulls or removes tube(s) or catheter(s); aggressive+2 Agitated Frequent non-purposeful movement, fights ventilator+1 Restless Anxious but movements not aggressive vigorous0 Alert and calm-1 Drowsy Not fully alert, but has sustained awakening(eye-opening/eye contact) to voice (>10 seconds)-2 Light sedation Briefly awakens with eye contact to voice (<10 seconds)-3 Moderate sedation Movement or eye opening to voice (but no eye contact)-4 Deep sedation No response to voice, but movement or eye openingto physical stimulation-5 Unarousable No response to voice or physical stimulation
39Solution to when the patient is too lethargic Collaborate with RN,RT, MD Use Clinical judgment Every level of delirium in context Consider the environment, disease, medications Delirium is treated with mobilityTarget RASS Zero
40ICU Sleep Promotion Programs Consider the Noise levelLightingNight time routinesCircadian RhythmsKamdar BB, King LM, Collop NA, Sakamuri S, Colantuoni E, Neufeld KJ, Bienvenu OJ, Rowden AM, Touradji P, Brower RG et al (2013).Kamdar BB, Needham DM, Collop NA: (2012).
41Solution# 2. Mobility will re-orient and decrease lethargy The patient may respond well to being up and communicating Include the family in patient care activities
42Solution # 3. The patient is too agitated, awake and re-oriented helps Society of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Pain, Agitation, and Delirium“We recommend performing early mobilization of adult ICU patients whenever feasible to reduce the incidence and duration of delirium” (+1B)Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, Ely EW, Gelinas C, Dasta JF, Davidson JE, Devlin JW, Kress JP, Joffe AM et al (2013).
43What About All Those Critical Lines? Patient lines and drains can be accommodatedIncluding Femoral LinesMechanical ventilation and CVVH linesDamluji, A., et al. (2013).Winkelman, C. (2011).
44Issue #2 Timing and Priorities: The patient is leaving The patient is going for: A procedure A CT scan Transferring to the floor Will be extubated soon
45Solution: Mobility Is High Priority Activity Trumps Extubation: A pre- and post-activity rest period with assist-control ventilation for 30 min was employed as needed to support early activity.If the patient was intubated and able to participate in activity, the FIO2 was increased by 0.2 before initiation of activity. We deferred ventilator weaning in support of activity, as necessary.Bailey P, Thomsen GE, Spuhler VJ, Blair R, Jewkes J, Bezdjian L, Veale K, Rodriquez L, Hopkins RO: (2007).
46Issue #2Timing and Priorities: The patient needs a nap Had a bad nightFeels tiredDidn’t sleep last nightWants to sleep now to make up for itKamdar BB, Needham DM, Collop NA (2012).
47Solution for Timing and Priorities: The Patient Needs a Short Rest Schedule a time Create a sleep hygiene program in your ICU Address night staff as well as day Set circadian rhythms
48Issue #3 Staffing/Equipment : No one is available to manage the lines No portable ventilator No high back chairs No minimal lift equipment No full time PT Where are family members?
49Solution for Staffing/Equipment: Overcome the Barriers Establish the program for your local cultureBegin with the easier smaller success storiesCollect data to evaluate and re-evaluateMake a Financial caseLord RK, Mayhew CR, Korupolu R, Mantheiy EC, Friedman MA, Palmer JB, Needham DM: ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings. Crit Care Med 2013, 41(3):Kress JP: Sedation and mobility: changing the paradigm. Crit Care Clin 2013, 29(1):67-75.
50Solution: Consider Patients Expectations and Patient Centered Goals Returning to life as they knew itNot a new life of disability or perpetual patientInclude Family in patient care activitiesMisak C. (2005).Muller M, Strobl R, Grill E. (20110>
51Solution to Staffing Equipment : the PT is not here Seeing is believingCreate learning opportunitiesBuild the case for a full time dedicated ICU PTCollect Data!Plan ahead and coordinate careLord RK, Mayhew CR, Korupolu R, Mantheiy EC, Friedman MA, Palmer JB, Needham DM (2013).
52Sitting on the Edge of the Bed Trunk controlVestibular trainingJoint compressionJoint/muscle stretchingLung expansionAirway clearanceAerobic exercise? (Yes!)GI motilityOrientation, mental statusEndurance
54Allowing our patients to communicate their needs Assessing and treating pain first Preventing PTSD Journaling the experience
55In SummaryCritical illness is catabolic and depleting, rapidly and potentially lasting for yearsA prolonged ICU stay can cause delirium and cognitive changes for most patientsMobility (mostly walking) combined with minimal or no sedation started at the beginning of an ICU stay is protective and preventativeApproach the task with structured QI project, collaboration, barrier identification
56ReferencesLevine, S., T. Nguyen, et al. (2008). "Rapid disuse atrophy of diaphragm fibers in mechanically ventilated humans." N Engl J Med 358 (13):Grosu HB, Lee YI, Lee J, Eden E, Eikermann M, Rose KM: Diaphragm muscle thinning in patients who are mechanically ventilated. Chest 2012, 142(6):Puthucheary ZA, Rawal J, McPhail M, Connolly B, Ratnayake G, Chan P, Hopkinson NS, Padhke R, Dew T, Sidhu PS et al: Acute Skeletal Muscle Wasting in Critical Illness. Jama 2013.Kress JP, Hall JB: ICU-acquired weakness and recovery from critical illness. N Engl J Med 2014, 370(17):Baldwin MR, Reid MC, Westlake AA, Rowe JW, Granieri EC, Wunsch H, Dam TT, Rabinowitz D, Goldstein NE, Maurer MS et al: The feasibility of measuring frailty to predict disability and mortality in older medical intensive care unit survivors. J Crit Care 2014, 29(3):
57ReferencesSchefold, J. C., J. Bierbrauer, et al. (2010). "Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) and muscle wasting in critically ill patients with severe sepsis and septic shock." J Cachex Sarcopenia Muscle 1 (2):Fan E, Dowdy DW, Colantuoni E, Mendez-Tellez PA, Sevransky JE, Shanholtz C, Himmelfarb CR, Desai SV, Ciesla N, Herridge MS et al: Physical Complications in Acute Lung Injury Survivors: A 2-Year Longitudinal Prospective Study. Crit Care Med 2013.Calvo-Ayala E, Khan BA, Farber MO, Ely EW, Boustani MA: Interventions to improve the physical function of ICU survivors: a systematic review. Chest 2013, 144(5):Gunther ML, Morandi A, Krauskopf E, Pandharipande P, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Thompson J, Shintani AK, Geevarghese S, Miller RR, 3rd et al: The association between brain volumes, delirium duration, and cognitive outcomes in intensive care unit survivors: the VISIONS cohort magnetic resonance imaging study*. Crit Care Med 2012, 40(7):
58ReferencesBarr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, Ely EW, Gelinas C, Dasta JF, Davidson JE, Devlin JW, Kress JP, Joffe AM et al: Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2013, 41(1):Schweickert WD, Pohlman MC, Pohlman AS, Nigos C, Pawlik AJ, Esbrook CL, Spears L, Miller M, Franczyk M, Deprizio D et al: Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009, 373(9678):Needham DM, Korupolu R, Zanni JM, Pradhan P, Colantuoni E, Palmer JB, Brower RG, Fan E: Early physical medicine and rehabilitation for patients with acute respiratory failure: a quality improvement project. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010, 91(4):Livingston DH, Tripp T, Biggs C, Lavery RF. A fate worse than death? Long-term outcome of trauma patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit. J Trauma. Aug 2009; 67(2): ; discussionTimmers, T. K., M. H. Verhofstad, et al. (2011). "Long-term quality of life after surgical intensive care admission." Arch Surg 146 (4):
59ReferencesSacanella E, Perez-Castejon JM, Nicolas JM, Masanes F, Navarro M, Castro P, et al. Functional status and quality of life 12 months after discharge from a medical ICU in healthy elderly patients: a prospective observational study. Crit Care. 2011;15 (2): R105Schweickert WD, Pohlman MC, Pohlman AS, et al. Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. MayGarzon-Serrano, J., C. Ryan, et al. (2011). "Early Mobilization in Critically Ill Patients: Patients' Mobilization Level Depends on Health Care Provider's Profession." PM R 3(4):Nydahl P, Ruhl AP, Bartoszek G, Dubb R, Filipovic S, Flohr HJ, Kaltwasser A, Mende H, Rothaug O, Schuchhardt D et al: Early mobilization of mechanically ventilated patients: a 1-day point-prevalence study in Germany*. Crit Care Med 2014, 42(5):Berney SC, Harrold M, Webb SA, Seppelt I, Patman S, Thomas PJ, Denehy L: Intensive care unit mobility practices in Australia and New Zealand: a point prevalence study. Crit Care Resusc 2013, 15(4):
60ReferencesCheckley W, Martin GS, Brown SM, Chang SY, Dabbagh O, Fremont RD, Girard TD, Rice TW, Howell MD, Johnson SB et al: Structure, process, and annual ICU mortality across 69 centers: United States critical illness and injury trials group critical illness outcomes study*. Crit Care Med 2014, 42(2):Morris PE, Griffin L, Berry M, Thompson C, Hite RD, Winkelman C, Hopkins RO, Ross A, Dixon L, Leach S et al: Receiving early mobility during an intensive care unit admission is a predictor of improved outcomes in acute respiratory failure. Am J Med Sci 2011, 341(5):Doherty-King B, Yoon JY, Pecanac K, Brown R, Mahoney J: Frequency and duration of nursing care related to older patient mobility. Journal of nursing scholarship : an official publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing / Sigma Theta Tau 2014, 46(1):20-27.Hopkins RO, Miller RR, 3rd, Rodriguez L, Spuhler V, Thomsen GE: Physical therapy on the wards after early physical activity and mobility in the intensive care unit. Physical therapy 2012, 92(12):Warburton DE, Nicol CW, Bredin SS. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Cmaj. Mar ;174(6):
61ReferencesPawlik AJ, Kress JP. Issues Affecting the Delivery of Physical Therapy Services for Individuals With Critical Illness. Phys TherKamdar BB, King LM, Collop NA, Sakamuri S, Colantuoni E, Neufeld KJ, Bienvenu OJ, Rowden AM, Touradji P, Brower RG et al: The effect of a quality improvement intervention on perceived sleep quality and cognition in a medical ICU. Crit Care Med 2013, 41(3):Kamdar BB, Needham DM, Collop NA: Sleep deprivation in critical illness: its role in physical and psychological recovery. Journal of intensive care medicine 2012, 27(2):Damluji, A., et al. (2013). "Safety and feasibility of femoral catheters during physical rehabilitation in the intensive care unit." J Crit Care.Winkelman, C. (2011). "Ambulating with pulmonary artery or femoral catheters in place." Crit Care Nurse 31(5):
62ReferencesBailey P, Thomsen GE, Spuhler VJ, Blair R, Jewkes J, Bezdjian L, Veale K, Rodriquez L, Hopkins RO: Early activity is feasible and safe in respiratory failure patients. Crit Care Med 2007, 35(1):Lord RK, Mayhew CR, Korupolu R, Mantheiy EC, Friedman MA, Palmer JB, Needham DM: ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings. Crit Care Med 2013, 41(3):Kress JP: Sedation and mobility: changing the paradigm. Crit Care Clin 2013, 29(1):67-75.Misak C: ICU psychosis and patient autonomy: some thoughts from the inside. The Journal of medicine and philosophy 2005, 30(4):Muller M, Strobl R, Grill E: Goals of patients with rehabilitation needs in acute hospitals: goal achivement is an indicator for improved functioning. J Rehabil Med 2011, 43(2):Engel HJ, Needham DM, Morris PE, Gropper MA: ICU early mobilization: from recommendation to implementation at three medical centers. Crit Care Med 2013, 41(9 Suppl 1):S69-80.