Presentation on theme: "Field-testing the sex pheromone of"— Presentation transcript:
1 Field-testing the sex pheromone of cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)● Sheila M. Fitzpatrick ● Miranda Elsby● Kaitlyn Schurmann ● Snehlata MathurPacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agassiz, BC, Canada
2 Female cranberry tipworms produce and release sex pheromone. The sex pheromone is volatile and airborne.Males detect pheromone molecules and fly toward females.Landry
3 The sex pheromone was identified by Regine Gries, Grigori Khaskin and Gerhard Gries at Simon Fraser University.“Populations of the gall midge Dasineura oxycoccana on cranberry and blueberry produce and respond to different pheromones” by S. Fitzpatrick, R. Gries, G. Khaskin, D. Peach, J. Iwanski, G. Gries in Journal of Chemical Ecology 39(1): 37-49; 2013.The sex pheromone is a potential monitoring tool for cranberry tipworm.Here I report the outcome of field tests of the sex pheromone on cranberry farms in British Columbia, Canada.Funded by AAFC (DIAP partnership with LMHIA), BCCMC, BCCGA and Investment Agriculture Foundation.
4 Chemistry of Cranberry Tipworm Pheromone The parent molecule is a straight-chain 17-carbon alkene with two functional groups.OAcCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCOAcThe molecule is named 2, 14-diacetoxy-8-heptadecene.This racemic molecule is a mixture of 4 optical isomers.
5 Only one optical isomer is Cranberry Tipworm Pheromone OAc(R)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(R)OAcOAc(S)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(R)OAcOAc(R)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(S)OAcOAc(S)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(S)OAc
6 CTW pheromone was tested on two farms in 2012. Traps were baited with the isomer(S,S)-2,14-diacetoxy-8-heptadecene,or racemic pheromone or a blank lure.Male cranberry tipwormJ.-F. Landry photo
7 Tipworm males in traps baited with single isomer CTW pheromone Average numberDotted lines show Delegate sprays
8 caught in traps baited with CTW pheromone … … was a good predictor of Tipworm males caught in traps baited with CTW pheromoneTipworm males caught in traps baited with CTW pheromoneAverage numberAverage numberOn this farm,the number of CTW malescaught in traps baited withCTW pheromone …… was a good predictor ofthe percent of shoot tips infested with CTW eggs, larvae or pupae.Shoot tips infested with eggs, larvae or pupaeAverage Percent
9 … the first major increase in immatures (week 8). Increased trap catchon July 11corresponded to …… the first major increase in immatures (week 8).Shoot tips infested with eggs, larvae or pupaeEggsFirst InstarsSecond InstarsThird InstarsPupaeNumber per 10 shoot tipsJ.-F. Landry photos
10 The preceding graphs show that single isomer pheromone has potential to be an excellent monitoring tool.Unfortunately, synthesis of this single isomer (S,S)-2,14-diacetoxy-8-heptadecene is very expensive.Therefore, the single isomer pheromone will not be available commercially.The following graph shows the attractiveness of racemic 2,14-diacetoxy-8-heptadecane, which is less expensive to synthesize.Also shown is the attractiveness of traps to females.
11 Tipworm males caught in traps baited with single isomer or racemic pheromone Average number
12 Tipworm females were caught in all traps, regardless of bait. Average number
13 Racemic 2,14-diacetoxy-8-heptadecane is much less attractive than is the single isomer (S,S)-2,14-diacetoxy-8-heptadecene.Monitoring with racemic will not provide precise information about activity of cranberry tipworm adults.Female cranberry tipworms entered all traps without discriminating among baits.Therefore, in 2013 we tested the relationship between number of females caught in unbaited traps and percentage of shoots containing immatures (eggs, larvae, pupae).
14 On this farm (and all others), the number of females Tipworm females caught in unbaited white sticky trapsAverage numberOn this farm (and all others),the number of femalescaught in unbaited traps …… was a poor indicator of the percent of shoot tips infested with CTW eggs, larvae or pupae.% of shoots infested with eggs, larvae or pupae
15 General, somewhat disappointing, conclusions Cranberry tipworm sex pheromone is very attractive to tipworm males but is prohibitively expensive to synthesize and therefore is not available for use on farms.The number of female tipworms attracted to unbaited traps does not provide precise information about the percentage of shoots infested with immature tipworms.The most accurate way to detect cranberry tipworms is the method of collecting a sample of shoot tips then examining them under the microscope to count eggs, larvae and pupae.
16 An optimistic and encouraging observation The recently registered insecticide Movento (spirotetramat), applied AFTER BLOOM, is a very effective management tool.DMDeMDlive immaturesdeadlive & dead×emptycocoons
17 2 graphs … females top; % infested shoots bottom Comment from poster … these results typical of 13 fields.Picture of trap?