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THE EMERGING GLOBAL RESEARCH SYSTEM Fast and Open Charles Eckman, Simon Fraser University LIBER 2013 Munich, June 27, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "THE EMERGING GLOBAL RESEARCH SYSTEM Fast and Open Charles Eckman, Simon Fraser University LIBER 2013 Munich, June 27, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE EMERGING GLOBAL RESEARCH SYSTEM Fast and Open Charles Eckman, Simon Fraser University LIBER 2013 Munich, June 27, 2013

2 RESEARCH ACCELERATION Intensification in the production environment

3 Worldwide R&D expenditures:1996-2009

4 R&D intensity: 2009 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Global Investments in R&D, December 2012

5 Distribution of global GERD UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Global Investments in R&D, December 2012

6 R&D sectors - Europe UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Global Investments in R&D, December 2012

7 R&D sectors - Americas UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Global Investments in R&D, December 2012

8 R&D sectors – Africa, Asia, Oceania UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Global Investments in R&D, December 2012

9 STM article production: regional trends

10 Patents granted worldwide WIPO, World Intellectual Property Indicators 2012

11 Collaboration - researchers CoauthorshipInternational facet NSF special tabulation data, 2011

12 Collaboration – cross-sector University Government Non-profit Business

13 INI.TUM (Germany)

14 Energy Biosciences Institute (US)

15 Evaluation (1) Journal Quality impact immediacy index; impact factor; SNIP influence Eigenfactor obsolescence cited and citing half-life Article Level Metrics citations usage (views, downloads…) altmetrics captures (CiteULike, Mendeley…) mentions (blogs, comments…) social media (tweets, LI, FB…) service providers: ImpactStory; PLoS ALM; ReaderMeter; Research Scorecard

16 Evaluation (2) Productivity Author: h-index (2005); g-index (2006); research income Institution: average researcher output and recognition Research profiling systems and assessment tools SciVal, Symplectic, InCites, VIVO… Rankings THE; ARWU (Shanghai); QS World University Rankings Leiden; SCImago Institutions Rankings; URAP; Webometrics

17 Competition for impact - aggregate “…of the top five research nations (based on article output in 2010: US, China, UK, Japan, Germany), UK researchers generate more articles per researcher, more citations per researcher, and more usage per article authored as measured by global downloads of UK article “…the UK is the clear leader among all eight comparator countries (Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK, US) on citations per unit spend on Gross Expenditure on Research & Development (GERD). “…in the same period citations to UK articles increased at 7.2% per year, faster than the world average of 6.3% per year. As a result the UK’s share of global citations increased from 10.5% to 10.9%. The UK’s share of the world’s top 1% of most highly cited papers, which indicates its share of the highest quality published research, was 13.8% in 2010, 2nd only to the US. “…The UK’s leading position in terms of research efficiency is…in part due to its effectiveness in attracting productive and internationally mobile researchers to work in the UK, both those that began their research careers in the UK and those that began them elsewhere.” -International Comparative Performance of the UK Research Base, 2011

18 Competition for impact - individual Researchers desire to reduce time to publication (Mabe 2012) impatient with access restrictions prefer scholarly sharing and green versions over ILL (Gaulé 2009) prefer green version to ILL (Ithaka 2012) Researchers seek changes in measures of recognition altmetric movement driven by researchers SF Declaration on Research Assessment

19 December 2012 meeting of ASCB 18 recommendations for institutions, funders, publishers, organizations that supply metrics, researchers need to eliminate the use of journal-based metrics, such as Journal Impact Factors, in funding, appointment, and promotion considerations need to assess research on its own merits rather than on the basis of the journal in which the research is published need to capitalize on the opportunities provided by online publication (such as relaxing unnecessary limits on the number of words, figures, and references in articles, and exploring new indicators of significance and impact) “Do not use journal- based metrics, such as Journal Impact Factors, as a surrogate measure of the quality of individual research articles, to assess an individual scientist's contributions, or in hiring, promotion, or funding decisions.”

20 Coordination Funding bodies Global Research Council (GRC) Key agendas: open access and research integrity University administrators New network of China 9; LERU; AAU; Group of 8 Standards Consortia Advancing Standards in Research Administration Information (CASRAI)

21 Research acceleration – key aspects 1. Growth orientation Investments and outputs Research plus innovation yields economic growth and development 2. Collaborative impulse joint authorship research teams across borders cross-sector organizational partnerships 3. Competitive aspect 4. Evaluative focus plethora of quality, impact and productivity measures emphasis on efficiency and institutional benchmarking 5. International framework


23 Journal articles Growth of open access articles green 6% of biochemistry/microbiology to high 30% earth sci (Björk 2009) gold 3% of physics/astronomy to high 13% medicine (Björk 2009) annual growth rate est. at 20% (Springer; Laakso et al 2011) 60% of all peer reviewed journals by 2025 Innovation in gold OA business and publishing models steady growth of author funds (institutional, funder) third-party infrastructure support: promise of consortial licensing megajournals PLoS One, Sage Open, BMJ Open, Sci Reports, AIP Advances, G3, Biology Open… (50% of all articles by 2016 per P. Binfield) disciplinary initiatives SCOAP3; Episciences PeerJ (lifetime publishing membership); eLIFE (funder as publisher)

24 Books Growing phenomenon of OA book publishing Open textbooks Technical infrastructure Open Monograph Press Innovative business models Subject of OA policies Australian Research Council (2013) Wellcome Trust (2013)

25 Research data Data as publication: new form of scholarly communication Evaluation metrics & citation standards in rapid development Publication of research data increases impact (Piwowar) Research Data Alliance (EU; US; Au) Subject of OA policy US OSTP Directive (February 2013) G-8 Science Ministers Statement (June 2013)

26 Policy development at an institutional level ROARMAP

27 Policy development at global scale Increased profile and scope of OA policies RCUK Open Access Policy US agency-wide initiative (OSTP directive) Implementation in fall 2013: CHORUS and SHARES EU Commission proposal Horizon 2020 (goal 60% OA by 2016) Australian Research Council OA Policy (2013) Striving for harmonization timing, version, locus of deposit, embargo, rights, hybrid, license challenges of international and interdisciplinary research teams “Researchers have busy lives…the goal should be one practice.” (Alma Swan) G-8 Science Ministers Statement on OA (June 2013) Global Research Council Action Plan (May 2013)


29 Research dissemination – key trends 1. Growth in open content (articles, books) 2. Emergence of new genre of publishing (data) 3. Innovative gold OA business/publishing models 4. Open access policy development at global scale


31 Global research system Acceleration of research Growth Collaboration Competition Assessment International framework Openness in dissemination Open research content New genres of publishing New business models Global policy development

32 Address dysfunctions of toll access Eliminate access inequities international research teams inter-sectoral research teams and organizations Reduce access management costs IP management facilities breaches legal costs

33 Align with researcher consumption habits Ithaka S+R, US Faculty Survey 2012

34 Manage costs Reduce costs for certain actors? Reduce overall costs for all actors? Improve the cost-benefit ratio?

35 Maximize reach, discovery, impact of investment

36 Concluding observations Research acceleration and open access are mutually reinforcing trends The intrinsic character of this relationship is increasingly apparent to all stakeholders: governments; universities; researchers; libraries; publishers; business enterprises; advocates; international agencies This understanding should help frame current and future discussions regarding OA paths, policies and costs: affirm long-term strength of OA trend reduce risk of failure from particular choices position stakeholders to take more risks, experimental approach create better knowledge to inform discussions of path, policy, costs

37 Questions? Thank You!

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