Presentation on theme: "Alfred Deakin Professor Jill Blackmore Deakin University"— Presentation transcript:
1 Alfred Deakin Professor Jill Blackmore Deakin University Commonwealth Council of Educational Administration and Management ConferenceFredericton,JuneFeminist perspectives on socially just school governance and leadership in post- colonial, post-modern timesPlease cite as pressentation
3 Positioning myself ‘Hanging off the edge’ and critiquing the centre. Australia is geographically distant from its historical origins in the UK, previous economic dependence on USA, and ambivalent political (and I stand here and condemn the border protection policies against refugees ‘arriving by boat’) but increasingly economic relationship with Asia.Australia is both colonised by white settlers and coloniser, typical of other settler-nation states such as Canada, the USA and NZ. As an Australian I am complicit in colonisation and therefore recognise our traditional owners in Australia, as I recognise First Nations people here in Canada.As a feminist, I speak from the margins as a teacher and academic in advocating gender equity in schools, universities and workplaces as this promotes new possibilities for different masculinities as well.
4 Gender and the politics of difference Gender is not the only form of difference that matters. “Race’, ethnicity and class matter, as do location (North /South, urban/rural)In Anglophone nations, gender differences in educational achievement amongst boys and girls are greater based on socio- economic background (often proxy for ‘race’, rurality and ethnicity) than gender differences between boys and girls as ‘unified groups’. This is not necessarily the case in many developing economies.Education is the site of contestation over the changing social relations of gender. Changing traditions and gender power relations within families, communities and workplaces confronts tradition, religious, cultural belief systems and male dominance, .Violence against women and girls is an epidemic across all societies – domestic, as a tool of war, or religious and terrorist extremism
5 Feminist critical policy analysis Identifying and critiquing the embedded assumptions of any theory or methodologyQuestioning any policy by asking ‘what is the problem here’, why is it defined this way and why at this time? (Bacchi The Politics of Policy)Seeking theories and data that have strong explanatory power about social change and equityFocusing on who benefits, who decides, and with what effect with respect to social justiceAlso means focusing on gender-, ‘race’- and class- privilege (Joan Eveline The Politics of Advantage)
6 Privilege and Whiteness As a white female professor in education I amAdvantaged by my whiteness and also what has become my class positionDisadvantaged by gendered and racialised divisions of labour within organisations, within labour markets, within families and between the ‘public’ (work) and ‘private’ (family) domains.Positioned within universities dominated by masculine forms of corporate ‘leaderism’ and knowledge hierarchies privileging ‘hard’ science over humanities and social sciences. (Blackmore 2010)A glass escalator rather than aglass ceiling?
7 Critical feminists as hoodies Using the ‘Critical’ word is becoming increasingly difficult in the English context, and as such people like us are increasingly positioned as a ‘hoodie’ research gang. At best I am seen as a necessary eccentric who is listened to politely but then ignored, and at worst my work is missing from official government websites that recommend reading for practitioners, and/or harassed as dangerously feral by neo-liberal knowledge workers.Being critical and doing critical work, is not new or dangerous or necessarily oppositional, but it is vitally important in these neo-liberal hard new times(Gunter, H The ‘C’ word in educational research, Critical Studies in Education 50(1) p. 94)
8 Worrying notions of post-colonialism, globalisation… As a historian by training, notions of ‘post’ are questionable – whether post- colonial, post-modern or indeed ‘post- feminism’- as past legacies inform and frame present and future possibilities. History matters!‘Post colonial theory focuses on place, identity, difference, the nation and modes of resistance whereas the sociology of globalisation focuses on it as a justification and as an ideological tool to spread capitalism’. Context matters.‘While postcolonialism raises issues of domination, transnational networks require new narratives of colonisation’.‘But contemporary globalisation cannot be disassociated from its roots in European project of imperialism . We cannot understand how the economic logic of neoliberalism has come to dominate without considering the post colonial legacy’.(Rizvi and Lingard 2006)
9 Projects of globalisation Globalisation not new: Asian globalisation, European imperialism late 19thCWhat is different is the scope, scale, speed and mobility facilitated by technology ie. network society (Castells)Globalisation is an ideology (e.g. neoliberalism), an imaginary (cosmopolitanism), and a historical and material manifestation of postmodernity and fast capitalismMultiple contradictory economic, political and social processes that articulate differently at transnational, national and local levelsInvolves multiple actors-globalisation from above (governments, NGOs, multinational businesses, consultants, transnational bodie e.g. World Bank, IMF, WHO, UN, OECD)andglobalisation from below (social movements such as feminism, Occupy, Greenpeace, social media networks of Arab Spring…)
10 My caseCritical historical moment for the field of education: as a discipline; as a profession and as a site of emancipatory hope, that requires rethinking Educational Leadership, Management and Administration.ELMA as a field is under threat with regard to its purpose, language and practices asthe field is being transformed by the rise of edu-capitalism, global policy forums and ‘governance by numbers’distinctive disjuncture between the policy rhetoric of 21st Century learning and the realities of practice in schools and classroomsleadership practices in schools are shaped by global/local articulations in context specific waystension between who provides education and how access, participation, equity and high quality teaching (conditions for 21st C learning) can be achievedEducation for All by 2015 : nominal deadline of universal access to quality education for all learners in shortest time frame within a framework of decent work for highly trained professional staff (Fyfe ILO 2007, 1)
12 Target 3.A Millenium Development Goals Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education in all levels of education by 2015Even as countries with the toughest challenges have made large strides, progress on primary school enrolment has slowed.Globally, 123 million 15 to 24 year olds lack basic reading and writing skills. 61 per cent of them are young women.Gender gaps in youth literacy rates are narrowing. (95 literate young women for every 100 young men in 2010)Women now 40 /100 wage-earning jobs in the non-agricultural sector in 2011.BUTPoverty is a major barrier to secondary education, especially among older girls.Women continue to face discrimination in access to education, work and economic assets, and participation in government: less secure jobs, fewer social benefits.Violence against women and girls continues to undermine efforts to reach all MDG goals.
13 Globalisation from below Women’s movementFeminism has familial resemblances cross nationally supporting localized practices and supported by transnational organisations e.g. UNIFEMworks with and on the master’s tools to hold nation states and global policy forums accountable e.g. Gender Development Index , IWD Beijing 1995 informed MDGTransnational advocacy groupse.g. Global Education Actionzero child marriage;zero child labour;zero discrimination against girls;zero exclusion from education.
14 Claims made upon the nation state and global forums Social justiceClaims made upon the nation state and global forumsFraser, N. (1997) Justice Interruptus: Critical Reflections on the "Postsocialist" Condition.Needs: basic food and from violence, child support, health, education, and welfare etcInterests : recognition of group discrimination, oppression, disadvantageRights: to vote, travel, work, own property, to be listened to, to be heard and to be educated.Women’s claims have largely been successful only when based on needs (for their children as women’s interests aligned with their family) and/or when aligned with national (economic) interests.Otherwise women’s claims are treated as ‘particularist’ interests.Sen : ‘positive freedoms’ ie right to have the capacity for agency (education)
15 Nancy Fraser’s principles of social justice Distributive justice: socio-economic processes.Maldistribution arises from class inequality.Recognitive justice: cultural processes, recognition of difference (bilingualism and learning).Misrecognition arises from hierarchical ways in which cultural value is accorded to individuals and groups (gender, race, religion, disability, class, language…)Representation: political processes and participation.Misrepresentation is when individuals or groups do not have an equal voice in decisionmaking that impacts on their lives.These are interconnected: as class inequality (maldistribution) often derives from gender and race inequality (misrecognition) and often leads to or is the result of misrepresentation and vv.
16 DilemmasDilemmas arise from often conflicting principles – ‘bivalent collectivities ‘ of ‘race’ and gendere.g. recognition of a cultural group can have unequal effects on women and girls and lead to maldistribution or misrepresentation.Parity of participation: beyond the token representativethe quality of material conditions and of social relationships ie. representation alone is inadequate, as need to be heard, respected, and have influence.Able to question the value of those social goods
17 Globalisation from above: Project of neo-liberalism Economic ideas originating from Chicago School of Economics and promoted by IMF and World BankDominant since 1980s in Anglophone nations (UK, NZ, Australia) and some Commonwealth countries(South Africa) after tested in Chile and Mexico in 1970sRapid circulation of neoliberal ideology exemplifies rise of global policy arenas and networks of transnational policy actors(governments, faith based organisations, NGOs, policy makers, consultants, philanthropists…OECD, World Bank IMF)(Lingard and Rizvi Globalising Education Policy 2010)
18 Neoliberal theoryAdvocated if not imposed through World Bank, IMF etc and OECD during 1980s: structural adjustmentSmall ‘thin’ governmentReduced public expenditurePay national debts (back to IMF and World Bank..)User paysMarket principles to distribute educational goods and service e.g. parental choice between competing self managing schoolsHuman capital theory :individuals make rational choices to maximise their individual outcomesmore education leads to greater rewards in the labour marketEconomic growth prioritised as wealth will trickle down
20 NeoliberalismEconomistic, Westcentric and androcentric in its assumptionsInstrumentalist view of education as the production of the entrepreneurial self- maximizing individual who is gender, class, ‘race’ and culturally neutral(Fraser 2013)
21 Mechanism: New managerialism and corporatisation of education as field New Public Administration Mantra (1980s in Anglophone states)Private sector management more efficient and effective than public sectorGeneric manager: not to be confused by expertise or experience in the field of educationProducer capture: professionals self interested and should not inform policy but be controlled (professional standards, performance management, payment by results etc)Governance based on subsidiarity ie. devolve all risk and responsibility down to the individual school, leader, teacher and student with the self managing school (free schools, charter schools, self governing, academies…)Competition in the market will produce both quality (and equity?) as bad schools failEquity is equated to individual choice as if everyone has same capacity (resources, knowledge, time….) to chooseGlobal and national scale: governance by numbers e.g. public ranking and comparison through nation states through PISA and nationally standardised testing to ‘facilitate choice’(Special Issue Journal of Educational Administration and History 45(4) 2013)
22 Scalar Politics of Edu-capitalism ‘New education philanthropy and social capitalism’ :Multi-national corporations such as Pearson now offer the ‘full deal’ from teacher and leadership training through to curriculum and assessment packages, buildings and technology infrastructure in both developed and developing economies .e.g. Public Private Partnerships (Ball 2012: 68).Multinational Policy actors: ‘Cartography of belief and advocacy’through a ‘generative network promote particular solutions (GERM), closely associated with philanthro-capitalists (Gates Foundation) and big business (Pearson)Re-gendering of education as a global fieldEducation capitalists embody transnational masculinity: white, male western policy makers, entrepreneurs, consultants and philanthropists. Women constitute the majority of casualised teaching force.
24 Changing contexts for field of ELMA 21st Century : Edu- capitalism’s global project ?20th C Modernist (Westernised) democratic education project?State now mediates education markets (National Quaification Frameworks)State less a provider and more a regulator ie privatisationIndividuals responsible for their own education as a positional good to gain comparative advantage ie. Possessive individualismProfessionalism redefined as expertise for hire ie contractualism, casualisation and feminisationpreference for weak voluntarist collectivism (philanthropy) rather than strong collectivism (unions)Education investment by the state as a public and individual goodEducation had intrinsic value for citizenship and social cohesion/identityTeaching was a vocation and tenured careerTeachers advocates for education for social change ie emancipatory intentStrong teacher unions linked to professionalism
25 Rising risk and educational anxiety ContextRising risk and educational anxietyGeneralised anxiety focusing on education – push for retaining (middle classes) or gaining (aspirational classes) comparative advantage eg. private schooling, international credentials, rise of IB as forms of distinctionBUTThe promise of education no longer fulfilled even for middle classes as increased unemployment of professional classes is emerging with the massification of higher education(Brown, Lauder 2010 The Global Auction)
26 Globalised educationIncreased mobility and uneven flows inter-nationally and intra-nationallypeople (student and teachers);images of the norm of a ‘good school’;products : curriculum(IB), learning technologies, certification, examinations, texts, transferrable credentialsmoney (outsourcing education research KPMG or Boston Consulting, Pearson)policies (e.g. school choice) and GERM
27 GERM : Global Education Reform Movement (Sahlberg 2011 Finnish Lessons): epidemic infecting educationGERM promotes models of school effectiveness and improvement (SEI) that interlinks with the emergent architecture of global governance including the IMF, World Bank, OECD, UNICEF and UNESCO.Curricula are standardised to fit to international student tests;Students around the world study learning materials from global providersTravels with pundits, media and politicians.Education systems borrow policies from others and get infected.Schools get ill, teachers don’t feel well, and kids learn less.
28 SymptomsClaims: Quality of education improves when schools compete therefore schools need more autonomy, and therefore more accountability.Evidence: when schools compete they cooperate less.2. Claims: school choice positions parents as consumers empowering them to select schools for their children promising equal access to high-quality schooling for all.Evidence: decline in academic results and an increase in school segregation in advanced economies.3. Claims: stronger accountability and related standardised testing to improve.Evidence: leads to teach to test, narrows curriculum and converts pedagogy into mechanistic instruction.Healthy school systems are resistant to GERM and its inconvenient symptoms.
29 Limits of SEI paradigmReluctance to engage with other research paradigmsToo strongly focused on short term (student achievement rather than student progress over time)(change takes up to 7-8 years for schools and students progress and regress) and difficult because of context to sustain improvement!Focus on individual school as schools now work in complex partnerships and arrangements as centre of networksMethodology inadequate: multilevel modelling reinforces dichotomies between school classroom and pupil factors least of all between school, networks , families and communities.(D. Muijs 2010 Effectiveness and disadvantage in education. In C. Raffo et al Education and Poverty in Affluent Countries)
30 Feminist and critical analysis of SEI SEI aligns with neoliberal agenda of privatisation and marketsfocuses on standardised learning outcomes and quantitative research (‘policy by numbers’) (Lingard 2012);Focus on individual schools in competition with each other fragments a sense of education as a‘ public good’‘Effective schools’ are treated as having the same characteristics, and so comparisons can be made between ‘like’ schools as in MySchool (Australian website) (Thomson) .Downplays the significant role of context and social mix of students in terms of what a school community, leaders and teachers can do (Thrupp and Lupton).Ignores the intersections and multiplier effects between educational underachievement and spatial injustice, poverty, community lack of infrastructure and jobs, social exclusion due to race, class, gender differences and culture (Blackmore )
31 Furthermore SEIDevolves risk and responsibility onto individual schools, teachers, parents and students facilitating a failing school rather than a failing system discourse (Goldstein)Misuse of notions of ‘autonomy’: more about schools doing more with less rather than facilitating professional judgement and autonomy (Gronn)Leads to’ leaderism’ :a good leader is all that is required. Easy to blame leaders not systems. But hero leaders are not enough (Gunter).Positions teachers (predominantly female) as the solution to educational underachievement (Hattie 2003, 2009). Ignores teachers’ work being casualised and standardised (de- professionalised)(Hargreaves 2012)Equates success (and equity) to quantifiable outcomes of academic educational underachievement (Lingard).Produces a thin curriculum and pedagogical diet with little regard for aesthetic, physical, affective and ethical outcomes (Blackmore et al 2012)
32 Elaine Unterhalter: Beyond Access Gender Equity Project : Oxfam, UNESCO in developing economies Historically, ELMA fails to address how the ‘lived experience’ of injustice impacts on girls and other marginalized groups and their capacity to learn (e.g. racial or sexual harassment); or to make connections between the dropout of girls and the gender dynamics of households, school and societies’; or to link pregnancy to ‘household and social, political or schooling processes’ (Unterhalter 2013).The gender dynamics of exclusion and the interaction between private and public sites of discrimination require closer examination.Social justice continues to be seen to be ‘the other’s’ concern and not that of mainstream ELMA, despite the claims to be addressing educational inequality.
34 Paradox 1: Increased polarisation between rich and poor students, schools and communities in affluent countries (Raffo et al 2010)Market claims to deliver equity through parental choice, ‘principal autonomy, devolutionBUTLittle evidence linking structural reforms (Charter Schools, Free Schools, Self Managing Schools or Academies) to improved student learning outcomes.Fragments not nurtures social cohesion.(Musset Review of School Choice OECD)
35 Place and context matter : Australia PISA shows Anglophone nation states see a more direct relationship between ses background and wider gap in learning outcomes in more marketised and devolved systems E.g. AustraliaPlace matters due to locational disadvantage: educational underachievement is associated with high levels of poverty, intergenerational unemployment or underemployment, poor community health and well being, inadequate infrastructure (transport, health, educational and community service) concentrated in particular regions e.g. Australia (Teese et al Educational Inequality 2007; Blackmore 2014) ie maldistributionParental choice has institutionalised social divisions. People, given a choice, like to be with people like themselves: ‘homophily’ or ‘homosociability’ (Blackmore 2006)ie misrecognition”
36 Blueprint aimed at rebuilding Victorian public sector of schooling after 7 years of radical neoliberal restructuring towards a market system because students ’slipped through the cracks’Blueprintleadership capacity building at all levels (beginning teacher to principal) through school based research activitiesStrong research and policy division e.g. Linkage grants, partnerships with universitiesIncluded schools in community capacity building projects together with other departments of community, health…Invested in well designed built environment premised upon sound pedagogical principles‘Had to do something significantly different for those struggling schools in high poverty areas’(Senior bureaucrat after evaluation)
37 Enabling policy encouraging bottom up innovation : Leading Schools FundRequired public schools within a locality to examine provision of schooling (K-12)Innovative buildings linked to pedagogical purposePrincipals and teachers encouraged to travel, innovate and planNew built environment linked to neighbourhood renewal and precincts (e.g. health, welfare, employment and education facilities in proximity)Major reconfiguration of schooling in areas of locational disadvantage: senior/junior campuses, K- 12, work annexes, science and technology schools on university campuses….‘Schools within larger schools’ : pastoral care and belonging, interdisciplinary rich tasks, teams
38 Yuille Park Community College Regional Community HubP-8, lifelong learningMulti age Learning Pods (3)Inquiry drivenTeam teachingStephanie Alexander kitchen garden, ‘with chooks’
39 LeadershipPrinciples of deliberative democracy rather than distributed leadership: flat structure of staffing, shared decision-making and high level of commitment to renewal by teachers and communityTeacher leadership and research, team teaching and planning possible because of flexible grouping within 3 learning multiage- learning podsDedicated planning timeExperimentation and evaluationPlanning renewal over yearsFocus on improvement relative to advancement of each cohort group not just test outcomes
40 School as a social centre Victorian Lessons on School ReformCommunity consultation to redesign school provided opportunities for teachers and leaders to create new partnerships and imagine new pedagogical possibilitiesChanging teacher practice through encouraging experimentation and professional learning preceded changes in student learningRequired changing school and systemwide cultures to support professional learningSignificant input at regional level of additional resources e.g. literacy and numeracy coachesCommunity responded to recognition of individual needs and community interests as felt valued by governmentCommunity reciprocated with increased voluntarism and engagement with the school, pride in and care of building, high payment of levies, monthly market, gardenSchool as a social centreof community
41 Policy issue: innovation and politics The issue is not about identifyng and scaling up models of ‘innovation’ or ‘effectiveness’ as measured against short term outcomes but about building local capacity for schools and communities to undertake sustainable reformBalance between system support through enabling policies and resources to encourage systematic inquiry in schoolsMutual accountability between schools and systems for all studentsNext conservative government changes policies :refusal to recognise past governments successNeoliberal federal government refusing to fund states to maintain public sector quality of provision12 OECD Case Studies of Innovative Learning EnvironmentsReview of literature on Built learning environmentsLEEP project (OECD) linking built environment to school improvement planning
42 Paradox 2 Ongoing privatisation agenda despite lack of evidence regarding improved learning outcomes Low fee private schooling: for-profit or philanthro- capitalism is expanding transnationally as local governments in many developing economies cannot afford to massify schooling and meet Education for All or Millenium Development Goals (Unterhalter 2006, 2008; Srivastava 2013).a shift from ‘palliative to developmental giving’ to developing economies by the ‘joining up of epistemic, financial and policy endeavours’ instituted by transnational organizations e.g. Pearson, Gates Foundation. (Ball 2012: 68)
43 ‘Low-fee Private school promise’ ClaimsEmerging Evidencehigher familial wealth, more likely to attend private schools;poorer families select boys as perceived better investment and due to cultural norms (Pakistan, India, Ghana, Nigeria and Nepal)take out loans which reducing household and other children’s opportunities (Ghana)Investment in academic girl’s education to become low paid teachers in LFPS (Lahore)Caste, wealth and social status are reproducedChoices of lower castes and religious groups (Muslims) restrictedEntrench economic divisions, gender discriminationhigher association between ses, LFPS and secondary schoolingPrivate schools facilitate ’jumping the queue’Residualises public schoolsReal choice even to parents with disadvantage therefore equitableProvides schooling in rural areas where difficult to staffEfficient and effective in terms of better learning outcomes than public schoolsTreats education as investment for family
44 Teacherspublic schools have better paid and more qualified and experienced teachersLFPS have more untrained teachers, poorer buildings, greater insecurity etc. than government schools e.g. PakistanPrecarious employment means less teacher absenteeism, more responsive to parental communication and student needsLower pupil teacher ratios and Teach to testLack of regulation makes claims difficult to assessTeachers LFPS supplement income through homework classesPrivate tutoring effect the largest variable determining test scores(as in China, Japan and South Korea)Sources:MacPherson, S. Robertson, and G. Walford. Eds (2013) Education, Privatisation and Social Justice. Case studies from Africa. South Asia and South East Asia.P Strivasrava & G. Walford eds.(2007) Private schooling in Less Economically Developed Countries. Symposium Books.
45 Elite Independent Schools: going global Global ethnography of one school in a number of former British colonies – Australia, Barbados, Hong Kong, India, Singapore, South Africa, CyprusElite schools descended from the British ‘public’ school model are responding to globalisation and the implications for their social purposes; to serve the more privileged and powerful sectors.Elite schools face competition from new elite commercial private schools e.g. IndiaStrategies of recruitment are now globalStudents are agile, entrepreneurial, socially committed ie elite schools producing next generation of globally mobile corporate entrepreneurs and philanthro-capitalists that have more nuanced racialised and gendered subjectivitiesSourceKenway, Fahey et al (2011-4) Elite Independent Schools in Globalising Circumstances: A Multi-Sited Global EthnographySpecial Issue: Globalisation, Societies and Education (2)
46 Social justice dilemmas Whether low fee private schools aggravates equity, mitigates disadvantage and/or is just another form of neo-colonialism (Srivastava 2013)Production of global less ‘racialised’ and ‘gendered’ elite as evident in social mix of cohorts of students in British elite schools (Kenway et al 2012)Can increasingly contractualised educational relations (e.g. public private partnerships) provide increased access and equity as well as qualified, well supported and innovative teachers?Implications of rise of both low fee private schools and consolidation of elite schooling for majority in government schools?
47 Performative or knowledge building pedagogies: Singapore Paradox 3Performative or knowledge building pedagogies: SingaporeCountries such as South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Finland ranked highly on international league tables so promoted as models elsewhere.Discourse of 21st Century learner-earner or global knowledge workereducated to acquire the capabilities of critical thinking, analysis, creativity, innovation, teamwork, digital and emotional literacy, intercultural sensitivity and good communication etc…teachers as researchers, knowledge builders.Singapore, Japan, South Korea have policies advocating these characteristics as system wide aims e.g. reduced cramming
48 Singapore’s ‘performative pedagogy’ (David Hogan) Instructional regime is underwritten bya distinct historical cultural and institutional commitment to a nation-building narrative of meritocratic achievement and social stratification, ethnic pluralism, collective values and social cohesion,a strong, activist state and economic growthHighly prescriptive national curriculum and tightly coupled textbooksNational high stakes assessment systemPublic school system is highly integrated, well funded and coherent, with extensive curriculum resources and support from MinistryDedicated, well trained, highly competent, school leadershipprogressively decentralized environment that preserves sufficient autonomy at the school level to ensure responsiveness to local circumstances and the professional judgement of teachers.
49 Pervasive folk pedagogy “teaching is talking and learning is listening”authority is “hierarchical and bureaucratic”assessment is “summative”knowledge is “factual and procedural”classroom talk is teacher-dominated and “performative”
50 Performative pedagogy: ‘Stick to the textbook’Performative pedagogy:Highly scripted, uniform across all levels and grades, pragmatic, fit for purpose, drawing on both Eastern and Western pedagogical traditionsCovers factual and procedural knowledge in preparation for testsFunctional cognitive activities (recall, memorize, practice, revision, drill)Procedural and representational fluency / automaticity / masteryWorked examples (Mathematics: 60%+ class time)
51 Limits to reform in Singapore Aversion to risk and innovationPress for curriculum coverage and teaching to the curriculum generates a pervasive tension between performativity and curriculum depthPerverse instructional incentives: tight coupling of performative pedagogy rather than knowledge building instructional practices and student achievementThis results inrestricted attention to knowledge building / 21st century instructional tasksLimited integration of technologyTask Implementation not Task Design
52 Long tail of low achieving students Limited use of what Western research calls ‘high leverage’ techniques such as metacognitive approaches :learning how to learnchecking prior knowledgecritical feedback other than answer is right or wrongStreaming generates perverse effects in legitimating deficit discourses and compounding social class inequalities in student achievement:Long tail of low achieving studentsD. Hogan 2014 Singapore’s Pedagogical Model and Its Implications for London (Former Dean Centre for Pedagogy and Practice, National Institute of Education, Singapore)
53 Policy DilemmaAim to develop a reformist knowledge -building pedagogy without repudiating performative pedagogy to achieve national goal of positioning Singapore at the interface of ‘cutting edge’ innovation into AsiaLong term success is possible because of policy making processes, leadership, capacity for renewal and cultural self ie unique
54 Teachers as leaders :compliance or professional judgement Paradox 4Teachers as leaders :compliance or professional judgementquality and equity?Global re-professionalisation discourse for teachers :to be leaders, researchers and innovatorsraising status and investing in professional learningincrease their pedagogical repertoire to address personalisation;depth of learning to develop critical thinking etc….BUT….Increased standardisation of profession e.g. national professional standards not same as qualityDriven by narrow external accountabilities (standardised testing) that are counterproductiveFlexibility of individual schools relies heavily on casualisation, feminisation and greater differentiation between teachersteacher education being pulled out of universities… de- professionalisation?
55 Finnish Lessons (Sahlberg 2011) Finnish system not infected by the market-based competition and high- stakes testing policies.Competition, choice or standardised testing not seen to be best for student learning and even counterproductiveFocus on ‘sample based testing, thematic assessments, critical self-reflection’Finnish politicians do not mis-use PISA results and schools do not focus on them.Finnish authorities encourage schools to undertake their own responses as centres of learningCulture of mutual trust and respect between government and schools and teachers with light touch accountability based on peer review.Consensus and collaboration to redesign schooling over 30 years i.e. change takes timeFinnish history and culture promotes ‘A social democratic discourse and redistributive policies support families, students and schools’
56 Finnish ReformWell prepared (and paid) teachers, pedagogically designed schools, and good school principals, a relatively homogenous society, an inclusive national educational vision, and an emphasis on special education needs’, with low levels of poverty(Sahlberg 2011: 126).Fraser’s principlesredistribution (investment in schooling, built environments and teacher professional development),recognition(respect of difference amongst teachers and students; mutual trust etc )representation (consultation with students and teachers imparting ownership and commitment)democratic ethos conducive to inclusive cultures and more likely to lead to parity and quality of participation.
57 Body of Evidence about School Reform Research into “best practice” within current frameworks has no future as no proven model’ of system-level challenges for innovation and transformation. waiting to be found, described, replicated, and implemented.Structural change does not produce improved learning outcomes. Cultural change is most difficult but cannot be achieved by schools alone without system and wider cultural shifts in attitudes to educationPlacing a high value on education will get a country only so far if the teachers, parents and citizens of that country believe that only some subset of the nation’s children can or need to achieveHigh poverty schools need to be social centres within wider networks of interagency collaboration supporting students, schools, familiesBuilt environment that affords new ways of teaching and learning matters as it is about place, recognition as well as flexibility for innovative pedagogies
58 LeadershipLeaders create conditions of possibility for teachers: synthesise ideas, encourage risk , allocate resources, lead from centre, buffer from cascading contradictory policies, advocate...Teacher leadership, ownership, participation and efficacy will improve student learning outcomes within the limits of context and resources.Investment in teacher professional learning cannot succeed over time without enabling policies and resourcesInternal strong peer review, systematic inquiry, experimentation, and weak external accountability are more likely to lead to improvement of student outcomes (social, affective, physical and cognitive)than compliance to narrowly focused externally focused standardised assessmentTeachers and principals use multiple forms of evidence and definitions of success to make professional judgements : parent and student satisfaction, observation behaviour, multiple artefacts of learning, inclusion, parental involvement, quality of relationships, increased teamwork…
59 Fragility of education as a field of practice, research and policy
60 The post socialist condition: The post socialist condition is characterized byan absence of an credible overarching emancipatory project despite the proliferation of fronts of struggle,a general decoupling of the cultural politics of recognition from the social politics of redistribution, anda decentering of claims for equality in the face of aggressive marketization and sharply rising material inequality(Nancy Fraser (2013) Scales of Justice, p. 3).
61 Fraser : reframing social justice 1960s : equity policies in West redistributive justice : rise of welfare state in West; education as a public good, economic growthpolitics of difference and recognition with rise of social movements (1970s etc) of women, civil rights led to a focus on recognition of difference less so redistribution1990s neoliberal policies focused on rights-based claims coincided with rise of social and religious conservatism also focused on rights based claims with middle class anxiety. E.g. parental choiceSocial justice has been redefined as rights based claims and equated to individual choice
62 Future threats to the field of education Field of educational research and SEI in particular becomes irrelevantEducation as a discipline is being fragmented if not excluded from academyNext generation of teachers and researchers see education as a short term job because of conditions of labour and building a portfolio career rather than a vocationPolicy is made by those who do not do educational research or are educational practitioners e.g. multinational management firms eg, KPMG, Boston Consulting etc.Multinational corporations, faith based organisations, individuals, philanthropists become dominant providers of education: professionalism and equity?Big data: predictive researchthat lacks nuanced understandings of qualitative research about what matters in practiceEducation markets premised upon profit, fear, anxiety, desire etc. do not produce greater equity
63 ‘Social science is, at best, ambiguously democratic ‘Social science is, at best, ambiguously democratic. The dominant genres picture the world as seen by men, by capitalists, by the educated and affluent. Most important, their picture of the world is seen from the rich capital-exploiting countries of Europe and North America- the global metropole. To ground knowledge of society in other experiences remains a fragile project’(Connell, R. Southern Theory p. ix)
64 Re-theorising educational research sociology and social sciences have developed universalising theories that have ignored the processes of imperialism and colonisation and association with patriarchy, ignoring cultural differenceReading from the centre ie always related to existing literature, filling a gap etc.objectivism vs subjectivism which is a North-centric view of the worldExclusion of references to alternative ontologies and epistemologies underpinning leadership research (indigenous, black, Asian, Islamic, post colonial feminist theorists in leadership) (See references) that address intersectionality of ‘race’, gender and class.
65 Shifting the paradigm of ELMA Draw on research and theory outside the field: post colonial, black, feminist, critical theory…..Recognise that no one paradigm or model ‘fits’ and that systemic school reform based on systematic inquiry takes time and involves government and communityAddress intersectionality of gender, ‘race’ , class and ethnicity within contextResearch how context, culture and place mattersLongitudinal life course studies of schools, communities and students in order to address complexity of what schools do and how students live and how to make a differenceAs leaders, practitioners, researchers and policy makers we need to focus on socially just policies, practices and outcomes based on principles of redistribution, recognition, representation ie. leadership with the purpose of social justice
66 Globalisation and education Stromquist and Monkman, K. (2014) Globalisation and EducationRizvi, F. and Lingard,B. (2010) Globalizing Education PolicyBall, S Social Justice in the Head? Are we all libertarians now? In Vincent, C. ed Social Justice, Education and Identity. London: RoutledgeFalmer.Ball, S Education plc: Understanding private sector participation in public sector education. London: Routledge.Ball, S Global Education Inc. New Policy Networks and the Neoliberal Imaginary. London: Routledge.Blackmore, J. (2011b) Leadership in pursuit of purpose: social, economic and political transformation, In C. Shields (ed) International Handbook on Transformative Leadership Sage.Blackmore, J Gender and Educational Organisations: a feminist sociology In S. Ball and M. Apple (eds) Handbook of Sociology of Education, London: Routledge.
67 Teacher professionalism Gewirtz et al (2009) Changing teacher professionalism and ways forward. International atrends and Challenges. RoutledgeHargreaves, A. Professional CapitalSeddon T. and Levin J. (2013) Educators, Professionalism and Politics. Global transitions, national spaces and professional projects. RoutledgeBlackmore, J. Barty, K. and Thomson, P Principal Selection: Homosociability, the Search for Security and the Production of Normalised Principal Identitis Educational Management, Administration and Leadership 34(3)
68 References Islamic leadership Critical Race theory Shah, S Educational leadership: an Islamic perspective, British Educational Research Journal. Vol No. 3, ppShah, S Re-thinking educational leadership: exploring the impact of cultural and belief systems. International Journal of Leadership in Education 13(1), 27-44Critical Race theoryCollins, P. H Black Feminist Thought. London: RoutledgeChapman, T., Dixson, A., Gillborn, D. and Ladson-Billings, G Critical race theory International Handbook of Theories in Education,. North Carolina: IAP Press.McMahon, B Educational administrators’ conceptions of whiteness, anti- racism and social justice. Journal of Educational Administration, 45(6), 684–696.
69 Multiculturalism:Mabokela, R. and Madsen, J ‘Color-blind’ and ‘color- conscious’ leadership: A case study of desegregated suburban schools in the USA. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 8(3),Mabokela, R. ed Soaring beyond boundaries: Women breaking educational barriers in traditional societies. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Optlaka, I. and Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. eds. Women Principals in a Multicultural Society. New Insights into Feminist Educational Leadership. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.G. Ladson-Billings and D. Gillborn (Eds),(2004) The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Multicultural Education, Routledge, London, pp
70 LeadershipBlackmore, J. (2010a) ‘The other within’: race / gender disruptions to the professional learning of white educational leaders. International Journal of Leadership in Education. 13(1),Blackmore, J. 2010b Preparing leaders to work with emotions in culturally diverse educational communities. Journal of Educational Administration, 48(5),
71 Indigenous leadership and research Ngurruwutthun, Nalwarri. and Stewart, M. P. Ann “Learning to walk behind; learning to walk in front”. A case study of the mentor program at Yirrkala Community Education Centre. Unicorn, 22(4), 3–23Aileen Moreton-Robinson Talkin’ back to the White WomanWhite, Nerida Indigenous Australian women’s leadership: stayin’ strong against the post-colonial rule. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 13(1), 7-26.Ahnee-Benham, M In our mother’s voice: a native women’s knowing of leadership in Young, M. and Sklra, L eds. Reconsidering Feminist Research in Educational Leadership. New York: SUNY Press.Battiste, M Leadership and Aboriginal education in contemporary education: Narratives of cognitive imperialism reconciling with decolonisation, in: J. Collard and C. Reynolds (eds) Leadership, Gender and Culture in Education. Male and Female Perspectives. (pp. 150–156. )Buckingham: Open University Press,Tuhiwa-Smith Linda Decolonising Research Methodologies
72 Social JusticeBlackmore, J. (2015) Leadership and Nancy Fraser RoutledgeBlackmore, J. (2013). Social justice in education: a theoretical overview in Irby, Brown, G. and Lara- Alecio, R. (eds) Handbook of Educational Theories, Information Age Publishing.Fraser, N. (1997) Justice Interruptus: Critical Reflections on the "Postsocialist" Condition. New York: Routledge.Fraser, N. (1998) Redistribution or Recognition? A Political-Philosophical Exchange. (co- authored with Axel Honneth). London: Verso.Fraser, N, (2008) Scales of Justice. Reimagining political space in a globalizing world. Cambridge: Polity Press.Lyman, L. Strachan, J. and Lazaridou, A. eds Shaping Social Justice Leadership. Insights of women educators Worldwide. XXXX Rowman and Littlefield.Shields, C Theorizing Democratic and Social Justice Education: conundrum or impossibility. In, B. Irby, G, Brown, R. Kara-Alecio, S. Jackson. Eds. The Handbook of Educational Theories. North Caroliina: IAP Press.pp