ANTARCTICA The world within the ice Written by Elijah Fraser
map Larson C ice shelf 48,600km2 Davis station. Australia Dumont D’ Urville station. France Weddell sea Indian Ocean Australian territory Argentinean territory
THE ANTARCTIC TREATY The Antarctic treaty is the agreement that all countries that claim part of Antarctica must follow. The Antarctic treaty was created in 1959 and was enforced in 1961 and twelve nations have signed the treaty. It was signed in Washington D.C, America. The purpose of the treaty is to ensure the safety of Antarctica, and preserve it so the wildlife may survive, so future scientists to study and for future families to visit.
DOUGLAS MAWSON’S DISCOVERY OF ANTARCTICA SIR DOUGLAS MAWSON DOUGLAS MAWSON'S EXPLORATION OF ANTARCTICA Sir Douglas Mawson, born 5 th May 1882 in Yorkshire and died 14 th October 1958 in South Australia, was an Australian explorer and geologist. Mawson was a key expedition leader during the age of Antarctic exploration. He was appointed geologist to a expedition to the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) in 1903. In 1910 Mawson turned down an invitation to join Robert Falcon Scott and instead chose to lead his own expedition, The Australasian Antarctic Expedition, to King George V Land and Adelie Land. He married Francisca Adriana Delprat on march 31 st 1914 at Holy Trinity Church in England. He and his wife had two children, Patricia and Jessica. Although he was born in England he and his family moved to Australia in 1884 at the age of two. He died of a cerebral haemorrhage at his Brighton home in 1958. New Hebrides
Humans are doing more damage to Antarctica than many first thought. Humans have long thought that Antarctica is completely unspoiled and pristine, but since humans have built stations there and tourists are travelling to see it, rubbish has been left there and sewerage has been dumped into the ocean. Many people – usually miners – have left barrels and containers out in the snow. Animals have been harvested for financial gain which has brought some species close to extinction. Fishing, sealing and whaling has also been a problem because it has been taking food from the local animals, and killing innocent creatures. Animals are also killed by eating rubbish left by humans. HOW HUMANS HAVE IMPACTED ANTARCTICA Murderer!!!
The ancient Greeks called the constellation above the northern sky Arctos or the bear, so they called Antarctica, antarktikos or opposite the bear. In winter, sea ice covers an area of20 million square kilometres but in summer it only covers around 5 million square kilometres. Scientists in Germany are studying the worlds oldest ice to further understand climate change. The layers of feathers on a penguin’s body keep the warmth inside them and keeps the cold air out. Humans harvest krill for food, bait fishmeal and stock feed. Over harvesting krill may cause problems in the food web because so many animal species depend on this krill to survive. Some penguins like the Gentoo and the Adelie penguins have a brushy tail that keeps them from sliding on the ice. DID YOU KNOW?
Unlike the giant squid, whose tentacles only have small teeth on suckers, the colossal squid’s tentacles have sharp hooks, some three pointed. It’s body is round and stout which makes it also heavier than the giant squid. It also has a longer body but has shorter tentacles. It’s beak is also the largest of any squid. Though little is know about this creature it is believed to feed on large fish and other squid deep in the ocean. It is thought to have a slow metabolic rate requiring only 30 g of food per day. Estimates of it’s energetic needs suggest it is a slow moving predator. An adult squid can delve into depths of up to 2200 metres. ANIMAL REPORT: COLOSSAL SQUID Largest cephalopod ever caught. 2007 Colossal squid tentacle with barbs.
1773- Captain James Cook is the first person to cross the Antarctic circle. 1821- John Davis is the first to land on Antarctica. 1823- John Weddell go the furthest south into the Antarctic. 1841- Sir James Clark Ross searched for the magnetic South pole. 1895- Carsten Borchgrevink found lichen. 1898- Adrein de Gerlasche and his team are the first to survive a Antarctic winter. 1901-1902- Scott and Shackleton try to walk the entire south pole and are unsuccessful. 1907-1909- Shackleton almost reaches the south pole on a journey of his own. 1911- The race to the south pole begins. Amundsen comes first. 1911- Scott comes second. 1912- Scott dies on the way back to his ship. 1914- Shackleton and his crew sail from England to Antarctica just before WW1 starts. 1940’s- the first permanent settlement happened. ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION TIMELINE