2Does homework affect student learning? Consider the following ideas: Homework increases academic achievementWithout excessive homework, students’ test scores will not be internationally competitiveThose who question homework want to weaken curriculum and pander to students’ laziness
3A Brief History of the HW Debate Late 1800s to 1940s: Progressive and health reforms led to criticism of HWCold War period: Competition with the Soviet Union led to more support of HWVietnam Era: Decline in Support1980s and 1990s: Educational excellence movement brought back supportRecent decades: Support and research varies
5Does homework affect student learning? Older students benefit moreStudents from low-income may not benefit as muchStudents with learning disabilities benefit under certain conditionsAsian Americans benefit more than other ethnic groupsHW may have non-academic benefits – responsibility, study habits, time management
6Graue, Weinstein, &Walberg, 19831 General effects of homework 29 .49 FIGURE 1. Synthesis Studies on HomeworkSynthesis StudyFocusNumber of Effect SizesAveragePercentile GainsGraue, Weinstein, &Walberg, 19831General effects of homework29.4919Bloom, 1984—.3012Paschal, Weinstein, & Walberg, 19842Homework versus no homework47.2811Cooper, 1989a20.218Hattie, 1992; Fraser, Walberg, Welch, & Hattie, 1987110.4317Walberg, 1999With teacher comments2.8831Graded5.7828Cooper, Robinson, & Patall, 20066.6023Note: This figure describes the eight major research syntheses on the effects of homework published from 1983 to 2006 that provide the basis for the analysis in this article. The Cooper (1989a) study included more than 100 empirical research reports, and the Cooper, Robinson, and Patall (2006) study included about 50 empirical research reports. Figure 1 reports only those results from experimental/control comparisons for these two studies.1 Reported in Fraser, Walberg, Welch, & Hattie, 1987.2 Reported in Kavale, 1988.
7How much time should students spend on homework? Too much HW may diminish its effectivenessThe amount of HW completed by students is more important than the amount assignedAfter-school and tutoring programs can improve behavior and motivation, but not necessarily academic achievement
8What types of homework are effective? Practice HWPreparation HWExtension HWIntegration HWOther – personal development, student-parent communication, peer interactionVery little research exists on connections between specific kinds of HW and student achievement
9What does it mean for us as teachers? Some research-based HW Guidelines:Assign Purposeful HW:New contentPracticing skillsDeepen knowledgeExplore interestsMaximize chances for completionAssign an appropriate amountResearch varies on whether teachers should comment on or grade every HW assignment
10“Educators should combine research-based generalizations, research from related areas, and their own professional judgment based on firsthand experience to develop specific practices and make adjustments as necessary…Educators can develop the most effective practices by observing changes in the achievement of the students with whom they work every day.”--Robert J. Marzano and Debra J. Pickering
11For small-group discussion Why do you assign HW?How does it assist you in assessing students?How do you think it assists students’ learning?