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By J. Fraser Mustard Founding President, CIAR Adelaide Thinker in Residence November 14, 2006 CANADA – Early Child Development and Parenting Centres DECS.

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Presentation on theme: "By J. Fraser Mustard Founding President, CIAR Adelaide Thinker in Residence November 14, 2006 CANADA – Early Child Development and Parenting Centres DECS."— Presentation transcript:

1 By J. Fraser Mustard Founding President, CIAR Adelaide Thinker in Residence November 14, 2006 CANADA – Early Child Development and Parenting Centres DECS Corporate Executive Team/District Directors Adelaide, South Australia

2 03-080 Health Learning Behaviour Experience-Based Brain Development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:


4 SIGNAL- SENDING NEURON RECIPIENT NEURON Synapse Dendrite Axon Two Neurons 04-039

5 Neal Halfon 04-212 Sound Vision Smell Touch Proprioception Taste


7 03-012 Synaptic Density Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997. At Birth6 Years Old14 Years Old

8 0 1 481216 AGE Human Brain Development – Synapse Formation Sensing Pathways (vision, hearing) Language Higher Cognitive Function 3 6 9 -3 -6 MonthsYears C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000. Conception 01-003

9 Emotional Stimulus PIT Cortisol CRF ACTH AmygdalaHippocampus Adrenal Cortex Hypothalamus PVN + + - - LeDoux, Synaptic Self 03-002

10 Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress Cortisol – Over Production Behaviour, depression, diabetes, malnutrition, cardiovascular disease, memory, immune system, drug and alcohol addiction Cortisol – Under Production Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, asthma 05-212

11 The Myth of the Bell Curve Genetics Nature versus nurture Genotype Phenotype - Epigenetics

12 04-144 Epigenetics and Brain Plasticity Experience and methylation of DNA Imprints environmental experiences on the fixed genome Maternal behaviour affects DNA methylation Can be transmitted to offspring

13 Epigenetics According to Dr. Szyf, epigenetic modifications in response to maternal care occur early after birth – critical period. The effects are stable and persist into adulthood. The Economist, p. 89, Sept 23, 2006 06-105

14 03-089 Serotonin Transporter Gene Experience in Early Life - Depression Age 26 No AbuseModerate AbuseSevere Abuse.30.50.70 A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301. Depression Risk LL SS SL S = Short Allele L = Long Allele Early Childhood

15 Summary of Brain Development Environment gene interaction Critical and sensitive periods in utero, infancy, and young children 06-127

16 Health Myths

17 01-010 "Follow up through life of successive samples of birth has pointed to the crucial influence of early life on subsequent mental and physical health and development." Acheson, Donald -,1998 Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health

18 Myths Behaviour

19 Antisocial Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Autism Depression 06-085 Early Development and Behaviour

20 01-012 Significant correlation with registered criminality (teenage) appeared for language development at 6, 18, and 24 months Early Learning and Criminal Behaviour Stattin, H. et al - 102; 369, 1993 Journal of Abnormal Psychology

21 02-011 Martin Teicher Scientific American, 2002 “The aftermath … [of poor early child development] can appear as depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts or post- traumatic stress – or as aggression, impulsiveness, delinquency, hyper- activity or substance abuse.” Behaviour

22 Language & Literacy Myths

23 Early Child Development and Language Starts early – first 12 months Sets capability for mastering multiple languages Sets literacy and language trajectory 04-200

24 Level 3 Considered minimum for coping with the demands of every day life and work in a complex advanced society. OECD, 2000 06-106

25 02-061 Document Literacy 1994 – 1998, Ages 16 to 65 Level 1 and 2 Level 4 and 5 Sweden Canada Australia United States Chile 23% 42% 43% 48% 85% 34.0% 23.0% 17.0% 18.0% 3.0% Mexico 84% 1.7% OECD

26 Socioeconomic Gradients for Document Literacy Scores OECD, 2000 06-114 Mean Scores Parents’ Education (years) 39571513111917 0 270 230 190 350 310 U.S. Canada Australia Sweden Finland Intern’l Mean

27 00-042 Sociocultural Gradients for Language Scores By Country Cuba Argentina Brazil Colombia Chile Parents' Education (Years) 14 8 12 16 200 240 280 320 360 Language Score Mexico

28 Abecedarian Study – Reading Age 8Age 12Age 15Age 21 Age at Testing 0 1.2 0.8 0.4 Effect Size Primary Grades PreschoolPreschool & Primary Grades 04-153

29 Trends in Percentages of Reading Performance Levels at Age 17 (1971-2004) % Level 250 +Level 300 +Level 350 NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress 05-165

30 Success by Ten Early Child Development Intervene early Intervene often Intervene effectively 06-001 Ludwig and Sawhill, Brookings Institution

31 99-103 ONTARIO What we envision will be a first "tier" program for early child development, as important as the elementary and secondary school system and the post-secondary education system. The system should consist of community-based centres operating at the local level within a provincial framework. Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study Government of Ontario

32 99-004 - 0 123456 parent-oriented child-oriented ECD and Experience-Based Brain Development age Components of Early Childhood Development and Parenting Centres: Universal – available, accessible, affordable and optional Parental and non-parental care Parent- and child-oriented Quality early child development environments Responsive relationships and parent involvement

33 00-098 CANADA ECD Programs Should be [First Ministers, September 11, 2000] Intersectoral Integrated Supportive of the child within family and community Include children of different abilities Children in different SES, cultural, and linguistic circumstances

34 00-134 CANADA - 2000 Recommendations a. Matching government grants for resource mobilization from all sectors of community - private, public, foundations (including parental fees) b. Tax credit for private sector initiatives to create ECD and parenting centres for employees and community c. Tax credit for pensioners to work in ECD centres

35 00-135 CANADA – 2000 Recommendations d. Extend parental leave & benefits to 1 year for all new parents e. Child tax credit f. Affordable to ALL families

36 00-136 CANADA - 2000 Recommendations To mobilize communities and build capacity, government funding must be incremental, predictable and sustained over the long term.

37 CANADA $5 Billion additional for Early Child Development – Year 2000 Another $2 Billion in 2002

38 QUAD versus Day Care Quality Universal Accessible Developmental 06-128 Government of Canada, 2002

39 Canada – New Government Harper cancelled funding - 2006. Mothers better than day care


41 03-085 Early Development Instrument (EDI) Physical health and well-being Communication skills and general knowledge Social knowledge and competence Emotional health/maturity Language and cognitive development

42 Percentage of Children in Kindergarten Scoring in Bottom 10% by District - Vancouver EDI, February 2000 02-065 15% 8.5% 21.5% 27.5% 34.5%

43 EDI Results – Vancouver Districts District Income EDI Results $ % scoring in bottom 10% 112,000-24,000 34.5 224,000-37,000 27.5 337,000-49,000 21.5 449,000-62,000 15.0 562,000-74,000 8.5 06-030

44 Vancouver Grade 4 and Grade 7 Tests Proportion of children failing to meet Grade 4 and Grade 7 test standards correlates strongly with proportion of children vulnerable on the EDI index at time of school entry. 05-113

45 Measuring Readiness for School Learning Percentage of students who scored in the lowest 10 th percentile in 2 or more domains Over 25% 04-053 Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003

46 Measuring Readiness for School Learning Fewer than 10% Percentage of students who scored in the lowest 10 th percentile in 2 or more domains 04-055 Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003

47 Grade 6 EQAO Assessment of Reading (01-02) Proportion of students who achieved level 3 or 4 Over 70% 04-069 Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003

48 Grade 6 EQAO Assessment of Reading (01-02) Proportion of students who achieved level 3 or 4 Fewer than 40% 04-067 Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003

49 AEDI - SA District % Vulnerable on One or More Domains Cooper Pedy29.4 Leigh Creek42.1 Port Augusta43.1 Roxby Downs15.6 Whyalla27.4 AEDI S.Australia 06-122

50 Toronto First Duty Establishing ECD-P Centres in five primary schools. Participants Toronto School Board Municipal Government Toronto Public Health Atkinson Foundation United Auto Workers Founders’ Network

51 Toronto First Duty Objective In 2002, five school-community partnerships became Toronto First Duty sites. They undertook to bring together the three early childhood streams of kindergarten, child care and family supports into a seamless service.

52 Toronto First Duty Goal The goal of Toronto First Duty is to develop a universally accessible service that promotes the healthy development of children from conception through kindergarten, while at the same time supporting parents to work or study and in their parenting role.

53 Toronto First Duty Lessons Learned Pioneered the integration of kindergarten, child care, family support and parenting Integration – fair Bruce School – prototype to further integration progress Application to Ontario Best Start Program

54 First Duty - Issues Different interpretation continues to dilute program. Separate funding, legislation and governance hampers building an integrated quality program. Staff training and equitable recognition and compensation. Child care regulation and fees. Quality of principals.

55 Role of School Principals Must understand factors influencing brain development and the integration of brain pathways. Play and problem-based learning integration of this understanding. Ensuring all staff from ages 0 to 12, understand brain development and human development in the early years.

56 Is Toronto First Duty a Success? Overall the researchers concluded that integrated professional supports improve the quality of early childhood programs and improve outcomes for all parents and children by engaging parents in the school and their child’s early learning and by supporting children’s social, emotional and academic readiness for school.

57 Council for Early Child Development Objective: To establish ECD and Parenting Centres linked to the school system, supported by all sectors of society, including government, that is universally available to all families with young children. 04-046

58 Early Child Development & Parenting Centres Putting Science Into Action In Communities Problem- based play Parental participation Resources for families Full-day, full-year options Nutrition Pre- and post-natal supports Early child development and parenting centre

59 Council for Early Child Development Chair – Charles Coffey Vice Chair – Robin Williams Vice Chair – Jim Grieve President – Stuart Shanker 401 Richmond St. W., Suite 277 Toronto, ON, M5V 3A8 Telephone: 416-849-1332 04-045

60 Breaking Myths University Disciplines and Neuroscience - Human Development Health Sciences Economics & Business Psychology Education Social Work History & Evolution Humanities

61 01-039 To download this presentation, go to: Slides - Slide Shows

62 References 1.From Early Child Development to Human Development. Editor: Mary Eming Young, World Bank, Washington, 2000. 2.Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. Joseph LeDoux, Viking Penguin, New York, 2003. 3.The End of Stress As We Know It. Bruce McEwen, Joseph Henry Press, Washington, 2002. 4.Developmental Health and the Wealth of Nations. Editors: Daniel P. Keating, Clyde Hertzman, The Guilford Press, New York, 1999. 5.From Neurons to Neighborhoods. The Science of Early Child Development. Editors: Jack P. Shonkoff and Deborah A. Phillips, National Academy Press, Washington, 2000. 6.Early Years Study, Final Report Reversing the Real Brain Drain. Hon. Margaret Norrie McCain and J. Fraser Mustard, Publications Ontario, Toronto,1999. References

63 7. Vulnerable Children. Editor: J. Douglas Willms, University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, 2002. 8. Readiness to Learn at School. Magdalena Janus and Dan Offord, In: Isuma (Canadian Journal of Policy Research) Vol. 1, No. 2, 2000. 9. Why are some people healthy and others not? Editors: Robert G. Evans et al, Aldine De Gruyter, New York, 1994. 10.The Early Years Study Three Years Later. Hon. Margaret Norrie McCain and J. Fraser Mustard, The Founders’ Network, 2002. 11.Choice for parents, the best start for children: a ten year strategy for childcare. Dept. for Education and Skills, HM Treasury. 12. Behaviour (Affect), Literacy, and Early Child Development. J. Fraser Mustard. Paper prepared for the 5 th International Encounter of Early Childhood. Monterrey, Mexico. 2005.

64 13. Early Child Development and Experience-based Brain Development: Implications for the Continuing Experiments in Civilization. J. Fraser Mustard. World Bank. Washington. (in press) 14. What the EDI Is (Not). Hillel Goelman and Clyde Hertzman. 2004. 15. The Balance Within. Esther Sternberg. W.H. Freeman. New York. 2000. 16. Healthier Societies: From Analysis to Action. Jody Heymann, Clyde Hertzman, Morris Barer and Robert Evans, Eds. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005. 17. ECD and Experience-based Brain Development: The Scientific Underpinnings of the Importance of Early Child Development in a Globalized World. J. Fraser Mustard. Washington: Brookings Institution. 2006. 18. Success by Ten. Jens Ludwig and Isabel Sawhill. Washington: Brookings Institution. 2006.

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