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4 What is plankton? Organisms that drift with the currents Mostly very small (1/1000 mm to 10 mm) Plants of the plankton are single-celled algae (phytoplankton) hair 50 µm chain of algae cells (diatom) flagellate algae

5 Large phytoplankton

6 Tiny phytoplankton

7 Microzooplankton

8 Larger zooplankton

9 Ware & Thomson 2005 Science 308

10 B. Anderson and D.J. Patterson Prochlorococc us

11 Lalli and Parsons

12 What is the amount (and rate) of production? What types of organisms are being produced? Why?

13 What is the amount (and rate) of production? What types of organisms are being produced? Why?

14 Amount (and rate) of production affected by: Resources: light, nutrients Consumption: removal by grazers

15 P Si N P N LIGHT NUTRIENTS Phytoplankton resources are partitioned by depth: N Fe

16 P Si N P N LIGHT NUTRIENTS Phytoplankton resources are partitioned by depth: N Fe Phyto can only grow where there is light

17 P Si N P N LIGHT NUTRIENTS Phytoplankton resources are partitioned by depth: N Fe Phyto can only grow where there is light Deep waters become enriched through sinking and decomposition of material produced at surface

18 Si P P N N Mixing changes availability of resources to phytoplankton: LIGHT NUTRIENTS N Fe

19 Lower density (warmer, fresher) Layering due to density differences (stratification) opposes mixing Higher density (colder, saltier)

20 Lower density (warmer, fresher) Layering due to density differences (stratification) opposes mixing Higher density (colder, saltier)

21 Lower density (warmer, fresher) Heating, precipitation, and runoff all contribute to lower density surface waters Higher density (colder, saltier)

22 Is mixing a good thing for phytoplankton? (Does it increase resource availability and growth rate?) ?

23 It depends...

24 Amount (and rate) of production affected by: Resources: light, nutrients Consumption: removal by grazers

25 Day 1 Daily production

26 Day 1 Daily production Daily consumption Day 2

27 What is the amount (and rate) of production? What types of organisms are being produced? Why?

28 Species produced are also affected by: Resources: light, nutrients Consumption: removal by grazers

29 SiO4 NO3 Nutrients: amount and ratios

30 SiO4 NO3 Nutrients: amount and ratios

31 Grazers: selective feeding Larger cells become dominant

32 Oceanographic processes affecting resource availability (and thus production) in our region: 1.Tides 2.Upwelling 3.River plumes 4.Estuarine circulation

33 Oceanographic processes: TIDES

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39 Oceanographic processes: UPWELLING

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41 Brings deep nutrients to surface

42 Oceanographic processes: UPWELLING Strongest in summer

43 Oceanographic processes: RIVER PLUMES Fraser

44 Oceanographic processes: RIVER PLUMES --suspended sediments can block light Fraser suspended sediments Mississippi plume

45 Oceanographic processes: RIVER PLUMES --fresh water reduces surface salinity, promotes stratification

46 Oceanographic processes: RIVER PLUMES --can bring nutrients into coastal ocean…

47 Oceanographic processes: RIVER PLUMES --but this depends on the watershed

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49 Can have nutrient depletion in bays and inlets with restricted flow: vulnerable to human inputs (sewage, fertilizer) Saanich Inlet, Vancouver Island

50 Estuarine circulation in the Salish Sea brings it all together

51 River discharge drives surface outflow

52 Estuarine circulation in the Salish Sea brings it all together Subsurface nutrients mixed up to surface at plume interface

53 Estuarine circulation in the Salish Sea brings it all together Inflow of nutrient-rich water from coastal upwelling

54 Estuarine circulation in the Salish Sea brings it all together Tides promote mixing over sills

55 Combined with seasonal increases in light, these sources of nutrients MAKE OUR WATERS GREEN


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