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Freedom of Speech.

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Presentation on theme: "Freedom of Speech."— Presentation transcript:

1 Freedom of Speech

2 Supreme Court has provided the strongest protection for pure speech.
Types of Speech Pure Speech can be Calm Passionate Private Public Supreme Court has provided the strongest protection. Supreme Court has provided the strongest protection for pure speech.

3 Types of Speech Symbolic Speech (can be “Expressive Conduct”) Actions
Symbols May include words Limited if public safety is endangered.

4 Types of Speech Examples of symbolic speech Flag burning
Draft Card burning Black arm bands

5 Freedom of Speech

6 When can government limit or regulate expressive conduct?
If the regulation is within the constitutional power of government. If the government has a substantial interest unrelated to suppression of speech. If there are ample alternative ways to communicate.

7 Examples of acceptable limits on expressive speech
Picketing in front of a private residence. Approaching people without consent to speak or offering literature to them within 100 feet of a health care facility (i.e., abortion clinic) An individual’s Right to Privacy will triumph over your Freedom of Speech.

8 Freedom of Speech The Flag Burning Amendment
never passed. Flag burning is an acceptable form of expression.

9 Regulating Speech Rebel NOW! Seditious speech is prohibited.
Urging resistance to lawful authority Advocating overthrow of the government Rebel NOW!

10 “Clear and Present Danger” Doctrine
Regulating Speech “Clear and Present Danger” Doctrine (in time of war, things may be different) “When a nation is at war many things that might be said in time of peace … will not be endured …” Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (1919) 1.

11 Example: Yelling “Fire” in a crowded theater.
Regulating Speech 2. “Bad Tendency” Doctrine Example: Yelling “Fire” in a crowded theater.

12 Regulating Speech 3. Primacy of Position “Preferred Position” Doctrine
(1st Amendment freedoms are more fundamental than other freedoms) The government must show that it is absolutely necessary to limit Freedom of Speech. Primacy of Position

13 Regulating Speech Sedition Laws Dennis v. United States (1951)
Court upheld conviction of 11 communist party leaders who advocated revolution. Middle of McCarthy's "Red Scare"

14 Regulating Speech Sedition Laws Yates v. United States (1957)
Court overturned convictions of several communist party leaders. Expressing an opinion that the government should be overthrown is different from urging people to take action. "Red Scare" was over

15 Regulating Speech Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) Court ruled in favor of a Ku Klux Klan leader. While he advocated use of force in general, he did not urge “immediate and concrete acts of violence” against a specific target.

16 Other Forms of Unprotected Speech
Defamatory Speech False speech that damages a person’s good name, character, or reputation. Slander – Spoken Libel – Written

17 Other Forms of Unprotected Speech
For slander and libel the key is: Was the statement made with the knowledge that it was false? OR 2. Was the statement made with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not? (A newspaper must verify its sources.)

18 Other Forms of Unprotected Speech
NOTE: For public officials or public figures (pastors, athletes, entertainers, etc.) the rules can be very different. These kinds of people thrive on public notice or notoriety.

19 Other Forms of Unprotected Speech
Fighting Words Offensive, derisive, annoying, etc. Words that “by their very utterance inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace.”

20 Fighting Words

21 Student Speech is Limited
Know this case! Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969) Students do not give up their rights to free speech while in school. (Students won.) HOWEVER … Students were wearing black arm bands in opposition to Vietnam War. Mary Beth and John Tinker (sister 13, brother 15)

22 Student Speech is Limited
Know this case! Bethel School District v. Fraser (1986) School districts may suspend students for lewd or indecent speech at school events, even though the same speech would be protected outside the school. School officials can decide what manner of speech is appropriate. At a school assembly / election, student gave a sexually suggestive campaign speech.

23 Student Speech is Limited
Know this case! The Supreme Court says that schools have broad authority to regulate student speech in school-sponsored newspapers, theatrical productions, and other activities. These things are “part of the curriculum,” not an individual’s personal expression of thought. Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier (1988) Principal stopped publication of a student newspaper with an article about abortion.

24 Student Speech is Limited
Therefore, the school could legally prohibit: Productions of “Hair” or “Equus” (plays with nudity) or “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Wolf” (foul language) or “Rent” (gay characters and drug use). School newspaper articles about abortion, politics, or religion (would probably offend somebody). Student speeches or acts with inappropriate language or topics (comedy club type routines). The school newspaper, plays, talent shows, etc. are intended to train students to work in those areas (i.e., “part of the curriculum”).

25 Assignment Instead of Political Articles for next week - - -
Write an analysis of the Supreme Court’s positions on student’s speech rights. Quote from Tinker, Kuhlmeier, & Fraser but don’t just copy-&-paste. (Find Fraser’s speech, etc.) Must be: Typed, single spaced, 12 point font Minimum of 2 full pages Cite your sources on a separate page at the end. Due Date: Tuesday, October 13 (after 4 day break) Weight: One test grade

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