Species That Commonly Regenerate from New Seedlings Established after Disturbance Yellow-poplar Sweet birch Yellow birch Black cherry Yellow pines
Species that must be present before disturbance and persist through disturbance Red oak White oak Chestnut oak Scarlet oak Black oak Pignut hickory Mockernut hickory Bitternut hickory Other hickories White ash Basswood Red maple Sugar maple Buckeye Hemlock Blackgum Dogwood Silverbell
Smith (1962) Any classification of methods of reproduction is merely a device for systematizing description of the wide variety of procedures which have been used in practice. Development of methods effective in specific situations comes first in both time and importance; the classification of these methods comes afterwards.
Seed Tree Method The cutting of all trees except for a small number of widely dispersed trees retained for seed production and to produce a new age class in a fully exposed microenvironment.
Shelterwood Method The cutting of most trees, leaving those needed to produce sufficient shade to produce a new age class in a moderated microenvironment---the sequence of treatments can include (a) preparatory cut, (b) establishment cut, (c) removal cut
Oak Shelterwood Method Before treatment 1 year after treatment 10 years after treatment
Two-aged Methods Methods that regenerate and maintain stands with two age classes. The resulting stand may be two-aged or tend toward an uneven-aged condition as a consequence of both an extended period of regeneration and the retention of reserve trees that may represent one or more age classes.
Two-aged Methods Clearcutting with reserves Shelterwood with reserves
Clearcutting with reserves Clearcutting in which varying numbers of reserve trees are not harvested to attain goals other than regeneration.
Shelterwood with reserves Some or all of the shelter trees are retained after regeneration has become established to attain goals other than regeneration