Presentation on theme: "Species That Commonly Regenerate from New Seedlings Established after Disturbance Yellow-poplar Sweet birch Yellow birch Black cherry Yellow."— Presentation transcript:
Species That Commonly Regenerate from New Seedlings Established after Disturbance Yellow-poplar Sweet birch Yellow birch Black cherry Yellow pines
Species that must be present before disturbance and persist through disturbance Red oak White oak Chestnut oak Scarlet oak Black oak Pignut hickory Mockernut hickory Bitternut hickory Other hickories White ash Basswood Red maple Sugar maple Buckeye Hemlock Blackgum Dogwood Silverbell
RRANKING OF EXPECTED POST HARVEST PERFORMANCE 11 Yellow poplar-SP; black cherry-SP; black locust-SP; basswood-SP 22 Red maple-SP; sugar maple-SP; silverbell-SP; Fraser magnolia-SP; cucumber-SP; ash-SP; birch- SP; white pine-L; yellow poplar-L; black cherry-L; birch-L 33 Basswood-L; yellow poplar-M; black cherry-M; birch-M; silverbell-L; Fraser magnolia-L 44 Oak-SP; oak-L; ash-L; red maple-L; cucumber-L; hickory-SP; dogwood-SP; sourwood-SP; blackgum-SP; beech-SP; buckeye-SP; yellow poplar-S; birch-S; black cherry-S; sugar maple-L; hemlock-L; white pine-M 55 Yellow poplar-SE; black cherry-SE; birch-SE; oak-M; basswood-M; ash-M; red maple-M; silverbell- M; Fraser magnolia-M; cucumber-M; white oak-SP; hickory-L; dogwood-L; sourwood-L; blackgum- L; beech-L; buckeye-L; fire cherry-SE; sugar maple-M 66 Hickory-M; white oak-M; sourwood-M; blackgum-M; beech-M; buckeye-M; hemlock-M; white pine-S 77 Oak-S; ash-S; basswood-S; silverbell-S; Fraser magnolia-S; red maple-S; dogwood-M 88 White oak-S; hickory-S; dogwood-S; sourwood-S; blackgum-S; beech-S; buckeye-S; hemlock-S SSP= stump sprout; L=large advance reproduction (> 4 ft 2 ft <4 ft); S=small advance reproduction (<2 ft); SE=new seedlings established after harvest.
Smith (1962) Any classification of methods of reproduction is merely a device for systematizing description of the wide variety of procedures which have been used in practice. Development of methods effective in specific situations comes first in both time and importance; the classification of these methods comes afterwards.
Clearcutting Method The cutting of essentially all trees, producing a fully-exposed microclimate for the development of a new age class
Seed Tree Method The cutting of all trees except for a small number of widely dispersed trees retained for seed production and to produce a new age class in a fully exposed microenvironment.
Shelterwood Method The cutting of most trees, leaving those needed to produce sufficient shade to produce a new age class in a moderated microenvironment---the sequence of treatments can include (a) preparatory cut, (b) establishment cut, (c) removal cut
Oak Shelterwood Method Before treatment 1 year after treatment 10 years after treatment
Two-aged Methods Methods that regenerate and maintain stands with two age classes. The resulting stand may be two-aged or tend toward an uneven-aged condition as a consequence of both an extended period of regeneration and the retention of reserve trees that may represent one or more age classes.
Two-aged Methods Clearcutting with reserves Shelterwood with reserves
Clearcutting with reserves Clearcutting in which varying numbers of reserve trees are not harvested to attain goals other than regeneration.
Shelterwood with reserves Some or all of the shelter trees are retained after regeneration has become established to attain goals other than regeneration
20 ft 2 /ac Two-aged Method
Uneven-aged (selection) Methods Methods that regenerate and maintain a multi-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly, in small groups, or in strips
Group selection Trees are removed and new age classes are established in small groups. The width of the groups is commonly approximately twice the height of the mature trees
Group selection with reserves Some trees within the group are not cut to attain goals other than regeneration
Single tree selection Individual trees of all size classes are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand, to promote growth of remaining trees and to provide space for regeneration