Presentation on theme: "Shelley Leavitt, Ph.D. Institute for Family Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Shelley Leavitt, Ph.D. Institute for Family Development The HOMEBUILDERS® Model: What We Have Learned Over the Last Thirty YearsShelley Leavitt, Ph.D.Institute for Family Development
2What is Homebuilders?Homebuilders is an intensive in-home family treatment program designed to keep children and families safe and prevent the unnecessary out of home placement of children, and to safely reunify children and families.
3Homebuilders Program Philosophy It is best for children to be raisedin their own families wheneverpossible.
4Applications of the Homebuilders Model Placement PreventionReunificationAdoption and Long-Term Foster Care Stabilization
5Program Model Intervention Activities Program Structure Values and Beliefs
6Homebuilders Program Structure: Values Based Orientation The Homebuilders model is based on a clearly articulated set of values and beliefs, which guides program design and staff behavior.
7Homebuilders Values and Beliefs Safety is our highest priorityWe cannot predict which situations are most amenable to changeA crisis is an opportunity to changeIt is our job to motivate clients and instill hopeFamily members are our partnersWe can make life worse for families
8Homebuilders Values and Beliefs (Continued) Children can be brought up in different kinds of familiesPeople are doing the best they canIt is our basic job to empower family membersIt is helpful for us and the family to think of ourselves as “personal scientists”It is important to minimize barriers to service
9Homebuilders Program Components Program Components are designed to minimize barriers to service:Focus on a Specific Target Population- Children at imminent risk of out of home placement and children in placement who are at the point of reunificationImmediate Availability and Response to Referrals- Referrals are accepted 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The Homebuilders therapist meets with the family as soon as possible and no later than 24 hours after the referral is received
10Homebuilders Program Components Services Provided in the Natural Environment –Primarily in the home and in the community where the problems occurIntensive Services – Average of 8-10 face to face hours/weekBrevity of Services – Average of 4-6 weeks; extensions and booster sessionsLow Caseload – Average 2 families
11Homebuilders Program Components Twenty-Four Hour a Day Availability to Clients – Primary therapist and supervisor available to families 24/7Single Therapist Operating within a Team - Assures consistency, enhances engagement, minimizes duplication of services and increases accountability
12Homebuilders Program Components Supervision and Consultation – Supervisor available 24/7; weekly individual and group consultationAccountability – Goal oriented interventions, evaluations of outcomes, family and referring worker feedbackOngoing Training and Quality Enhancement (QUEST)
13Homebuilders Intervention Activity: Promoting Safety Throughout the intervention, the therapist assesses child, family, therapist and community safety and develops safety plans, structures the environment and uses clinical strategies to promote safety.
14Homebuilders Intervention Activity: Individually Tailored Services Services and teaching strategies are “tailored” to the family’s needs, goals, values, learning styles and specific circumstances. The therapist flexibly schedules sessions with family members, based on the family’s schedule and situation.
15Homebuilders Intervention Activity: Engagement and Motivation Enhancement The therapist develops and maintains a positive, collegial working relationship with family members and assumes responsibility for motivating the family.
16Homebuilders Intervention Activity: Comprehensive Assessment The therapist conducts a behaviorally specific, interactive, ongoing, and holistic assessment, which includes information on family strengths, problems, needs, values, skills and potential barriers to goal attainment.
17Homebuilders Intervention Activity: Goal Setting and Service Planning The therapist collaborates with family members and referring workers in developing behaviorally specific, attainable intervention goals and service/treatment plans.
18Homebuilders Intervention Activity: Cognitive and Behavioral Approach The Homebuilders therapist utilizes research-based cognitive and behavioral intervention strategies to facilitate behavior change in children, youth and parents/caregivers.
19Homebuilders Intervention Activity: Teaching and Skill Development The therapist uses a variety of teaching methods including role playing, coaching, direct teaching, work sheets, audio/visual materials and homework to help family members learn and use new skills.
20Homebuilders Intervention Activity: Provision of Concrete Services The therapist advocates for and provides concrete good and services including transportation, food, clothing and accessing funds to pay for rent, utilities etc, which are directly related to achieving the family’s goals.
21Homebuilders Intervention Activity: Collaboration and Advocacy The therapist collaborates and advocates with formal and informal community resources and systems while teaching family members to advocate and access services and supports for themselves.
22Homebuilders Intervention Activity: Transition and Service Closure Prior to the conclusion of services, the therapist and family assess goal attainment, plan for the maintenance of progress, and collaborate with the referring worker and other organizations and resources to address ongoing service needs.
23Development and Expansion of the Homebuilders Model 1974 – Program began in Washington state1978 – 1994 Homebuilders expanded statewide in Washington1987 – 1990 Homebuilders project inNew York City
24Dissemination of the Homebuilders Model National Dissemination begins 1988New Jersey – First state to attempt replicationDisseminated in 40 states including: Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania and Washington
25International Dissemination of the Homebuilders Model International Dissemination – Since 1990Australia, Belgium (Flanders), Bermuda, Canada, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Portugal and the United Kingdom.
26Changes/Enhancements to the Intervention Model Focus on “Critical Thinking” and a “Reflective Practice Framework”Use of Motivational Interviewing StrategiesIncorporation of the NCFAS/NCFAS-R into the assessment, goal setting and service/treatment planning processGreater focus on Functional Analysis of Behavior
27Reflective Practice Model Personal FrameworkPlanningImplementationAssessmentEvaluation/Outcome
28North Carolina Family Assessment Scale (NCFAS/NCFAS-R) NCFAS: Assessment of family functioning on 5 domains of interestEnvironmentParental CapabilitiesFamily InteractionsFamily SafetyChild Well-BeingNCFAS-R: includes all of NCFAS plus two additional domains unique to reunificationAmbivalenceReadiness for Reunification
30Changes/Enhancements to the Program Development Process Comprehensive Training for Therapists and SupervisorsSite Development Process: Program Start-up and Ongoing Consultation ProcessHomebuilders Standards and Fidelity Measures
32Homebuilders Training: 2008 Homebuilders Core Curriculum (4-5 Days)Working with Drug Affected Clients: Motivational Interviewing and Relapse Prevention (3 days)Assessment and Outcome-based Goal Setting (2 Days)Implementing Cognitive and Behavioral Interventions (2 Days)
33Homebuilders Training: 2008 Improving Decision Making through Critical Thinking (2 Days)Domestic Violence: Strategies for In-Home Practitioners (2 Days)Working with Parents with Cognitive Limitations (1 Day)Issues in Reunification (1 Day)Ethical Issues for In-Home Practitioners (1 Day)
34Homebuilders Training for Supervisors: 2008 Core Curriculum for Homebuilders Supervisors (3-4 Days)Program Consultation and Quality Assurance Skills for Homebuilders Supervisors (2-3 Days)
35Program Development and Implementation Strategies Program replication in Washington State and New York City: Homebuilders staff relocate to start new programsProgram development across the United States: Development of “site development” strategies and process
36Site Development Strategies Program start up TA and consultationInitial and ongoing trainingWeekly telephone consultationClient record reviewsQuarterly on-site consultation visits including observations of home visits and team consultation
37Fidelity Measures: Immediate Availability and Response to Referrals Indicator: Provider agency does not maintain a waiting list.Performance Measure: When provider agency has an announced opening, eligible referrals are assigned to a therapist on the day of referral.Indicator: Therapists meet with families within 24 hours of referral.Performance Measure: 75% of families receive their first face-to-face visit within 24 hours of referral; 85% of families receive their first face-to-face visit no later than the end of the day after the referral. If intake is NOT achieved within 24 hours, 95% of those records document the reason for not achieving this standard as being due to the family’s
38Fidelity Measures: Promoting Safety Indicator: Family safety is increased during the interventionPerformance Measures:When there is a threat of self-harm, child abuse or neglect, or physical violence between family members, 100% of interventions include a safety plan and, if applicable, a service goal to address the threat; in all cases when serious safety concerns exist, therapists maintain frequent contact with family members (at least daily; more if indicated); therapists strategically schedule sessions at times when there is increased potential for problem behavior to occur; therapists respond to crisis situations on a 24/7 basis.
39Fidelity Measures: Promoting Safety Indicator: Family safety is increased during the interventionPerformance Measures: When the NCFAS family safety domain is rated below baseline at intake, at least 80% of interventions show an increased rating in this domain at service closure; on the Homebuilders Referent Feedback Survey, therapists receive an average rating of 4.0 or higher on the question: “How satisfied were you that the therapist adequately addressed safety issues?”
40Fidelity Measures: Comprehensive Assessment Indicator: The therapist completes a comprehensive written assessment.Performance Measures: Therapist completes a functional analysis of behavior; therapist completes the NCFAS/NCFAS-R; therapist gathers information in a variety of ways from various sources; family assessments include information about family strengths, values, skills, problems, needs and barriers to goal attainment.
41Fidelity Measures: Cognitive and Behavioral Approach Indicator: The therapist applies cognitive and behavioral principles and evidence-based strategies to facilitate behavior change.Performance Measures: Therapist uses behaviorally specific, value neutral language to describe problems and strengths. Therapist helps family members understand how behaviors are affected by antecedents, consequences, past learning, life experiences, culture, and other factors. Therapist uses evidence-based behavioral strategies with families to increase and/or decrease behavior. Therapist helps families learn how to utilize behavioral strategies to increase, decrease or teach new behaviors to their children. Therapist use evidence-based cognitive strategies with families to effect change.
42Program Evaluation and Outcome Measures North Carolina Family Assessment Scale (NCFAS/NCFAS-R)Behavior Change MeasuresPlacement Prevention/Reunification RatesCPS/CAN Re-referralsConsumer/Family SatisfactionReferring Worker Satisfaction
43Results of Meta Analysis of Homebuilders Model Review and analysis of all rigorous evaluations of Intensive Family Preservation Services (IFPS) programs. WSIPP sorted these evaluations based on fidelity to the Homebuilders model.Findings• IFPS programs that adhered closely to the Homebuilders model significantly reduced out-of-home placements and subsequent abuse and neglect. Estimated that such programs produce $2.54 of benefits for each dollar of cost.• Non-Homebuilders programs produced no significant effect on either outcome.Summary from “Intensive Family Preservation Programs: Program Fidelity Influences Effectiveness”, February,
44Evaluations Demonstrating Fidelity to Homebuilders Model Blythe, B. & S. Jayaratne. (2002, March 22). Michigan Families First effectiveness study.<http://www.michigan.gov/printerFriendly/0,1687, ,00.html>, accessed 02/07/06.Feldman, L.H. (1991, December). Assessing the effectiveness of family preservation services in New Jersey within an ecological context. Trenton, NJ: Bureau of Research, Evaluation and Quality Assurance, Division of Youth and Family Services, Department of Human Services.Fraser, M.W., E. Walton, R.E. Lewis, P.J. Pecora, & W.K. Walton (1996). An experiment in family reunification: Correlates of outcomes at one-year follow-up. Children and Youth Services Review 18(4/5): Note: This program is also evaluated by E. Walton (1998).Mitchell, C., P. Tovar, & J. Knitzer (1989). The Bronx Homebuilders Program: An evaluation of the first 45 families. New York: Bank Street College of Education.Walton, E. (1998). In-home family-focused reunification: A six-year follow-up of a successful experiment. Social Work Research 22(4): Note: This program is also evaluated by M.W. Fraser et al. (1996).
45Rigorous Experimental Study Blythe & Jayaratne (2002)High-risk families (court had approved child removal), true random assignment IFPS or traditional services (including foster care)At 6 months94% of IFPS children at home/relative34% of non-IFPS children at home orwith relativeAt 12 months93% of IFPS children at home/relative43 % of non-IFPS children at home or with relative
46Research: Random Assignment Studies Blythe, B. & Jayaratne, S. (2002). Michigan Families First Effectiveness Study. Retrieved April 24, 2006 from• 81% of treatment group avoided placement. • 51% to 61% of comparison group avoided placement.Fraser, M., Walton, E., Lewis, R., Pecora, P., & Walton, W. (1996). An experiment in family reunification services: Correlates of outcomes at one year follow up. Children and Youth Services Review, 18 (4/5):• 92% of the treatment group returned home. • 28% of the control group returned home.Feldman, L.H. (1991, December). Assessing the effectiveness of family preservation services in New Jersey within an ecological context. Trenton, NJ: Bureau of Research, Evaluation and Quality Assurance, Division of Youth and Family Services, Department of Human Services.• 57% of the treatment group avoided placement.• 43% of the control group avoided placement.
47Research: Comparison Group Studies Fraser, M. W., Pecora, P.J., & Haapala, D.A. (Eds.). (1991). Families in Crisis: The Impact of Intensive Family Preservation Services. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.• 71% of WA treatment group; and 62% of UT treatment group avoided placement.• 15% of comparison group avoided placement.Mitchell, C., Tovar, P., & Knitzer, J. (1989). The Bronx Homebuilders program: An evaluation of the first 45 families. New York: Bank Street College of Education.• 74% of the treatment group avoided placement• 65% of the control group avoided placement.Wood, S., Barton, K., & Schroeder, C. (1988). In-home treatment of abusive families: Cost and placement at one year. Psychotherapy 24(3),• 74% of the treatment group avoided placement.• 45% of the control group avoided placement.
48Research: Statistical Control Group Kirk, R.S. & Griffith, D.P. (2004). Intensive family preservation services: Demonstrating placement prevention using event history analysis. Social Work Research 28(1), 5-15.• 81% of treatment group avoided placement.• 51% to 61% of comparison group avoided placement.
49What We Have LearnedImplementation of the Homebuilders Model isn’t easy and program development takes time and resourcesPublic and private agency support are critical to successful program implementationPayment systems can support or hinder successful implementationOngoing training, consultation and quality enhancement are essential to long term success
50What We Have LearnedStaff selection is critical – there must be a “job fit”Supervisors are a key to successful implementationA focus on maintenance of changes is critical – no program can be successful without other community supports and resourcesSuccessful programs can easily be dismantled or dilutedOngoing research is needed and difficult to accomplish
51Keys to Successful Program Development and Implementation Obtain wide-spread supportEnsure adequate funding and effective payment systemsChoose provider agencies with congruent values, policies and capabilities to provide needed support to program staffDevelop effective referral pathways and processes to ensure that adequate and appropriate referrals are madeProvide on-going training and consultation to public and private agency staffCollect and review program implementation and outcome data and focus on quality enhancement
52Other Changes Over the Past 30 Years Technology – cell phones, internet, web-based client paperwork system phones, client computers, , text messaging etcGas Prices – more costly to provide in-home servicesInterest, acceptance and encouragement of program modelsGreater interest in research and evaluationWork force changes
53To learn more…. Visit our website at www.institutefamily.org Call us atus: Shelley Leavitt –