2Safeguarding Children Child Health Promotion May 2014Safeguarding ChildrenAllison Waddell Workforce Development Officer Calderdale Safeguarding Children BoardJulie WarburtonNamed Nurse- SafeguardingCalderdale and Huddersfield Foundation Trust
3The Legal Framework Children’s Act 1989/2004 – Duty to safeguard and promote the welfare ofchildrenThe welfare of the child is the paramountconsiderationParents never lose parental responsibilityfor their child (unless their child is adopted)The child’s wishes should be taken into consideration(Gillick principle-Fraser competency)Every Child Matter Agenda states that all childrendeserve the opportunity to achieve their potentialPrivate Fostering arrangements
7Facts & figures Live with known domestic abuse in the home Children killed every year as a result of abuseParents have problematic drug use11 million children in EnglandParents have mental health problemsLive with parents thought to misuse alcohol
9The Common Assessment Framework Eileen Munroe (Working Together 2013) – Early Help – providing help as soon as a problem emergesRelies on local agencies to work together to:identify children and families who would benefit from early help;undertake an assessment of the need for early help;provide targeted services to address needs of child and family which focuses on activity to significantly improve the outcomes for the child
10The Common Assessment Framework Requires parental consent to refer.Intended to support families so that problems don’t escalate.
11Concept of Child in Need ( S17. Children Act 1989) “he is unlikely to achieve or maintain, or to have the opportunity of achieving or maintaining, a reasonable standard of health or development without the provision for him of services by a local authority.Or“his health or development is likely to be significantly impaired, or further impaired without the provision for him of such services.A disabled child
12Significant HarmSignificant Harm is any Physical, Sexual, or Emotional Abuse, Neglect, accident or injury that is sufficiently serious to adversely affect progress and enjoyment of life. Harm is defined as the ill treatment or impairment of health and development.There are no absolute criteria on which to rely when judging what constitutes significant harm. Sometimes a single violent episode may constitute significant harm but more often it is an accumulation of significant events, both acute and longstanding, which interrupt, damage or change the child’s development. (CSCB procedures)
13Significant harm - consider The nature of harm in terms of maltreatment or failure to provide adequate careThe impact on the child’s health & developmentThe child’s development within the context of their family & wider environment
14Significant harm - consider Any special needs such as medical condition, communication impairment or disability, that may affect the child's development & care within the familyThe capacity of parents to meet adequately the child’s needs; andThe wider & environmental family context
15Toxic trioSubstance misuse, mental ill health and domestic violence may co-exist agencies should understand that this may increase the risk of harm to children.
16Child Protection Provisions Part 5 of Children Act 1989 Section 47 Local Authority Duty To InvestigateGrounds: Local Authority has reasonable cause to suspect that a child who lives in area is suffering or likely to suffer from significant harm.Duty: The Authority shall make, or cause to be made, such enquiries as they consider necessary to enable them to decide whether they should take any action to safeguard or promote the child’s welfare.
17Characteristics of the Child 36% < 1 year old, 29% 1-5 years old65% < 5 years oldAdolescents -15% suicideHealth needs i.e. prematurity, disabilityInvisible i.e. large family, assumption that they were being seen by someone elseEmotionally rejected
18Characteristics of the Family Hard to help, chaotic, overwhelmedFrequent movesIsolatedDomestic abuse 63%Mental health problems 58%Substance misuse 42%All three ‘Toxic trio’ 22%
19Continued Young parents Parental learning disability Poor living conditionsPresence/role of men in householdsDisguised compliance
20Characteristics of the Professionals Lack of ‘respectful uncertainty’, or ‘healthy scepticism’ Fixed viewsLow expectations/accommodationStart again syndromeMen ‘off the radar’/focus on mumLack of child focusPoor communication/ joint workingThreshold wrangles
21What to do if you’re not sure Observe and record your findingsCheck against your NICE guidelines, information bookletContact your local NHS Safeguarding team for advice.Contact your local Children’s Social Care team to discuss the referral.
224 key principles for making assessments Focus on the childRecognise that the adult’s management of their own life is a good indicator of their ability to look after a childThe best predictor of future behaviour is past behaviourInformation from more than one source is better than information from one.(Forrester 2004)
23What to do if you believe a child has been abused Observe and record your findingsContact your local Children’s Social Care teamAdvise the parents of your actions unless safety or a criminal investigation would be jeapordisedOut of hours contact EDTIn an emergency contact the Police
24Information Sharing Children’s Act 1989 (section 1.1) Welfare of the child is paramountChildren’s Act 1989 (section 1.1)Crime and Disorder Act 1998 (section 115) gives public and statutory bodies the power to disclose information to prevent crime and disorderHM government (2008)Information sharing guidance for practitioners & managers
257 golden rules for information sharing Remember that Data Protection Act is not a barrier to sharing informationBe open & honest from the outset re why, what & with whom sharingSeek advice if in doubtShare with consent where appropriateConsider safety & well beingNecessary, proportionate, relevant, accurate, timely & secureKeep a record of decision & rationale for sharing
26Serious Case ReviewsWhen a child dies and abuse or neglect is known or suspected a SCR will be undertakenSCR’s will also be considered if:a child suffers serious injury through suspected abuseor neglecta child has been subject to serious sexual abusea child has been killed by a parent with a mental illnessthe case gives rise to concerns about interagency workingThe purpose of the review is to identify lessons to be learned.It is not an inquiry into how the child died or who is responsible, that remains a matter for the Coroners and criminal courts.
27Updating AssessmentsEffective Information SharingEffective Inter-agency CollaborationUnderstanding roles & responsibilities
28LSCB Responsibilities KSCB www.kirklees.gov.uk/safeguardingchildren CSCBResponsibilitiesPolicies/ProceduresPlanning servicesMonitoring effectiveness of safeguardingTrainingSCR’sChild death review panelsSafety and welfare of children who areprivately fostered
29Key Messages The welfare of the child is paramount Safeguarding the welfare of all children is a collaborative, multi agency activityIt’s everybody’s responsibilityIf you are concerned, and unsure how to proceed, ASK!!Ensure that you know where to go for advice
30Never everdoNothingRemember: Your information may only be part of the puzzle, but it may be crucial to completing the whole pictureGPEducationMidwifePoliceMental HealthThe PublicHealth VisitorSchool NurseCHILDHousingVoluntary sectorPoliceFamilyAcute Health StaffHealthEducationSocial CareCareServicesYourInformationHousingPublic