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THE WELFARE OF ANIMALS IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS David Fraser Animal Welfare Program University of British Columbia General Principles and Underlying Research.

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Presentation on theme: "THE WELFARE OF ANIMALS IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS David Fraser Animal Welfare Program University of British Columbia General Principles and Underlying Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE WELFARE OF ANIMALS IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS David Fraser Animal Welfare Program University of British Columbia General Principles and Underlying Research

2 General principles for the welfare of animals in livestock production systems

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4 1. Genetic selection should always take into account the health and welfare of animals.

5 Traditional genetics genetics Production gains (growth, yield, reproduction)

6 Traditional genetics genetics Animal welfare Animal welfare research research Production gains (growth, yield, reproduction) Correlated health effects Fit between genetics and environment

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8 mastitis lameness metabolic disorders short life span

9 mastitis lameness metabolic disorders short life span

10 Solutions: broader selection indicesbroader selection indices counter-selectioncounter-selection use of indigenous geneticsuse of indigenous genetics

11 2. The physical environment, including the substrate (walking surface, resting surface etc.), should be suited to the species and breed, so as to minimise risk of injury and transmission of diseases or parasites to animals.

12 Ragnar Tauson

13 foot lesions foot lesions neck lesions neck lesions feather damage feather damage overgrown claws overgrown claws

14 Ingvar Ekesbo, c. 1972

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16 3. The physical environment should allow comfortable resting, comfortable resting, safe and comfortable movement including safe and comfortable movement including normal postural changes, and normal postural changes, and the opportunity to perform types of natural the opportunity to perform types of natural behaviour that animals are motivated to perform behaviour that animals are motivated to perform

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19 Suck + Frequent Meals

20 stimulates digestive stimulates digestive hormones hormones

21 Suck + Frequent Meals stimulates digestive stimulates digestive hormones hormones greater intake greater intake

22 Suck + Frequent Meals stimulates digestive stimulates digestive hormones hormones greater intake greater intake allows group housing allows group housing

23 4. Social grouping of animals should be managed to allow positive social behaviour and minimise injury, distress and chronic fear.

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25 Photo: Ingemar Hansson Mounting by intact males kept in groups of similar age

26 High Low F. Brouns & S.A. Edwards, Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 39: 225–235 Body weight gain of sows (kg) High Low

27 5. Air quality, temperature and humidity in confined spaces should support good animal health and not be aversive to animals. Where extreme conditions occur, animals should not be prevented from using their natural methods of thermo-regulation.

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29 Ammonia Deaths (%) Reduction in body wt (%) 0 ppm ppm ppm ppm Performance of broiler chickens D.M. Miles et al. 2004, Poultry Science 83:

30 Other issues: Poor air quality can increase the risk of Poor air quality can increase the risk of infectious diseases infectious diseases Hot, humid conditions can suppress Hot, humid conditions can suppress growth, reproduction and survival growth, reproduction and survival

31 6. Animals should have access to sufficient feed and water, suited to the animals’ age and needs to maintain normal health and productivity, & to maintain normal health and productivity, & to prevent prolonged hunger, thirst, to prevent prolonged hunger, thirst, malnutrition or dehydration. malnutrition or dehydration.

32 TraditionalNutrition Diet composition (protein, energy, micro-nutrients)

33 TraditionalNutrition Animal welfare Animal welfareresearch Diet composition (protein, energy, micro-nutrients) Access to feed and water Effects of feeding systems

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36 Franklin Loew

37 Polioencephalomalacia in cattle

38 Other problems: rumen acidosis from high-grain diets rumen acidosis from high-grain diets for cattle for cattle behavioural abnormalities from behavioural abnormalities from low-fibre diets for pigs or horses low-fibre diets for pigs or horses poor feeder and drinker design poor feeder and drinker design

39 7. Diseases and parasites should be prevented and controlled as much as possible through good management practices. Animals with serious health problems should be isolated and treated promptly or killed humanely if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely.

40 Preventive veterinary medicine / Animal hygiene individual treatment individual treatment hygiene practices hygiene practices disease barriers disease barriers regional and global programs regional and global programs

41 Illustration: Jan Shearer, Iowa State University

42 8. Where painful procedures cannot be avoided, the resulting pain should be managed to the extent that available methods allow.

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44 N.J. Petrie et al N.Z. vet. J. 44: 9-14

45 Other research has led to: less painful alternatives less painful alternatives elimination of certain procedures elimination of certain procedures

46 9. The handling of animals should foster a positive relationship between humans and animals and should not cause injury, panic, lasting fear or avoidable stress.

47 Paul Hemsworth

48 VariableCorrelation P P Avoidance of handler <0.01 <0.01 Cortisol in milk <0.01 <0.01 Yearly milk yield <0.01 <0.01 Hemsworth et al J. Anim. Sci. 78: Negative handling of dairy cows: slaps, hits, pushes, tail-twists

49 Based on Hemsworth and Coleman, 1998 Negative handling Chronic fear Reduced: - Growth - Reproduction - Immune competence Classic stress response

50 Based on Hemsworth and Coleman, 2011 Negative handling Chronic fear Reduced: - Growth - Reproduction - Immune competence Classic stress response Selection, Training

51 10. Owners and handlers should have sufficient skill and knowledge to ensure that animals are treated in accordance with these principles.

52 Selection and training of staff can: ● avoid the cascade of fear, stress and its effects on performance effects on performance ● allow animals to be moved without injury ● eliminate most use of electric prods and other fear-producing equipment other fear-producing equipment

53 Animal welfare, animal husbandry, veterinary science

54 Animal Husbandry ● Feeding ● Breeding ● Health care ● Handling ● Management ● Housing

55 Animal Husbandry ● Feeding ● Breeding ● Health care ● Handling ● Management ● Housing Animal/Vet. Science ● Nutrition ● Genetics/reproduction ● Vet. Science

56 Animal behaviour Konrad Lorenz,

57 Stress Physiology Hans Selye,

58 Animal Husbandry ● Feeding ● Breeding ● Health care ● Handling ● Management ● Housing Animal/Vet. Science ● Nutrition ● Genetics/reproduction ● Vet. science Animal Welfare Science

59 Animal Husbandry ● Feeding ● Breeding ● Health care ● Handling ● Management ● Housing Animal/Vet. Science ● Nutrition ● Genetics/reproduction ● Vet. science Animal Welfare Science

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