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French/Métis History of Metropolitan Vancouver - A citizen perspective by Réjean Beaulieu to the Burnaby Historical Society 8 February 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "French/Métis History of Metropolitan Vancouver - A citizen perspective by Réjean Beaulieu to the Burnaby Historical Society 8 February 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 French/Métis History of Metropolitan Vancouver - A citizen perspective by Réjean Beaulieu to the Burnaby Historical Society 8 February 2012

2 “Canadien” History of Metropolitan Vancouver - A citizen perspective In support of an addendum proposed to “Chuck Davis History of Metropolitan Vancouver” (Harbour Publishing) by Réjean Beaulieu to the Burnaby Historical Society 8 February 2012

3 OVERVIEW in search of defining… acts: explorations and first settlements events heroes public spaces new narratives “Fun, fat, and filled with facts” Chuck Davis

4 Way back on the coast What’s common in between Cortes, Juan de Fuca, Quadra, Malaspina, Galiano, Texada, Gabriola, Vancouver and … Lapérouse? And today: Environment Canada weather buoy #46026 Reef (off Haida Gwaii): “the best temperate water diving in the world and second only to the Red Sea” Jacques Cousteau

5 Way back through the continent What’s common in between Alexander Mackenzie, David Thompson, Lewis & Clarke and Simon Fraser? Hint: “heavy lifters” “Simon Fraser and his men who had just descended the river [] explored the native village at Musqueam. Men of the village chased them off, and the Europeans retreated back up the river” Chuck Davis And today: “the Europeans”: Pierre Blais,Jean Baptiste Boucher(Waccan),Paul Boucher(La Malice),Amable Bourbonnais,Brissere,Bugni,Pierre D'Allaire,Hugh Faries,Joseph Gagné,Louis LaCerte,Bazile Gervais,Gervais Lagarde,Peter Paul Lalonde,François Laramme,James MacDougall,Joseph Ménard,Jean-Baptiste Proveau,Jules Maurice Quesnel,Gervais Rivard,Saucier,Louis Saint-Pierre and John Stuart

6 Voir gif image #6

7 The first mixed descent settlement trivia game Who was welcoming who and where? Where were they actually coming from? What did they actually trade? What really happened? Who actually stayed? How was it commemorated? And who was? What famous trail is it located by?

8 Voir gif image #8

9 In search of events 1/3 Préambule 1774: Québec Act 1776: US Independance 1786: French Lapérouse mapped the West Coast (Alaska->Monterey) 1789: France became a Republic 1802: Napoléon sold Louisiana 1793: First “Canadiens” made it to the West Coast (Mackenzie) 1805: First “Canadiens” made it to the West Coast south of 49 (Lewis&Clarke) 1808: First “Canadiens” made it to the West Coast in southern BC (Fraser) 1811: First “Canadiens” settlement on the West Coast south of 49 (Fort Astoria) 1825: First “Canadiens” settlement north of the Columbia (Fort Vancouver) 1827: First “Canadiens” settlement in Southern BC (Derby or old Fort Langley) 1837/1838 (elsewhere): Patriots Uprising (1837/1838) against British; many Canadiens (including lower clergy) moved out west (mainly south of the 49 th parallel) 1846: The treaty of Oregon divided “Canadiens” across the 49th parallel (formerly territoire de l’Oregon) 1849 (elsewhere): “Canadiens” Lafontaine/Baldwin parliament located in Montreal was moved to a more British Toronto after riots from monarchists 1849: The colony of Vancouver Island was established as British 1858: The mainland colony was established as British (formerly Nouvelle-Calédonie)

10 In search of events 2/3 1866: Both colonies merge to become British-Columbia 1871: British-Columbia join the Dominion of Canada 1885 (elsewhere): Métis leader Louis Riel is hung following the Red River rebellion 1896 (elsewhere): Sir Wilfrid Laurier became Canada's first native french speaker (francophone) prime minister 1899 (elsewhere): Québec Premier Henri Bourassa opposed participation in British wars (Boer) 1900: Joly de Lotbinière became BC first francophone Lieutenant Governor 1909-1910: The first contingent of 110 francophones are brought to work on Fraser Mills 1930s: Many left the prairies dustbowl settling in BC, including a 2 nd wave of francophones 1931: Major strike disrupted the Fraser Mills over labor rights 1945: Francophones organized themselves to look after the survival of French in BC 1946: A “caisse populaire” (credit union) was established in Maillardville; new parishes created 1951: Francophone students went on strike over unfairness of public education funding 1959: ~75 years after Riel, a francophone became the last capital punishment victim out west 1967/68: Radio-Canada started broadcasting a radio signal in French; a local newspaper followed 1971: A francophone peace activist and two other Canadians started Greenpeace

11 In search of events 3/3 1976 (elsewhere): French Véronique Samson recorded “Vancouver” in London UK (“platinum”) 1977: The BC government recognized the right of francophones to be educated in French 1985: The Bombardier/Alcatel consortium finished building the Skytrain 1986: Supersonic French Concorde brought over Margaret Thatcher to visit EXPO 86; le Cirque du Soleil performed “La magie continue” 1995: BC became the last canadian province to create a francophone school board 2010: Bilingual Winter Olympics were held. Gilles Vigneault was blamed for not releasing requested rights of «Mon Pays» to an Aussie directing the opening/closing ceremonies. A french mime saved the pedestal deployment at the end! Playwrights/actor Robert Lepage «Blue Dragon/Le Dragon Bleu» sold out everynight showing China! 2011: Adrian Dix, former executive director of «Canadian Parents for French» became the NDP party leader with good chances to become the next BC Premier

12 In search of heroes 1/3 Étienne Pépin: first “hivernant” (1827-28), blacksmith and farmer supplying the HBC Ferdinand Boulanger alias “Peter Baker”: first gold prospector in the Upper Fraser Paul de Garro: first to publish a newspaper “Le Courrier de Nouvelle-Calédonie” and 1st book in BC - “The Fraser mines vindicated, or the history of four months” (Alfred Waddington). Or was it David Cameron’s “Rules and manner of proceeding of the Supreme Court of civil justice for Vancouver’s Island”? Jean Caux alias “Cataline”: first to operate a major transportation business (mule packing!) supplying the gold fields during a career spanning 54 years! Charles Pandosy: established 1 st mission&school in the Okanagan; planted its first vineyard and orchard; outspoken critic of the Durieu residential school system Esther Parizeau alias “Sister-Joseph”: attended the construction of over 30 hospitals, schools and orphanages in the North-West including St-Paul, St-Mary and St-Eugène Laurent&Joseph Guichon: operated hotels and a steamship service to Victoria; also pioneered cattle business in BC importing first Hereford herd Onésime Naud: talented stonemason built important buildings in the Northwest; Bby heritage house still stands; berry and orchard farmer first to employ Asians Joly de Lotbinière: first native french speaker BC Lieutenant Governor known for fighting political corruption, raising environmental issues and promoting nationhood Adrien Gabriel Morice: first historian, linguist and anthropologist in northern BC

13 In search of heroes 2/3 Marius Barbeau: ethnologist/folklorist became one of the first defenders of First Nations art in Canada (BC tsimshians ) Délia Tétreault: established 1 st orphanage and mission for Chinese people and future missions to China; beatification steps undertaken in 1959 Jean-Baptiste “Johny” Decaire and Arthur Laverdure: first unions leaders during the Fraser Mills strike signing up members for what is to become the “International Woodworkers of America (IWA)” Jean-Louis “Jack” Kerouac: (Elsewhere) Franco-american writer («On the Road») created the “Beat Generation” with Burroughs&Ginsberg; pioneered a new litterary genre Al DesLauriers: Ran “Save On Meats” for 52 years in spite of hardship in the Vancouver east side area offering the lowest price and employing broken people Léo Mantha: Last victim of capital punishment in western Canada Lucille “Star” Savoie: First canadian artist to sell 1M records, the “French song”! André Piolat&Jacques Baillaut: Local media pioneers – motus: “Ni peur ni faveur” Paul Côté&Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel: Peacenik pioneers behind Greenpeace and the end of the Vietnam war draft Claude/Inge Violet: Domaine de Chamberton winemaking pioneers in Fraser Valley

14 In search of heroes 3/3 Richard “King” Brodeur and Justin Morneau: First Vancouver Canuck player to lead its team to the Stanley Cup final; and first Canadian to become Most Valuable Player in professional baseball Marc Garneau, Julie Payette and Guy Laliberté: (Elsewhere) First canadians to orbit earth, to work on the space station and to be a “space tourist” Antonine Maillet, Émile Benoit, Zacharie Richard, Gilles Vigneault, Denis Arcand, Denis Villeneuve and Robert Lepage: (Elsewhere) International writers, artists, playwrights and film directors Yves Potvin: Pioneered non-animal protein healthy fast food (e.g. veggie dog); frequent guest on Oprah and Degeneres; Gardein sales ~ $100M Honoré Gbedze: Ran “Afro-News” bilingual newspaper&new media, La Palabre radio-show on Fairchild and the SAGE Foundation catering to new canadians Kevin Potvin: Operated Magpie, one of the last independant bookstore in Vancouver and published the Republic of East Vancouver; an early Green candidate Marc&Yuki Fournier: Ran Sophia Books last independant bookstore in Vancouver; outstanding multi-lingual content selection Charles Demers: A product of “French immersion” (similar to 100000s young adults in BC) media personality known as a top standup comedy act; author of “Vancouver Special”

15 In search of “villains” Charles Bedaux: Suicidal Fascist Frenchman and Nazi collaborator that set fire in the BC interior during the “Champagne Safari” or Citroen documentary along with wife, mistress and wine cellar (as featured on the Vancouver convention centre historical promenade amongst BC pioneers!) Frederick Ducharme: “The killer was eventually identified as Frederic Ducharme, 34, a very odd and twisted piece of work, with a record for indecent exposure and bizarre behaviour that can’t be described here and was only hinted at in the more straitlaced newspaper reporting of the day” Introducing a Prime Minister: “Wilfrid Laurier presided over the [PNE] official opening ceremony on August 16. The News Advertiser wrote, “Petrified women, sacrificial crocodiles from the sacred river Ganges, and dusky negroes who dodge swiftly thrown baseball, to say nothing of the numerous Salome dancers, Spanish Carmens, Dutch comedians and chorus girls are some of the attractions being offered the visitors at the fair this week” ” “Ennui Communications”: not the best place to hang around; and neither is “Here are […] a multitude of memorable minor events like city hall’s official attempt to shut down the Dupont Street red light district” (frontpage backcover) “Fun, fat, and filled with facts” Chuck Davis

16 In search of public spaces “Nostalgia”: Derby cairn (&Fort Langley), Saint-Paul&Saint-Joseph Hospitals, Maillardville (e.g. Carré Laval), cemeteries, churches, public archives and buildings (e.g. Gastown, Naud House, Michaud House), Convention Centre Historical Boardwalk Living spaces: Alliance Française de Vancouver,Centre Culturel Francophone (West 7th)/Théâtre de la Seizième/Maison de la Francophonie, Festival du Bois,Festival du Film&Beaux Jeudis, “C’est Extra”, Conseil Scolaire Francophone (CSF) schools and SFU&UBC related programs Commercial spaces: Café Montmartre,Bistro/Bistro,Chez Mémé and “Les Amis du Fromage” Business spaces: Alcatel,SNC/Lavalin,Bombardier,Viacom/JDecaux Bilingual/Multilingual organisations: MEC,Westjet,Telus,school districts immersion program (e.g. BSD “École Brantford Elementary School”), BPL, city of Burnaby (e.g. garbage collection brochure!),,YVR, BC Tourism Print&electronic medias: The Source/La Source,Community Digest/Nouvelles Communautaires,Afro News/Rubrique Française,Radio-Canada/CBC and Postmedia! Social media/citizen spaces: Google,Wikipedia,Craigslist,,Facebook (e.g. SHFCB), and Twitter #frcb #csfcb #frcan

17 In search of new narratives “Lilac Moon” 2005: In a provocative western Canada history essay, prairies writer Sharon Butala asked the question “What makes a Westerner?" and courageously put forward "Our stubborn refusal to recognize the French fact" after musing over why her favorite grandmother humble origins were such a taboo topic, i.e. French/Métis SFU downtown campus 2009: Jean Barman, fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and Professor Emeritus at the University of British Columbia, presented as part of the Grace MacInnis Visiting Scholar Lecture “Taking everyday people seriously: How French Canadians saved British Columbia for Canada”; numerous historians (professional and citizen) have done background research to assess fur trader (and afterward) “heavylifters” off newly digitized/scanned archives with Internet support: John Jackson, Bruce Watson, Dick Garneau and Robert Foxcurran the challenges 2012: people limited interest in BC history, treatment of history by medias, changing the ministry of education history curriculum, native french speakers withdrawal and remaining bastions of intolerance (e.g. Publishing) the solutions 2012&onward: citizens and communities engagement, and social medias

18 In search of a new narrative: a Proposed Plate PEOPLE ~ WELCOME / BIENVENUE / ~ La Première Nation Kwantlen et son chef Whattlekainum accueillirent jadis en ce lieu un groupe de Voyageurs formé de Premières Nations, d’Hawaïens, de Métis et de Canadiens. Un premier poste de traite et de terre agricole était ainsi établi (1827-1839) dans la vallée du Fraser. Ces pionniers ont appris langues, cultures, mœurs et coutumes, ont formé de nouvelles familles et ont pris racine. ~ The Kwantlen First Nation and chief Whattlekainum greeted on this site a group of Voyageurs, formed of First Nations, Hawaiians, Métis and Canadiens. The first trading post and farm settlement were hence established (1827-1839) in the Fraser valley. These pioneers learnt languages, cultures, manners and customs, formed new families and took root. ~ I REMEMBER / JE ME SOUVIENS / François Noël Annance, Amable Arquoitte, James Baker, George Barnston, Louis Boisvert, Olivier Bouchard, Pierre Charles, Como, Joseph Cornoyer, Jean Baptiste Dubois, Jean Baptiste Ettue, Dominique Faron, John Kennedy, Anawiskum Macdonald, James MacMillan, Donald Manson, Peopeoh, Antoine Perrault, Jacques Perrault, François Piette, Simon Plomondeau, Louis Satakarata, Laurent Sauvé, François Xavier Tarihonga, Abraham Vincent. Louis Ossin. Étienne Pépin. Bazile Brousseau,Narcisse Falardeau,Frédérique Minie,Angus McPhail,Ta-i,Pierre Therrien and James Yale.

19 “Canadiain” History of Metropolitan Vancouver - A citizen perspective Épilogue What’s yours? La Fin/The End

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