Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Developed theory of cognitive development Psychologist & philosopher Stages that children pass through in the development of intelligence Childhood is unique and important for development
Rene Spitz (1887-1974) One of first researchers who used child observation One of first to establish importance of social interactions in child development Followed 2 groups of children from birth: one raised in orphanage, second group of babies raised in nursery in prison (mothers allowed to give care and affection each day, plus contact with staff)
Spitz Studies Children raised in orphanage had lack of motor, social & cognitive skills Focused on normal and abnormal behaviour Pointed out effects of maternal and emotional deprivation
Spitz on Development Conclusion: Catastrophic effects of sensory and social deprivation at certain critical periods in early childhood can have on children’s subsequent development.
Harry Harlow (1905-1981) Infant monkeys were separated from their mothers at six to twelve hours after birth and were raised instead with substitute or 'surrogate' mothers made either of heavy wire or of wood covered with soft terry cloth Both types of surrogates were present in the cage, but only one was equipped with a nipple from which the infant could nurse. Even when the wire mother was the source of nourishment, the infant monkey spent a greater amount of time clinging to the cloth surrogate.
Harry Harlow http://www.teachertube.com/viewVid eo.php?video_id=226257&title=Harry _Harlow_Monkey_Experiment http://www.teachertube.com/viewVid eo.php?video_id=226257&title=Harry _Harlow_Monkey_Experiment “Motherless mothers” later became either indifferent when they had children or abusive Provided evidence of need for warmth, affection and nurturing parents
Fraser Mustard (1927-2011) CANADIAN physician and scientist Wrote several papers and did studies on early child development Instrumental in Ontario adopting full- day kindergarten based on Early Years report Emphasized critical nature of early years
Fraser’s Contributions Brain development during the first five years sets stage for health and well-being 3 Enduring Messages: -The years before 5 last a lifetime -It takes a village to raise a child -Pay now or pay later!
2 Views on Education John Locke & Jean-Jacques Rousseau, two philosophers of 17 th and 18 th century, developed opposite views of education of children Tabula Rasa: At birth child is unformed person whose mind is a blank slate. Parent’s responsibility to fill child’s mind
Rosseau Rosseau believed children are born with innate capacity for understanding, curiosity, and creativity that is often deadened by education and control imposed by adults