Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The West Coast. Glacial Environment Cordilleran glaciation Cordilleran glaciation Glacial melt released water into oceans Glacial melt released water.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The West Coast. Glacial Environment Cordilleran glaciation Cordilleran glaciation Glacial melt released water into oceans Glacial melt released water."— Presentation transcript:

1 The West Coast

2

3

4 Glacial Environment Cordilleran glaciation Cordilleran glaciation Glacial melt released water into oceans Glacial melt released water into oceans Sea level changes Sea level changes

5 Environment and Climate Major River Systems: Major River Systems: Balsas River Balsas River Colorado Colorado Columbia Columbia Fraser Fraser Fuerte River Fuerte River Lerma River Lerma River Sacramento Sacramento San Joaquin San Joaquin Suchiate River Suchiate River Yukon Yukon

6 Flora and Fauna Forested landscape stretches from Alaska to California (spruce, cedar, hemlock, douglas fur) Forested landscape stretches from Alaska to California (spruce, cedar, hemlock, douglas fur) Food plants includes several types of seed and fruit bearing plants Food plants includes several types of seed and fruit bearing plants

7 Subsistence Resources utilized in seasonal rounds Resources utilized in seasonal rounds

8 Fauna/Subsistence Saltwater fish available included halibut, herring, smelt, cod Saltwater fish available included halibut, herring, smelt, cod Anadromous fish: 5 species of salmon, trout, eulachon, sturgeon, lamprey Anadromous fish: 5 species of salmon, trout, eulachon, sturgeon, lamprey Sea mammals: seals, sea lions, porpoises, dolphins, sea otters, whales Sea mammals: seals, sea lions, porpoises, dolphins, sea otters, whales Invertebrates: mussels, scallops, oysters, abalone, limpets, cockles, clams, crabs, sea urchins Invertebrates: mussels, scallops, oysters, abalone, limpets, cockles, clams, crabs, sea urchins Terrestrial mammals: deer, elk, sheep, mtn. goat, bears, lynx, marmots, wolves Terrestrial mammals: deer, elk, sheep, mtn. goat, bears, lynx, marmots, wolves Birds were also exploited including large birds of prey and smaller varieties Birds were also exploited including large birds of prey and smaller varieties

9 Cultural Chronology Predating 5500 B.P. (3500 B.C.) Predating 5500 B.P. (3500 B.C.) Early Period 5500 to 3800 B.P. (3500 to 1800 B.C.) Early Period 5500 to 3800 B.P. (3500 to 1800 B.C.) Middle Period 3800 to 1500 B.P. (1800 B.C to 500 A.D.) Middle Period 3800 to 1500 B.P. (1800 B.C to 500 A.D.) Late Period 1500 B.P. to present (500 to 1700 A.D) Late Period 1500 B.P. to present (500 to 1700 A.D) -Northwest coast, Southwest coast and the Interior -Northwest coast, Interior, California (North and South)

10 Sites predating 3500 B.C. Initial occupation of the North West Coast occurs in Alaska Initial occupation of the North West Coast occurs in Alaska On the coast: heavy subsistence on marine life, in the interior: foraging and hunting On the coast: heavy subsistence on marine life, in the interior: foraging and hunting Northwest coast culture (micro-blade technology) Northwest coast culture (micro-blade technology) Southwest coast culture (bifacially flaked bipointed projectile point) Southwest coast culture (bifacially flaked bipointed projectile point) Northwest interior Northwest interiorSites: On-your-knees Cave Site: Southeast Alaska, 9300 B.P. On-your-knees Cave Site: Southeast Alaska, 9300 B.P. -human remains Namu Site: Central British Columbian coast, 9770 B.P. Namu Site: Central British Columbian coast, 9770 B.P. -heavy subsistence on salmon

11 Early Period: 5500 to 3800 B.P. (3500 to 1800 B.C.) (1) Increasing cultural regionalism (1) Increasing cultural regionalism (2) rapid intensification of shellfish collection (occurs around 8000 B.P. and intensifies around 5000 B.P.) with increase in midden size (2) rapid intensification of shellfish collection (occurs around 8000 B.P. and intensifies around 5000 B.P.) with increase in midden size (3) large-scale fishing appears with specialized technology (e.g., fish weirs) (3) large-scale fishing appears with specialized technology (e.g., fish weirs) (4) much larger populations reflected in increasing food production in general (4) much larger populations reflected in increasing food production in general (5) improving storage technology (5) improving storage technology (6) more specialized woodworking tools (chisels by 3500 B.P., mauls and pile drivers by 2500 B.P.) (6) more specialized woodworking tools (chisels by 3500 B.P., mauls and pile drivers by 2500 B.P.) (7) villages (seasonal pattern of summer/winter settlements) (7) villages (seasonal pattern of summer/winter settlements)

12 Early West Coast regional classifications North Coast - Prince Rupert/Skeena River - Prince Rupert III/Haqwilget A, Gitaus VI, and Skeena Complex North Coast - Prince Rupert/Skeena River - Prince Rupert III/Haqwilget A, Gitaus VI, and Skeena Complex Queen Charlotte Islands - Transitional complex and Graham tradition Queen Charlotte Islands - Transitional complex and Graham tradition North-Central Coast - Namu II and III, McNaughton I, and Cathedral phase North-Central Coast - Namu II and III, McNaughton I, and Cathedral phase South-Central Coast - Bear Cove II and O'Conner II South-Central Coast - Bear Cove II and O'Conner II West Coast of Vancouver Island - Early and part of Middle Yuquot, Shoemaker Bay I; West Coast of Vancouver Island - Early and part of Middle Yuquot, Shoemaker Bay I; Georgian Strait and Lower Fraser - Maurer, St.Mungo phase and the early portion of the Locarno Beach phase Georgian Strait and Lower Fraser - Maurer, St.Mungo phase and the early portion of the Locarno Beach phase Gulf and San Juan Islands - Mayne phase, and the early portion of the Locarno Beach phase Gulf and San Juan Islands - Mayne phase, and the early portion of the Locarno Beach phase Fraser Canyon - Eayem and early Baldwin phases (Carlson 1983: Figure 1:2). Fraser Canyon - Eayem and early Baldwin phases (Carlson 1983: Figure 1:2).

13 The Interior wedge-shaped and tabular- shaped cores, burins of a number of varieties with the notched transverse burin being most distinctive, lanceolate points, a range of scraper and biface knife varieties, gravers, drills, net-sinkers and some other minor items. wedge-shaped and tabular- shaped cores, burins of a number of varieties with the notched transverse burin being most distinctive, lanceolate points, a range of scraper and biface knife varieties, gravers, drills, net-sinkers and some other minor items. The most common tools were simple expedient flake tools. The most common tools were simple expedient flake tools. Early Northwest Interior Points

14 North-East Basket Forms

15 Northern California Early Archaic ( B.P.). Little contact with neighboring cultural areas Little contact with neighboring cultural areas Shell fish collection Shell fish collection Hunting and gathering Hunting and gathering Ex (Glassow, B.P.) Ex (Glassow, B.P.) Ey (Wilcoxin, B.P.) Ey (Wilcoxin, B.P.) Ez (Erlandson, B.P.) Ez (Erlandson, B.P.) Southern California Early Period B.P. ( BC).

16 Channel Islands and the Santa Barbara Channel coast Channel Islands and the Santa Barbara Channel coast Semi-terranian pithouses (offshore islands) Semi-terranian pithouses (offshore islands) Metates and manos (importance of plant foods) Metates and manos (importance of plant foods) Some red ochre sprinkled graves Some red ochre sprinkled graves Mortars and pestles (Ey and Ez) Mortars and pestles (Ey and Ez) -Acorn and nuts Land and sea mammal hunting increases Land and sea mammal hunting increases Settlement patterns depended on seasonal hunting and foraging Settlement patterns depended on seasonal hunting and foraging Intensification of maze exploitation (around 3500 B.C.) Intensification of maze exploitation (around 3500 B.C.)

17 Middle Period 3800 to 1500 B.P. (1800 B.C to 500 A.D.) Traits and trends include: (1) after AD 450); large plank houses and fine woodworking (1) after AD 450); large plank houses and fine woodworking (2) highly sophisticated baskets (2) highly sophisticated baskets (3) greater cultural homogeneity throughout the Northwest Coast (3) greater cultural homogeneity throughout the Northwest Coast (4) widespread trade (e.g., obsidian) (4) widespread trade (e.g., obsidian) (5) signs of social ranking and societal complexity by 1000 BC (e.g., stone labrets, cranial deformation; costly and exotic grave goods after 500 BC); slavery; increased conflict with neighboring groups; large surpluses accumulated and redistributed by chiefs; beginnings of potlatches. (5) signs of social ranking and societal complexity by 1000 BC (e.g., stone labrets, cranial deformation; costly and exotic grave goods after 500 BC); slavery; increased conflict with neighboring groups; large surpluses accumulated and redistributed by chiefs; beginnings of potlatches. (6) heightened ceremonialism (6) heightened ceremonialism

18 Middle West Coast regional classifications The southern coast, and specifically the Strait of Georgia: Locarno Beach and Marpole complexes (sculpture in hard stone, ear spools, brow bands, large water crafts, large communal plank houses, head deformation and burial mounds ) The southern coast, and specifically the Strait of Georgia: Locarno Beach and Marpole complexes (sculpture in hard stone, ear spools, brow bands, large water crafts, large communal plank houses, head deformation and burial mounds ) The outer coasts of Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula of adjacent Washington State: the Yuquot Zone II complex The outer coasts of Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula of adjacent Washington State: the Yuquot Zone II complex The central coast: Namu III and IV The central coast: Namu III and IV The northern coast: Prince Rupert II The northern coast: Prince Rupert II The Queen Charlotte Islands: the Graham tradition The Queen Charlotte Islands: the Graham tradition The Baldwin and Kleanza complexes of the lower Fraser and Skeena rivers, respectively, represent interior but still coastally related developments The Baldwin and Kleanza complexes of the lower Fraser and Skeena rivers, respectively, represent interior but still coastally related developments The Interior: Taye Lake and Taltheilei complexes (Caribou and fresh water fish) The Interior: Taye Lake and Taltheilei complexes (Caribou and fresh water fish)

19 Middle Period 3800 to 1500 B.P. (1800 B.C to 500 A.D.) Salmon was the most important single food Salmon was the most important single food Broadly based subsistence pattern that would have been supplemented by trade in various food stuffs Broadly based subsistence pattern that would have been supplemented by trade in various food stuffs Large coastal shell midden sites (winter) Large coastal shell midden sites (winter) Evidence of warfare appears in the form of clubs, daggers, trophy skulls, and skeletal trauma Evidence of warfare appears in the form of clubs, daggers, trophy skulls, and skeletal trauma Personal guardian spirit and shamanic belief system Personal guardian spirit and shamanic belief system -elaborated mortuary traits (large numbers of shell and stone beads, cairn burial and mounds) -wealth objects: obsidian, marine shell beads and pendants, nephrite adzes, and native copper -infant burials (wealthy lineages and families)

20

21 Potlaches The processes involved in the formation of a class structure composed of powerful family lineages, commoners, and slaves, with status confirmation ceremonies, such as the potlatch The processes involved in the formation of a class structure composed of powerful family lineages, commoners, and slaves, with status confirmation ceremonies, such as the potlatch A ritual means of enhancing and reinforcing rights and privileges A ritual means of enhancing and reinforcing rights and privileges

22 Late Period:1500 B.P. to 16 th century (500 to 1700 A.D) Complex hunters and gatherers Complex hunters and gatherers Semi to fully sedentary (ownership to land) Semi to fully sedentary (ownership to land) Complex social organization Complex social organization House-hold based societies (up to 100 individuals) House-hold based societies (up to 100 individuals) Broadly based subsistence pattern that would have been supplemented by trade in various food stuffs Broadly based subsistence pattern that would have been supplemented by trade in various food stuffs Specialists (canoe makers, woodworkers, shamans, basket makers..) Specialists (canoe makers, woodworkers, shamans, basket makers..) Leadership by shamans, kins and those with exceptional abilities Leadership by shamans, kins and those with exceptional abilities Social stratification (chiefly elite, commoners and slaves) Social stratification (chiefly elite, commoners and slaves) Whaling becomes very important Whaling becomes very important

23 North Large sedentary villages with planked houses of 20 to 60 individuals Large sedentary villages with planked houses of 20 to 60 individuals Fortified settlements Fortified settlements Large populations led to exploitation of most abundant resources (competition for resources leads to control by elite) Large populations led to exploitation of most abundant resources (competition for resources leads to control by elite) Stable till European arrival Stable till European arrival Trench from Victoria area

24 South Vancouver Island to California Vancouver Island to California High population density leads to reliance on food storage High population density leads to reliance on food storage Intense manipulation of environment Intense manipulation of environment Rectangular plank houses replaces semi-subterranean houses (3100 B.P.) Rectangular plank houses replaces semi-subterranean houses (3100 B.P.) Social networks connected groups (trade in food stuffs and exotic goods) Social networks connected groups (trade in food stuffs and exotic goods) Hoko River Site (Washington) Fishing Camp site Fishing Camp site Makah culture Makah culture The wet site dates between 3000 and 2600 B.P. while the dry site had two components, one dating B.P., and a second, poorly understood one, dating to c B.P. The wet site dates between 3000 and 2600 B.P. while the dry site had two components, one dating B.P., and a second, poorly understood one, dating to c B.P. pology/WELCOME.HTM pology/WELCOME.HTM

25 Historical groups 19 th century ethnographers describe great diversity among North West coastal groups after European arrival 19 th century ethnographers describe great diversity among North West coastal groups after European arrival Poor preservation of coastal sites Poor preservation of coastal sites Northern Coast: Haida, Tlingit and Tsimshian Northern Coast: Haida, Tlingit and Tsimshian Central and Southern Coast: Locarno, Marpole and Salish Central and Southern Coast: Locarno, Marpole and Salish Nuu-chah-nuth (Nootka) culture related to the Makah at Ozette and Hoko River Nuu-chah-nuth (Nootka) culture related to the Makah at Ozette and Hoko River

26 Totem Poles House beams House beams House frontal poles House frontal poles Memorial poles Memorial poles Mortuary poles Mortuary poles Potlach figures Potlach figures Welcome figures Welcome figures

27 Interior Plateau From coast Mtns to Rocky Mtns, Fraser River to south of the Columbia and Snake Rivers From coast Mtns to Rocky Mtns, Fraser River to south of the Columbia and Snake Rivers More arid than coast, with greater temperature extremes from winter to summer More arid than coast, with greater temperature extremes from winter to summer

28 Interior Plateau Clovis points found near Snake River, Ft. John B.C. and Wenatchee Washington Clovis points found near Snake River, Ft. John B.C. and Wenatchee Washington Windust Phase: Lower Snake Indian River, 12,600 to 9100 B.P. Windust Phase: Lower Snake Indian River, 12,600 to 9100 B.P. -small scale foragers -highly mobile -large number of milling stones at Windust site -Hatenai site -Leaf shaped projectile points Cascade Phase: Snake River, 9100 to 6300 B.P. Cascade Phase: Snake River, 9100 to 6300 B.P. -Pit houses appear 6300 B.P. -Small nomadic groups foraging over large areas in major drainages -Semi-subterranean houses appear and fishing increases after 5000 B.P. -Salmon runs important after 3500 B.P. Harder Phase: 2500 to 1000 B.P. Harder Phase: 2500 to 1000 B.P. -People lived in earthlodge villages

29 Interior Plateau Narrows on Rivers that was a very productive salmon fishery for thousands of years (Keatley Creek Site, Fraser River) Narrows on Rivers that was a very productive salmon fishery for thousands of years (Keatley Creek Site, Fraser River) Fraser River Sites also show an abundance of Salmon Fraser River Sites also show an abundance of Salmon Number of pit houses increase dramatically over time Number of pit houses increase dramatically over time Salmon dried and stored in bark-lined pits Salmon dried and stored in bark-lined pits Vast amounts of wild onions, balsam root and tubers in roasting pits Vast amounts of wild onions, balsam root and tubers in roasting pits Bow and arrow technology by 2500 B.P. Bow and arrow technology by 2500 B.P. Complex trade networks Complex trade networks Wooden masks show rank and status Wooden masks show rank and status Trade sites (Dalles Site, Columbia River) Trade sites (Dalles Site, Columbia River)

30

31 The California Coast Biophysical and cultural diversity Biophysical and cultural diversity Later cultures had intensive and specialized hunting, gathering and fishing activities Later cultures had intensive and specialized hunting, gathering and fishing activities Dried fish and acorn stores vitally important Dried fish and acorn stores vitally important Shellfish played major role in San Francisco Bay area Shellfish played major role in San Francisco Bay area Santa Barbra Channel area exploited mollusks, sea mammals and shallow water sea fish Santa Barbra Channel area exploited mollusks, sea mammals and shallow water sea fish Elaborate technology, art and social organization Elaborate technology, art and social organization Trade and resource distribution networks Trade and resource distribution networks

32 Northern California Reconstruction of culture history based on language distributions Reconstruction of culture history based on language distributions Before 6000 B.P. almost all of California Hokan-speaking Before 6000 B.P. almost all of California Hokan-speaking Shell middens Shell middens Dense settlements in Bay area Dense settlements in Bay area North coast isolated and mountainous North coast isolated and mountainous Local chiefdoms and territories, often within a local river drainage area Local chiefdoms and territories, often within a local river drainage area -each with a principle settlement, ceremonial center and sever outlying seasonal camps Gunther Pattern (2150 B.P. to historic period) Gunther Pattern (2150 B.P. to historic period) -Gunther Island in Humboldt Bay area -Strong influences from Northwest Coast -Gunther barbed point -heavy reliance on seasonal salmon runs and marine resources -Seasonal acorn harvesting Augustine Pattern (1700 B.P.) Augustine Pattern (1700 B.P.) -Central California -Intensification of hunting, fishing and foraging

33 San Francisco Bay and the Central Coast Widespread, but scattered, populations of hunter-gatherers Widespread, but scattered, populations of hunter-gatherers Coastal resources less important Coastal resources less important Windmiller Pattern (around 4500 B.P.) Windmiller Pattern (around 4500 B.P.) -Sacramento Delta region -Economy focused on hunting of deer, pronghorn, rabbits and waterfowl -Some fishing and gathering -Burials covered on red Ochre and facing west Berkeley Pattern (4000 to 1700 B.P.) Berkeley Pattern (4000 to 1700 B.P.) -Adapted to estuaries, bays and marshes -Hunted fish, shellfish, waterfowl and some large game -Large sites with dense populations -Kin leaders and non-egalitarian political systems Augustine Pattern (1700 B.P. to historical period) Augustine Pattern (1700 B.P. to historical period) -New technologies and customs (bow and arrow, harpoons, tubular tobacco pipes and burning artifacts before placing within burials) -Subsistence of small prey and acorn harvests

34 Southern California Coast Hunter-gatherer societies Hunter-gatherer societies Long-distant exchange networks Long-distant exchange networks Distinctive shell bead forms used to reconstruct cultural chronology Distinctive shell bead forms used to reconstruct cultural chronology Early Period (8000 to 3000 B.P.) Early Period (8000 to 3000 B.P.) -Santa Barbara Channel and other parts of California coast Middle Period (3000 to 700 B.P.) Middle Period (3000 to 700 B.P.) -Beads and ornamental artifacts serve as status markers in society -Seals, porpoises, dolphins, whales, swordfish and shark bones now appear in coastal middens. Along with shellfish -More sophisticated deepwater crafts (planked canoes) Late Period (700 B.P. to 1804) Late Period (700 B.P. to 1804) -Hokan-speaking Chumash people -Intense marine life exploitation -Expert fishermen -Double-ended long paddles for planked canoes -Dome-shaped dwellings on a pole frame -Settlements contained sweat lodges and cemeteries -each village ruled by hereditary chief -Intricate petroglyphs and pictographs -Intricate trade with other regions

35 The West Coast


Download ppt "The West Coast. Glacial Environment Cordilleran glaciation Cordilleran glaciation Glacial melt released water into oceans Glacial melt released water."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google