Presentation on theme: "Absolutism, Age of Enlightenment, & Revolutions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Absolutism, Age of Enlightenment, & Revolutions Unit FiveAbsolutism, Age of Enlightenment, & Revolutions
2 Standards – Absolutism & Revolution SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions.Examine absolutism through a comparison of the rules of Louis XIV, Tsar Peter the Great, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.Identify the causes and results of the revolutions in England (1689), United States (1776), France (1789), Haiti (1791), and Latin America ( ).Explain Napoleon’s rise to power, the role of geography in his defeat, and the consequences of France’s defeat for EuropeExamine the interaction of China and Japan with westerners; include the Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, and Commodore Perry.
3 Standards – China and Japan SSWH11 Students will investigate political and social changes in Japan and in China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE.Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rules; include how Oda Nobunaga laid the ground work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and how Kangxi came to rule for such a long period in China.Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure of Japan and China.
4 Standards – Age of Enlightenment SSWH13 The student will examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the world view of Europeans.a. Explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton and how these ideas changed the European world view.b. Identify the major ideas of the Enlightenment from the writings of Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau and their relationship to politics and society.
6 First Ten Be sure to have a textbook Pick up a half sheet reading from the chair – do not write on it – read it and be ready for discussion.How to do vocabulary this unitWhat does divine mean?What is a monarchy?What gave kings that “right to rule” over people? Would we follow this model in the U.S.?
7 Hook What is divine right? What is an absolute monarchy? Age of AbsolutismHow is this different from a democracy?The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth; for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God Himself they are called gods... Kings justly gods, for they exercise a... divine power upon earth... God hath power to create or destroy, make or unmake at His pleasure, to give life or sent death to judge and to be judged nor accountable to none, to raise low things and to make high things low at His pleasure... And the like power of kings...-King James IV/I of Britain, 160
8 Work Session Absolutism Activity with Notes Louis Versailles Tour Peter the GreatComparison Activity
9 Absolutism and Divine Right Absolutism is when a single individual rules with complete power over their subjects. Typically they control your private and public lifeLaws are made without the consent of the governed purpose is to centralize their powerRule by divine right was used by absolute monarchs in the 16th and 17th centuries to maintain control over the people. This is the belief that the monarch is God’s representative on earth. They receive their authority from God. If you challenge the monarchy, you are challenging God. When you challenge the King that is treason.
10 King Louis XIVRuler of France – “I am the State” – “Sun King”Social: Weakened the authority of the noble class and gave that authority to intendants (government workers – not from a noble class), use of army to put down internal and external opponentsPolitical: Initiated wars to expand empire and increase wealthInnovations: Palace of Versailles, dams & irrigation, self-glorification through art – ballet & operaCulture: ended Protestant freedoms with the Edict of NantesEconomic: Heavy taxation to fund projects and wars, make France self-sufficient (mercantilism) coloniesSun KingVersailles
11 King Louis XIV of France What characteristics of this painting show the power of King Louis?
12 Chart AnalysisBased on this chart, what assumption can be made concerning Louis and his leadership as an absolute monarch?
13 Peter the Great Czar of Russia – 1682 – 1725 Social: nobility class (boyars) must embrace westernization, large use of peasant labor to build citiesPolitical: Tension with Church, taxation, First Czar out of RussiaInnovations: St. Petersburg – Window to the West, Grand EmbassyCulture: Westernization (dress and appearance), took control of the Orthodox ChurchEconomic: heavy taxation for large building projects (St. Petersburg)Peter the Great - Discovery
14 Czar Peter I of RussiaWhat image is Peter trying to convey in this painting?
15 Find 3 general similarities and 3 general differences between these absolute monarchs.
16 Louis XIV Peter I Last Ten Comparing Louis and Peter Compare and Contrast – Louis v. PeterAbsolutism DBQ is due on ThursdayLouis XIVPeter I
17 Reminders DBQ Activity is due on Friday Reading Analysis #1 is due on Thursday
19 What is being described in this quote? First TenYesterday we discussed Louis XIV & Peter the Great. Would you argue that they were an effective monarch? Why or why not?“Here a new city shall be wrought [built]…Shall break a window to the West…Here flags of foreign nations allBy waters new to them will call…”Which of the following does not belong?St. Petersburg, Paris, VersaillesTaxation, frequent wars, freedom of speechDivine Right, Absolutism, ReasonLouis XIV, intendant, boyarGrand Embassy, Edict of Nantes, WesternizationWhat is being described in this quote?
20 HookOn your worksheet complete the front for Louis and Peter (This should be review).
21 Work SessionToday we will discuss Absolute monarchs in China and Japan.Complete your chart on the back, just as you did on the front using your textbook:Japan:China:
22 Japan Warring States Period (1467-1568) Oda Nobunaga (1568-1582) Toyotomi Hideyoshi ( )Tokugawa Ieyasu ( ) BUT his family ruled Japan until 1867 Tokugawa Shogunate
23 Japan under Centralization Tokugawa Shogunate:Construction of Edo CastleAlternate attendance policy for the daimyosPersecution of ChristianityResorted to isolationism
25 largest donjon (tower) in Japan Edo Castlelargest donjon (tower) in JapanDaimyo were forced to help pay for this projectAll surrounding hills were leveled and the bay was filled in!Daimyo sent 3,000 ships for years to get enough large stone for Ieyasu
26 ChinaMing QingMing embraced exploration and contact with the Europeans/Africans/other AsiansQing seized power in China in 1644.Kangxi was their first emperor ( )Qian-long (grandson) ruled from ( )
27 China under Centralization Brought restoration through strict boundaries in countryLower taxationPatron of the Arts & learning culture flourishedReligious FREEDOM! – Jesuits and Confucianism allowedOriginally allowed Christian merchants and missionaries (new products brought in and out of country) but soon isolated China – no desire for trade with European countries – Dutch were allowed to stay but had to pay a tribute China wanted to be self-sufficient.Successfully invades KoreaWomen lacked freedoms
29 Conclusion Similarities All rise to power after years of warfare(better to have strict dictator than chaos and war)Built strong armiesAll raise heavy taxesExpanded territoryCreated a strong centralized powerBrought nobility under controlDrew advisors from middle classEncouraged better manufacturing and tradeBrought church under gov’t controlDid not allow religious toleration
30 Last TenHow were western policies similar and different from eastern policies during the Age of Absolutism?EastWest
31 Review Absolutism and Scientific Revolution Day ThreeReview Absolutism and Scientific Revolution
32 First Ten Pick up a sheet from the chair and complete! Chinese Population AnalysisCrossword ReviewI will be checking your DBQ Assignment at this time.
33 HookWhat do you know about the individuals below? Can you list their major accomplishments?Nicolas CopernicusGalileo GalileeJohannes KeplerSir Isaac NewtonDefinition of Scientific Revolution?New theories replaced old theories of science that were rooted in a new idea called the scientific method.
34 Work Session Scientific Revolution DBQ and Discussion Work time! VocabularyAnalytical Reading
35 Main IdeasIn the mid-1500’s scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentationSuch questioning led to the development of the scientific method still in use today.
36 Copernicus Polish Cleric & astronomer Worked 25 years to develop the Heliocentric Theory which challenged the Catholic Church’s Geocentric Theory (which was based off of research by Aristotle during the Greek Golden Age).Since he feared the church (heresy) he did not publish his findings until the year of his day in 1543.He did not have the mathematical formulas to prove his findings, just observations.
37 Galileo Italian Scientist Developed his own telescope in 1609 Findings: Jupiter has 4 moons, the sun has dark spots, and the moon was imperfect.These findings went against the Catholic Church’s ideas of the moon (again based on Aristotle.However, Galileo published the Starry Messenger (1632) in which he supported the Copernican theory.
38 Persecution of Galileo Galileo was put on trial for heresy – Inquisition – Where he reads a confession.Although he recanted, he was still placed on house arrest until his death in 1642.The Catholic Church apologized for their actions inI, Galileo…Florentine, aged seventy years, …kneeling before you,…swear that I have always believed, do believe, and by God's help will in the future believe, all that is held, preached, and taught by the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church…I must altogether abandon the false opinion that the sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center of the world, and moves, and that I must not hold, defend, or teach in any way whatsoever, verbally or in writing, the said false doctrine…I wrote and printed a book in which I discuss this new doctrine already condemned,…I have been pronounced by the Holy Office to be vehemently suspected of heresy, that is to say, of having held and believed that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center and moves: …with sincere heart and unfeigned faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies, and generally every other error, heresy, and sect whatsoever contrary to the said Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert, verbally or in writing, anything that might furnish occasion for a similar suspicion regarding me…”
39 Kepler German mathematician & astronomer Assistant to Tycho Brahe (student of Copernicus)Findings: planets move in elliptical patterns, not circles & proved Copernican theory using mathematical evidence. Also, many of his findings formed a foundation for Sir Isaac Newton
40 Sir Isaac Newton English scientist – 1600’s Studied math and physics at CambridgeFindings: Universal Gravitation, Laws of Motion“If I have seen further than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.”
41 Questions you should be able to answer… What was the difference between the helio – and geo – centric theories?Who had the authority in science prior to the Scientific Revolution?What was the importance/significance of the Scientific Revolution?Why did Copernicus not publish his findings until after his death?Name 3 new ideas and findings by Galileo.How did Kepler confirm the theories of Copernicus and Galileo?How was Newton the “capstone” of the Scientific Revolution?
42 Last Ten What am I Thinking? Activity CNN Student News – UN Day! Reminder – Analytical Reading #1 Due tomorrow on Edmodo
44 First Ten POP Quiz – Pick up scantron Quiz in 3 minutes – Study your notes from absolutism and Scientific Revolution
45 HookHippocampus Video – What was the Age of Reason/Enlightenment?
46 Work Sessionhttps://docs.google.com/file/d/0B9pM9Sv4xSwJTlYy NEQxaFg3M1U/edit?usp=sharing&pli=1Stations with chart
47 Last Ten One tweet for each thinker – must include 1 hash tag - # CNN Student News
48 Enlightenment Thinkers and Impact Revolutions Day FiveEnlightenment Thinkers and Impact Revolutions
49 First TenPick up your scantron and review the questions you missed. Ask questions – neighbors and me.Analytical Readings were graded yesterday and grades were entered – The assignments for the most part were complete (as in answering all of the questions) however, I feel that more detail can be included in the main idea bullet points. Also, formal grammar and spelling is required on any assignment turned in.Project grades were entered as well. If you have a question about your grade please let me know at the end of class (during announcements)
50 Questions to Review Class average – 80% #3 – Mita was a labor tribute required by the Incan government – used for government construction of buildings and public works (roads).#8 – A major result of the European conquest of LA was the diffusion of the Spanish language.#11- Bartolomeu Dias captained the first ship to sail around the Cape of Good Hope.#19 – Samuel de Champlain explored the Great Lakes regions and modern day Quebec.#26 – Dias sailed for Portugal.#27 – Columbus sailed for SPAIN.#32 – Pizzaro sailed for Spain.#33 – slavery and disease#34 – If African slaves already had small pox they were immune and would not get them again and risk perishing.#35 – knowledge of agriculture, slave trade was already in existence between Africa, Europe, and Asia, immune to Old World diseases, did not know they “new” world
51 Hook What was the Enlightenment? Major contributions of: Thomas HobbesJohn LockeVoltaireMary WollstonecraftCesar BeccariaBaron de MontesquieuJean Jacques RousseauHow did Enlightenment ideas challenge Absolutism?
52 Work Session Revolution Basics English Revolution – Glorious Revolution (1688)American Revolution (1776)French Revolution (1789)
53 English Revolution (1689)Troubling times followed Elizabeth’s reign in England in the 17th century.The House of Stuart reigned with unsuccessful actions.Using the first two pages in your packet, complete questions #1-6.During this time in England, colonies were successfully being settled in the New World – original 13 colonies.The Hanoverians will take the throne next setting the stage for new conflicts through oversea expansion.
55 Recap Complete English and American Revolution Essentials. Let’s rewrite the English Bill of Rights.
56 English BOR1. That the pretended power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by regal authority, without consent of parliament is illegal.4. That levying money for or to the use of the crown by pretense of prerogative, without grant of parliament, for longer time or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal.5. That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal.6. That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of parliament, is against law.7. That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions, and as allowed by law.8. That election of members of parliament ought to be free.9. That the freedom of speech, and debates or proceedings in parliament, ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of parliament.10. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.13. And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening, and preserving of the laws, parliament ought to be held frequently.
59 Last TenThe concept of a revolution rocked the world of monarchies and created new forms of government for the world to follow.What other revolutions in modern history can we relate to the age of revolutions in the 18th century?How do revolutions impact social structure?Prior to leaving here today you must be able to understand the relationship between the following: Absolutism Enlightenment Revolutions
61 First Ten Causes Effects Pick up your packet. Answer # 1-6 on pg. 2 (answers only)Using pg. 3 complete the chart below:CausesEffects
62 Hook Explain relationship between these terms: Absolutism, Enlightenment, Revolutions
63 Work SessionRead and discuss French Revolution in PacketStart video
64 Last Ten – SPICE of Revolutions S ocialP oliticalI nnovationsC ultureE conomic
65 French Revolution & Napoleon Day SevenFrench Revolution & Napoleon
66 First Ten“The only representatives of the people of these colonies are persons chosen therein by themselves; and that no taxes have ever been, or can be constitutionally imposed on them but by their respective legislatures.”The Stamp Act Congress 17651. The quote above is the colonial response to the passage of the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act required individuals to pay an additional tax on any printed good (newspapers, paper to write letters on, playing cards, etc). How do the colonists respond to this tax?2. The political cartoon to the right illustrates the _________________ because __________________.
67 HookComplete the “significance” section on page 3 of your French Revolution video notes.Some important details:3 EstatesEstates General MeetingRole of Louis and Marie“National Assembly”Tennis Court OathStorming of Bastille1st EstateClergy of Roman Catholic Church1% of populationOwned 10% of landPaid 2% of their income into taxesProvided education and relief services to the poor2nd EstateNobility (by birth)2% of populationOwned 20% of landPaid little to no taxesBorn into nobility – served on Louis’ court3rd Estate97% of population – 50% of income into taxesBourgeoisie – wealthy and educated “middle class” believed in Enlightenment ideas, (bankers, business owners, merchants)Urban Workers (laborers, apprentices, and domestic servants, artisans)Peasants – consisted of 80% of population (26 million ppl) worked the land
69 Last Ten Vocabulary Review Glorious Revolution/Bill of Rights/Constitutional MonarchyAmerican Revolution/Declaration of IndependenceFrench Revolution/The Three Estates/BourgeoisieKing Louis XVI/Marie AntoinetteEstates-General/Tennis Court OathBastille DayReign of Terror/Maximilian Robespierre
70 Napoleon and Latin American Revolutions Day EightNapoleon and Latin American Revolutions
71 First Ten History of Halloween So what just happened? Write this down: France was in a bad situation due to debt, crop failures, tension between the social classes, and poor leadership. With revolutionary ideas swirling around the world, the bourgeoisie felt empowered to change France. France entered into revolutionary times that were chaotic and deadly. In the end, thousands of people lost their life and France remained in political turmoil.French Revolution Review
72 Hook Vocabulary Review Glorious Revolution/Bill of Rights/Constitutional MonarchyAmerican Revolution/Declaration of IndependenceFrench Revolution/The Three Estates/BourgeoisieKing Louis XVI/Marie AntoinetteEstates-General/Tennis Court OathBastille DayReign of Terror/Maximilian Robespierre
73 Work Session Napoleon Notes with graphic organizer Latin American Revolutions Reading and Bubble Map
74 Rise of Napoleon Prominent lieutenant in French Army - military genius 1799- coup d'état – claimed dictatorshipGains vote and trust of the people1804 – crowned EmperorBy the end of the first decade (1812) Napoleon had much of Europe under this controlFrance, Netherlands, Italy, SwitzerlandLarge influence over Russia, Prussia, Austria
75 Napoleon’s Achievements National Banking SystemLycees – Secondary schoolsConcordat (Agreement) with Pope Pius VII to restore Catholicism to FranceNapoleonic Code – law code to systemize FranceLimited liberty but promoted order and authority (social contract)Attempted to maintain control over Haiti and New France – not successfulSold Louisiana territory to Jefferson (now president) in 1803 for 15 million dollarsWith his sights lost in the New World he turns to try to conquer Britain … doesn’t workOnly defeat was the Battle of Trafalgar (naval battle lost to GB – had superior navy)
77 Downfall of Napoleon 3 KEY MISTAKES Continental SystemPeninsular warInvasion of RussiaApril 1814 – Napoleon surrenders – banished to Mediterranean islandMarch 1815 – Returns to France and people support himDefeated at Waterloo – known as Napoleon’s Hundred Days (last 100 days)Exiled to South America this time – dies thereNapoleon
80 Significance“Ideas about the basis of power and authority had changed permanently as a result of the French Revolution. More and more, people saw democracy as the best way to ensure equality and justice for all. The French Revolution, then, changed the social attitudes and assumptions that had dominated Europe for centuries. A NEW ERA HAD BEGUN.”Pg. 675
81 Congress of ViennaGoal: New European Order – “one of collective security and stability for the continent”8 months and 5 superpowers (Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France)Minister Klemons von Metternich (Austria) emerged as a significant leader at the meetings.Actions:Make small countries around France largerLegitimacy – restore families to the throneResults:C. and E. Europe return to AbsolutismFR and GB will be a constitutional monarchy1815 – Holy Alliance between Russia, Prussia, and Austria
83 Haiti LA influenced by other revolutions Haiti (1791) Toussaint L’Ouverture – former slaveSlaves + MulattoesIndependence won in 1798Napoleon attempted to restore power over Haiti but failed in 1804
84 Latin American Revolutions Simon Bolivar“The Liberator” – end Spanish domination in South America– Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and BoliviaJoined with Jose de San Martin who defeated the Spanish in Argentina and Chile in 1810s
85 Last TenStudy GuideVocabulary Assignment … questions – Due Monday
89 Work Session Unit Test (40 min) + short answer Notebook Check Absolutism DBQScientific Revolution DBQEnlightenment ChartFrench Revolution PacketNapoleon/Congress of Vienna/LA Rev WSUpfront Magazine/Health SurveyGalileo – pg 2WWI – pg – outline impact on each area