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Unit Five Absolutism, Age of Enlightenment, & Revolutions.

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1 Unit Five Absolutism, Age of Enlightenment, & Revolutions

2 Standards – Absolutism & Revolution  SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions.  Examine absolutism through a comparison of the rules of Louis XIV, Tsar Peter the Great, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.  Identify the causes and results of the revolutions in England (1689), United States (1776), France (1789), Haiti (1791), and Latin America ( ).  Explain Napoleon’s rise to power, the role of geography in his defeat, and the consequences of France’s defeat for Europe  Examine the interaction of China and Japan with westerners; include the Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, and Commodore Perry.

3 Standards – China and Japan  SSWH11 Students will investigate political and social changes in Japan and in China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE.  Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rules; include how Oda Nobunaga laid the ground work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and how Kangxi came to rule for such a long period in China.  Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure of Japan and China.

4 Standards – Age of Enlightenment  SSWH13 The student will examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the world view of Europeans.  a. Explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton and how these ideas changed the European world view.  b. Identify the major ideas of the Enlightenment from the writings of Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau and their relationship to politics and society.

5 Day One Absolutism

6 First Ten  Be sure to have a textbook  Pick up a half sheet reading from the chair – do not write on it – read it and be ready for discussion.  How to do vocabulary this unit  What does divine mean?  What is a monarchy?  What gave kings that “right to rule” over people? Would we follow this model in the U.S.?

7 Hook  What is divine right?  What is an absolute monarchy?  Age of Absolutism  How is this different from a democracy? The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth; for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God Himself they are called gods... Kings justly gods, for they exercise a... divine power upon earth... God hath power to create or destroy, make or unmake at His pleasure, to give life or sent death to judge and to be judged nor accountable to none, to raise low things and to make high things low at His pleasure... And the like power of kings... -King James IV/I of Britain, 160

8 Work Session  Absolutism Activity with Notes  Louis  Versailles Tour  Peter the Great  Comparison Activity

9 Absolutism and Divine Right  Absolutism is when a single individual rules with complete power over their subjects. Typically they control your private and public life  Laws are made without the consent of the governed  purpose is to centralize their power  Rule by divine right was used by absolute monarchs in the 16 th and 17 th centuries to maintain control over the people. This is the belief that the monarch is God’s representative on earth. They receive their authority from God. If you challenge the monarchy, you are challenging God. When you challenge the King that is treason.

10 King Louis XIV  Ruler of France – “I am the State” – “Sun King”  Social: Weakened the authority of the noble class and gave that authority to intendants (government workers – not from a noble class), use of army to put down internal and external opponents  Political: Initiated wars to expand empire and increase wealth  Innovations: Palace of Versailles, dams & irrigation, self-glorification through art – ballet & opera  Culture: ended Protestant freedoms with the Edict of Nantes  Economic: Heavy taxation to fund projects and wars, make France self-sufficient (mercantilism)  colonies  Sun King Sun King  Versailles Versailles

11 King Louis XIV of France  What characteristics of this painting show the power of King Louis?

12 Chart Analysis  Based on this chart, what assumption can be made concerning Louis and his leadership as an absolute monarch?

13 Peter the Great  Czar of Russia – 1682 – 1725  Social: nobility class (boyars) must embrace westernization, large use of peasant labor to build cities  Political: Tension with Church, taxation, First Czar out of Russia  Innovations: St. Petersburg – Window to the West, Grand Embassy  Culture: Westernization (dress and appearance), took control of the Orthodox Church  Economic: heavy taxation for large building projects (St. Petersburg)  Peter the Great - Discovery Peter the Great - Discovery

14 Czar Peter I of Russia  What image is Peter trying to convey in this painting?

15 Find 3 general similarities and 3 general differences between these absolute monarchs.

16 Last Ten  Comparing Louis and Peter Comparing Louis and Peter  Compare and Contrast – Louis v. Peter  Absolutism DBQ is due on Thursday Louis XIV Peter I

17 Reminders  DBQ Activity is due on Friday  Reading Analysis #1 is due on Thursday

18 Day Two Absolutism in the East

19 First Ten  Yesterday we discussed Louis XIV & Peter the Great. Would you argue that they were an effective monarch? Why or why not? “Here a new city shall be wrought [built]… Shall break a window to the West… Here flags of foreign nations all By waters new to them will call…” What is being described in this quote? Which of the following does not belong? St. Petersburg, Paris, Versailles Taxation, frequent wars, freedom of speech Divine Right, Absolutism, Reason Louis XIV, intendant, boyar Grand Embassy, Edict of Nantes, Westernization

20 Hook  On your worksheet complete the front for Louis and Peter (This should be review).

21 Work Session  Today we will discuss Absolute monarchs in China and Japan.  Complete your chart on the back, just as you did on the front using your textbook:  Japan:  China:

22 Japan  Warring States Period ( )  Oda Nobunaga ( )  Toyotomi Hideyoshi ( )  Tokugawa Ieyasu ( ) BUT his family ruled Japan until 1867  Tokugawa Shogunate

23 Japan under Centralization  Tokugawa Shogunate:  Construction of Edo Castle  Alternate attendance policy for the daimyos  Persecution of Christianity  Resorted to isolationism


25 Edo Castle largest donjon (tower) in Japan Daimyo were forced to help pay for this project All surrounding hills were leveled and the bay was filled in! Daimyo sent 3,000 ships for years to get enough large stone for Ieyasu

26 China  Ming  Qing  Ming embraced exploration and contact with the Europeans/Africans/other Asians  Qing seized power in China in  Kangxi was their first emperor ( )  Qian-long (grandson) ruled from ( )

27 China under Centralization  Brought restoration through strict boundaries in country  Lower taxation  Patron of the Arts & learning  culture flourished  Religious FREEDOM! – Jesuits and Confucianism allowed  Originally allowed Christian merchants and missionaries (new products brought in and out of country) but soon isolated China – no desire for trade with European countries – Dutch were allowed to stay but had to pay a tribute  China wanted to be self-sufficient.  Successfully invades Korea  Women lacked freedoms


29 Conclusion  Similarities  All rise to power after years of warfare (better to have strict dictator than chaos and war)  Built strong armies  All raise heavy taxes  Expanded territory  Created a strong centralized power  Brought nobility under control  Drew advisors from middle class  Encouraged better manufacturing and trade  Brought church under gov’t control  Did not allow religious toleration

30 Last Ten  How were western policies similar and different from eastern policies during the Age of Absolutism? EastWest

31 Day Three Review Absolutism and Scientific Revolution

32 First Ten  Pick up a sheet from the chair and complete!  Chinese Population Analysis  Crossword Review  I will be checking your DBQ Assignment at this time.

33 Hook  What do you know about the individuals below? Can you list their major accomplishments?  Nicolas Copernicus  Galileo Galilee  Johannes Kepler  Sir Isaac Newton  Definition of Scientific Revolution?  New theories replaced old theories of science that were rooted in a new idea called the scientific method.

34 Work Session  Scientific Revolution DBQ and Discussion  Work time!  Vocabulary  Analytical Reading

35 Main Ideas  In the mid-1500’s scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation  Such questioning led to the development of the scientific method still in use today.

36 Copernicus  Polish Cleric & astronomer  Worked 25 years to develop the Heliocentric Theory which challenged the Catholic Church’s Geocentric Theory (which was based off of research by Aristotle during the Greek Golden Age).  Since he feared the church (heresy) he did not publish his findings until the year of his day in  He did not have the mathematical formulas to prove his findings, just observations.

37 Galileo  Italian Scientist  Developed his own telescope in 1609  Findings: Jupiter has 4 moons, the sun has dark spots, and the moon was imperfect.  These findings went against the Catholic Church’s ideas of the moon (again based on Aristotle.  However, Galileo published the Starry Messenger (1632) in which he supported the Copernican theory.

38 Persecution of Galileo  Galileo was put on trial for heresy – Inquisition – Where he reads a confession.  Although he recanted, he was still placed on house arrest until his death in  The Catholic Church apologized for their actions in I, Galileo…Florentine, aged seventy years, …kneeling before you,…swear that I have always believed, do believe, and by God's help will in the future believe, all that is held, preached, and taught by the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church…I must altogether abandon the false opinion that the sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center of the world, and moves, and that I must not hold, defend, or teach in any way whatsoever, verbally or in writing, the said false doctrine…I wrote and printed a book in which I discuss this new doctrine already condemned,…I have been pronounced by the Holy Office to be vehemently suspected of heresy, that is to say, of having held and believed that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center and moves: …with sincere heart and unfeigned faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies, and generally every other error, heresy, and sect whatsoever contrary to the said Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert, verbally or in writing, anything that might furnish occasion for a similar suspicion regarding me…”

39 Kepler  German mathematician & astronomer  Assistant to Tycho Brahe (student of Copernicus)  Findings: planets move in elliptical patterns, not circles & proved Copernican theory using mathematical evidence. Also, many of his findings formed a foundation for Sir Isaac Newton

40 Sir Isaac Newton  English scientist – 1600’s  Studied math and physics at Cambridge  Findings: Universal Gravitation, Laws of Motion  “If I have seen further than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.”

41 Questions you should be able to answer…  What was the difference between the helio – and geo – centric theories?  Who had the authority in science prior to the Scientific Revolution?  What was the importance/significance of the Scientific Revolution?  Why did Copernicus not publish his findings until after his death?  Name 3 new ideas and findings by Galileo.  How did Kepler confirm the theories of Copernicus and Galileo?  How was Newton the “capstone” of the Scientific Revolution?

42 Last Ten  What am I Thinking? Activity  CNN Student News – UN Day!  Reminder – Analytical Reading #1 Due tomorrow on Edmodo

43 Day Four Enlightenment Ideas

44 First Ten  POP Quiz – Pick up scantron  Quiz in 3 minutes – Study your notes from absolutism and Scientific Revolution

45 Hook  Hippocampus Video – What was the Age of Reason/Enlightenment?

46 Work Session  NEQxaFg3M1U/edit?usp=sharing&pli=1 NEQxaFg3M1U/edit?usp=sharing&pli=1  Stations with chart

47 Last Ten  One tweet for each thinker – must include 1 hash tag - #  CNN Student News

48 Day Five Enlightenment Thinkers and Impact  Revolutions

49 First Ten  Pick up your scantron and review the questions you missed. Ask questions – neighbors and me.  Analytical Readings were graded yesterday and grades were entered – The assignments for the most part were complete (as in answering all of the questions) however, I feel that more detail can be included in the main idea bullet points. Also, formal grammar and spelling is required on any assignment turned in.  Project grades were entered as well. If you have a question about your grade please let me know at the end of class (during announcements)

50 Questions to Review Class average – 80%  #3 – Mita was a labor tribute required by the Incan government – used for government construction of buildings and public works (roads).  #8 – A major result of the European conquest of LA was the diffusion of the Spanish language.  #11- Bartolomeu Dias captained the first ship to sail around the Cape of Good Hope.  #19 – Samuel de Champlain explored the Great Lakes regions and modern day Quebec.  #26 – Dias sailed for Portugal.  #27 – Columbus sailed for SPAIN.  #32 – Pizzaro sailed for Spain.  #33 – slavery and disease  #34 – If African slaves already had small pox they were immune and would not get them again and risk perishing.  #35 – knowledge of agriculture, slave trade was already in existence between Africa, Europe, and Asia, immune to Old World diseases, did not know they “new” world

51 Hook  What was the Enlightenment?  Major contributions of:  Thomas Hobbes  John Locke  Voltaire  Mary Wollstonecraft  Cesar Beccaria  Baron de Montesquieu  Jean Jacques Rousseau  How did Enlightenment ideas challenge Absolutism?

52 Work Session  Revolution Basics  English Revolution – Glorious Revolution (1688)  American Revolution (1776)  French Revolution (1789)

53 English Revolution (1689)  Troubling times followed Elizabeth’s reign in England in the 17 th century.  The House of Stuart reigned with unsuccessful actions.  Using the first two pages in your packet, complete questions #1-6.  During this time in England, colonies were successfully being settled in the New World – original 13 colonies.  The Hanoverians will take the throne next setting the stage for new conflicts through oversea expansion.


55 Recap  Complete English and American Revolution Essentials.  Let’s rewrite the English Bill of Rights.

56 English BOR 1. That the pretended power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by regal authority, without consent of parliament is illegal. 4. That levying money for or to the use of the crown by pretense of prerogative, without grant of parliament, for longer time or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal. 5. That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal. 6. That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of parliament, is against law. 7. That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions, and as allowed by law. 8. That election of members of parliament ought to be free. 9. That the freedom of speech, and debates or proceedings in parliament, ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of parliament. 10. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 13. And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening, and preserving of the laws, parliament ought to be held frequently.

57 American Revolution (1776) CausesEffects


59 Last Ten  The concept of a revolution rocked the world of monarchies and created new forms of government for the world to follow.  What other revolutions in modern history can we relate to the age of revolutions in the 18 th century?  How do revolutions impact social structure?  Prior to leaving here today you must be able to understand the relationship between the following: Absolutism  Enlightenment  Revolutions

60 Day Six French Revolution

61 First Ten  Pick up your packet.  Answer # 1-6 on pg. 2 (answers only)  Using pg. 3 complete the chart below: CausesEffects

62 Hook  Explain relationship between these terms:  Absolutism, Enlightenment, Revolutions

63 Work Session  Read and discuss French Revolution in Packet  Start video

64 Last Ten – SPICE of Revolutions  S ocial  P olitical  I nnovations  C ulture  E conomic

65 Day Seven French Revolution & Napoleon

66 First Ten “The only representatives of the people of these colonies are persons chosen therein by themselves; and that no taxes have ever been, or can be constitutionally imposed on them but by their respective legislatures.” The Stamp Act Congress The quote above is the colonial response to the passage of the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act required individuals to pay an additional tax on any printed good (newspapers, paper to write letters on, playing cards, etc). How do the colonists respond to this tax? 2. The political cartoon to the right illustrates the _________________ because __________________.

67 Hook  Complete the “significance” section on page 3 of your French Revolution video notes.  Some important details:  3 Estates  Estates General Meeting  Role of Louis and Marie  “National Assembly”  Tennis Court Oath  Storming of Bastille Clergy of Roman Catholic Church 1% of population Owned 10% of land Paid 2% of their income into taxes Provided education and relief services to the poor 1 st Estate Nobility (by birth) 2% of population Owned 20% of land Paid little to no taxes Born into nobility – served on Louis’ court 2 nd Estate 97% of population – 50% of income into taxes Bourgeoisie – wealthy and educated “middle class” believed in Enlightenment ideas, (bankers, business owners, merchants) Urban Workers (laborers, apprentices, and domestic servants, artisans) Peasants – consisted of 80% of population (26 million ppl) worked the land 3 rd Estate

68 Work Session  Finish video – French Revolution

69 Last Ten  Vocabulary Review  Glorious Revolution/Bill of Rights/Constitutional Monarchy  American Revolution/Declaration of Independence  French Revolution/The Three Estates/Bourgeoisie  King Louis XVI/Marie Antoinette  Estates-General/Tennis Court Oath  Bastille Day  Reign of Terror/Maximilian Robespierre

70 Day Eight Napoleon and Latin American Revolutions

71 First Ten  History of Halloween History of Halloween  So what just happened?  Write this down:  France was in a bad situation due to debt, crop failures, tension between the social classes, and poor leadership. With revolutionary ideas swirling around the world, the bourgeoisie felt empowered to change France. France entered into revolutionary times that were chaotic and deadly. In the end, thousands of people lost their life and France remained in political turmoil.  French Revolution Review French Revolution Review

72 Hook  Vocabulary Review  Glorious Revolution/Bill of Rights/Constitutional Monarchy  American Revolution/Declaration of Independence  French Revolution/The Three Estates/Bourgeoisie  King Louis XVI/Marie Antoinette  Estates-General/Tennis Court Oath  Bastille Day  Reign of Terror/Maximilian Robespierre

73 Work Session  Napoleon Notes with graphic organizer  Latin American Revolutions Reading and Bubble Map

74 Rise of Napoleon  Prominent lieutenant in French Army - military genius  coup d'état – claimed dictatorship  Gains vote and trust of the people  1804 – crowned Emperor  By the end of the first decade (1812) Napoleon had much of Europe under this control  France, Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland  Large influence over Russia, Prussia, Austria

75 Napoleon’s Achievements  National Banking System  Lycees – Secondary schools  Concordat (Agreement) with Pope Pius VII to restore Catholicism to France  Napoleonic Code – law code to systemize France  Limited liberty but promoted order and authority (social contract)  Attempted to maintain control over Haiti and New France – not successful  Sold Louisiana territory to Jefferson (now president) in 1803 for 15 million dollars  With his sights lost in the New World he turns to try to conquer Britain … doesn’t work  Only defeat was the Battle of Trafalgar (naval battle lost to GB – had superior navy)


77 Downfall of Napoleon  3 KEY MISTAKES  Continental System  Peninsular war  Invasion of Russia  April 1814 – Napoleon surrenders – banished to Mediterranean island  March 1815 – Returns to France and people support him  Defeated at Waterloo – known as Napoleon’s Hundred Days (last 100 days)  Exiled to South America this time – dies there  Napoleon Napoleon



80 Significance  “Ideas about the basis of power and authority had changed permanently as a result of the French Revolution. More and more, people saw democracy as the best way to ensure equality and justice for all. The French Revolution, then, changed the social attitudes and assumptions that had dominated Europe for centuries. A NEW ERA HAD BEGUN.”  Pg. 675

81 Congress of Vienna   Goal: New European Order – “one of collective security and stability for the continent”  8 months and 5 superpowers (Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France)  Minister Klemons von Metternich (Austria) emerged as a significant leader at the meetings.  Actions:  Make small countries around France larger  Legitimacy – restore families to the throne  Results:  C. and E. Europe return to Absolutism  FR and GB will be a constitutional monarchy  1815 – Holy Alliance between Russia, Prussia, and Austria


83 Haiti  LA influenced by other revolutions  Haiti (1791)  Toussaint L’Ouverture – former slave  Slaves + Mulattoes  Independence won in 1798  Napoleon attempted to restore power over Haiti but failed in 1804

84 Latin American Revolutions  Simon Bolivar  “The Liberator” – end Spanish domination in South America  – Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia  Joined with Jose de San Martin who defeated the Spanish in Argentina and Chile in 1810s

85 Last Ten  Study Guide  Vocabulary Assignment … questions – Due Monday

86 Day Nine Test

87 First Ten  Hand in your packet.  Ask questions if you need clarification on topics.  Study!

88 Hook  Prep scantron  Short Answer section

89 Work Session  Unit Test (40 min) + short answer  Notebook Check  Absolutism DBQ  Scientific Revolution DBQ  Enlightenment Chart  French Revolution Packet  Napoleon/Congress of Vienna/LA Rev WS  Upfront Magazine/Health Survey  Galileo – pg 2  WWI – pg – outline impact on each area

90 Last Ten  Vocabulary #5 due MONDAY

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