Presentation on theme: "John Calvin for Dummies Background to the Reformation."— Presentation transcript:
John Calvin for Dummies Background to the Reformation
Theories of the Reformation Background to the Reformation
Theories: Why? Old Fashion Revolution: One ruling elite replaced another Insignificant : Did not permanently change anything and no different from what all religions are seeking. Genuine: Clearest re-presentation of Gospel since New Testament
Contexts of the Reformation Background to the Reformation
Political Kings and national consciousness became stronger
England War of Roses (Lancaster and York) united England. Henry VII (1495) initiated House of Tudor. England had national church but not Catholic because they rejected papal control.
Spain Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand united Spain (1469). While not papal, Roman Catholic Church was national by 16 th century. The Reformation made no progress in Spain because of strength of Catholic political rulers. By time of Reformation, Charles, son of Ferdinand, was King.
Germany Maximillian (Germany) married Mary (Burgundy & the Netherlands). Their child was Philip who married Joanna (Spain). Their child was Charles V who became Holy Roman Emperor, 1519. By inheritance became most powerful ruler since Charlemagne. A cosmopolitan man, someone has said he spoke French to the ladies, Italian to the men, German to his horse and Spanish to God. While technically Germany was under the Holy Roman Empire (descending from Charlemagne, 800s), there were 365 sovereign states within German territory, including ecclesiastical states. Council of Constance cured Great Schism 1417 and established one pope over the Empire with authority immediately from Christ.
France When the Hundred Years’ War ended in 1453, France developed a sense of national unity. The Catholic Church was national and papal. It was the home of the “Babylonian” (Avignon) captivity (1309-78). Francis I became king in 1515 while Calvin was writing from Geneva (dedicatory preface to Institutes ).
Social Factors After the Plague, cities began to grow again. By 1500, five cities in the world were over 100,000. By 1600, twelve cities were over 100,000. Geneva’s population was 15,000; Wittenberg never had more than 3500. Reformation succeeded in cities because the populace was more open to change People were able to make money without inheriting it. Kings became more powerful than popes.
Ecclesiastical Factors Papal corruption: Secularized: Cardinal speaking of Medicci Pope: “he would have been a good pope had he believed in God.” Medicci Pope said, “Now that we have attained papacy, let us enjoy it.” Lucrative: sold indulgences, taxed papal estates, higher clergy taxed lower clergy
Ecclesiastical Factors Members Sacramental system was mechanical and only reminded of Christ’s merit in order to inspire members’ merit. Lacked assurance and feared death: sought relief through indulgences, masses for the dead and viewing relics/pilgrimages.
Progress of the Reformation Background to the Reformation
Discovery of Grace Augustinian monk (1505) Professor of Bible at University of Wittenberg (1512) Ninety-five theses (1517) Tower experience (1518)
Justification Debates: Scripture Alone Bulls Against Luther’s teaching (June 1520) For excommunication (Jan. 1521) Writings between Bulls Appeal to German Nobility : against the pope Babylonian Captivity of the Church : repudiated sacramental system; fuzzy on confession Freedom of the Christian Man : most beautiful; what it means to be a Christian
Conflicts State Diet of Worms (1521) Temporal ban at Wartburg (1521- 22): under ban of State for treason, interdicted by Frederick for safekeeping at Wartburg
Conflicts Devil Inkwell at Wartburg “dark night of the soul”: regularly battled spiritual depression, played lute and flute for comfort, and Katie was an aid (“From the way you were acting, I thought God had died”)
Conflicts Radicals Andrew Karlstadt: tried to push Reformation faster, but Luther urged moderation Peasants: hereditary rights to things like firewood, etc. were being taken away Luther’s Admonition to Peace : said the nobles were guilty of oppression and the peasants were guilty of insurrection
Conflicts Erasmus On Free Will (1524): “bondage of the will is one of the useless doctrines we can do without,” afraid it would give rise to licentiousness On the Bondage of the Will (1525): if brilliant man like Erasmus cannot develop freedom of the will, proves it is a lie Zwingli Marburg (1529): dispute over Christ’s presence in Supper. After gaining respite from Francis the Pope and the Turks, Charles V turned his attention against the Protestants. They sought at Marburg to strengthen themselves by unifying. Agreed on 15 of 16 points but left divided.
Conflicts Self Coarse language and conduct Tolerated secret bigamy of Philip of Hesse: Protestant elector who could not divorce first wife, nor give up second Harsh toward Jews when grew impatient that they were not converting.
Switzerland Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) was “third man of the Reformation” in terms of prominence though his life and work occurred between Luther’s (1483-1546) and Calvin’s (1509-1564). Founder of the “Reformed Tradition,” that is, international, non-sectarian consensus on Scriptural principles as opposed to Lutheran. That emphasis was continued by his son-in-law Bullinger who at the Consensus Tigerinus pulled together Calvin and Zwinglian works on Lord’s Supper.
Zwingli Preacher and patriot Man of the Land Born January 1, 1484 to relatively prosperous and godly agrarian family. He was proud of his heritage and reminded that “Adam and Eve were the first peasants.” “The Reformation will proceed as surely as the Rhine.” Translation of Psalm 23, “He leads me along the Alps.”
Zwingli Studied classics, Erasmus, the Greek and Hebrew Bible. Memorized the Epistles in Greek. Ministry at Great Minster in Zurich (1519) Preaching: Began in Matthew and preached through the New Testament. Thrilled the people. Gifted musician, singer, composer Reform at Zurich Sermon On the Choice and Freedom of Foods (1522): breaking point was indulgences in Germany; sausages in Switzerland Priests’ petition to Marry (1522); Bishop denied request, but Zwingli and nine others married.
England The course of the Reformation in England followed the ideas of Henry and his successive children: Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth.
England: Early Influences Wycliffe and the Lollards (1506-30): 50 Lollards were killed between 1506-30. Erasmian Humanists (Thomas More, 1478-1535): Among there ranks were defenders and objectors to Catholic Church New “German Theology” (Lutheran) Cambridge (White Horse Inn): Latimer, Ridley, Foxe, Tyndale (maybe) formed study group to promote German theology. William Tyndale’s (1494-1536), New Testament (1526): included Lutheran preface and notes. When Tyndale died he prayed: “Lord, open the King of England’s eyes”
Henry VIII King of England (1509-47): He was the king, the whole king and nothing but the king. He desired to be the pope, the whole pope, and something more than the pope” Henry’s “divorce problem” (Catherine of Aragon): received a papal dispensation to marry his brother’s widow. Canonical: Married in 1510. Sought divorce in 1527. Problem with church because some supported earlier dispensation. Political: Rome just captured by Charles V and Pope Clement VII not willing to offend Charles (Catherine’s nephew) in order to please Henry. Solution: laws culminating in the Supremacy Act (1534); Thomas More executed because he refused to acknowledge Act of Supremacy Creation of new church: Thomas Cromwell (1485-1540): Chief political advisor to Henry. Convinced him to put Coverdale Bible (based on Tyndale’s) in all churches Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556): Archbishop of Canterbury: quiet scholar, timid. Greatest accomplishment, appreciation of tradition and piety which produced Book of Common Prayer
Edward VI: 1547-1553 Became king at nine years old Dramatic move to Protestantism Book of Common Prayer (1549): Lutheran Forty-two Articles (1552): Calvinistic, basis of Thirty-Nine Articles Second Book of Common Prayer (1552): Puritan
Mary Tudor: 1553-1558 Catholic, pro-Spanish (married Philip II of Spain): offended English, dismantled Protestantism By 1554, England was Catholic again “Marian Exiles” – left England to save life, John Knox left Martyrs (about 300), earned name “Bloody Mary” John Foxe’s (1516-87): Acts and Monuments (Book of Martyrs) : responsible for spreading anti-Catholic sentiments Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley (1555): “Today we shall light such a candle in England as will never be put out” John Hooper (1555): “Life to come is more bitter and death to come is more sweet” Thomas Cranmer (1556): Signed document to recant, but burned anyway. Recanted recantation and charred hand, which signed document
Prophets Against Falsehood We are before a spectacle exactly like that of a city struck by a severe epidemic and taken by assault by an enemy, that is sinking under the simultaneous impact of the double carnage and is being utterly consumed in a single fire. Blow your trumpet, watchman! To arms, shepherd! What? You do nothing? What? You remain inactive? What? You sleep? Now, when there is murder everywhere?...You must render an account to the Lord of so many dead, wretched man; you are a homicide so many times, you are guilty of the blood shed, every drop of which the Lord will reclaim from your own hand.... But it is still not enough to call you a homicide and traitor to your own people. Behold a crime too great for any branding to punish: as far as it depends on you, you sell Christ over again and crucify him anew. --Calvin
Disciples for Christ To all lovers of Jesus Christ and of his Gospel, greetings. Preface to Olivetan Bible, 1535 “We are all called to this inheritance without distinction of persons; male or female, small or great, servant or lord, master or disciple, cleric of layman, Hebrew or Greek, Frenchman or Latin, none is rejected; anyone who will with assured trust receive what is sent to him, who will embrace what is presented to him, in short, who will recognize Jesus Christ as what he has been given by the Father.” Preface, 1535