Presentation on theme: "Les Chemins de St-Jacques-de- Compostelle Los Caminos de Santiago de Compostela Christ’s Apostle James in northern Spain 30-40 CE Spain’s geographical,"— Presentation transcript:
Les Chemins de St-Jacques-de- Compostelle Los Caminos de Santiago de Compostela Christ’s Apostle James in northern Spain CE Spain’s geographical, historical & religious context The Islamic invasion of Iberia – 711 CE – 8 th century Circa. 813 bones/relics of James ‘found’ (no DNA) Battle of Clavijo (near Logroño) circa. 852 (no evidence but a psychological watershed - “Santiago Matamoros”)
Pilgrimage routes in France
Pilgrimage routes in Spain
What is pilgrimage? Etymology of the word pilgrimage – evolving Titus Maccius Plautus – Roman playwright – BCE (Before the Common Era) – word source “Asinaria” The One About the Asses Original use non-religious A “classic” (religious) definition in 3 parts 1. A journey to a place of significance (often arduous) 2. The journey, the destination and the arriving are equally important 3. A spiritual/religious significance for the traveller
Primary source -12 th century pilgrim’s guide Codex Calixtinus by Aimery Picaud – French cleric – circa (The Liber Jacobi – Book of Saint James) Insight into the profound prejudices of the times: Frenchman’s opinions towards The Basque The Navarrese (from Navarra on the Spanish side) Galicians Rich pedagogical material + other primary sources (to be discussed later)
Pilgrimage in the modern context 20 th century (the journey is paramount) Religious motivations + non-religious – Europe’s identity Post-World War II Europe – repairing the recent past… 1987 Council of Europe declared the Camino de Santiago as the first European cultural route 1993 Camino de Santiago (el Camino Francés) was placed on the World Heritage list 1998 France had all its four original medieval pilgrimage routes also placed on the World Heritage list titled: “Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France”
Statistics 1: Le Puy en Velay – Le* GR65- 14, nationalities
Statistics 2: St-Jean-Pied-de-Port 2012 total of 45, nationalities pilgrims passed by the Friends Office – Les Amis de Chemin de Saint-Jacques Pyrénées-Atlantiques (l’Accueil Saint-Jacques) France – 9,032 Japan Spain – 7,244 New Zealand Germany – 5,322 Taiwan - 23 South Korea – 1,996China - 15 Australia – 872Philippines - 4
Statistics 3 - Santiago de Compostela Certificate (The Compostela or certificate of attainment) 192,488 (108,809 males – 56%) (83,679 females – 44%) On foot (164,778 – 86%) - 22 in wheel chairs (0.01%) Motivation (101,171 religious/cultural/spiritual – 53%) Tracks: Camino Francés: 134,979 – 70% Camino Portugués: 25,628 – 13% Camino del Norte: 12,919 – 7% Vía de la Plata: 8,163 – 4% (Ailsa Piper’s text: Sinning …)
Statistics 4 – Santiago de Compostela Age of pilgrim walkers arriving in Santiago 30 – 60 years of age: 109,310 (57%) Less than 30 years of age: 54,731(28%) Greater than 60 years of age: 28,44714% Dominant professional backgrounds of pilgrims: Employed & in employment: 43,069(22%) Students 34,747 (18.00%) Technicians/IT24,754 (13.00%) Retired from the workforce22,094 (11%) Liberal professions 21,779 (11%) Teachers14,400 (7%)
Statistics 5 – Santiago de Compostela Point of departure for pilgrims: Sarria (in Galicia – 107 km from Santiago de Compostela) 40,734 (21%) St-Jean-Pied-de-Port (French Pyrenees) 22,214 (12%) León 10,406 (5%) Roncesvalles 8,468 (4%) Total of Nationalities = 68 Spain 95,275(50%)South Korea 2,493 (2%) Germany 15,620 (8%)Australia 1,885 (0.98%) Italy 12,404 (6%0)Japan 860 (0.45%) Portugal 10,329 (5%)New Zealand 377 (0.20%)
Pedagogy dovetailed into the pilgrimage routes The focus of this paper/workshop is to establish the inseparable link between language learning at any age and the language learner’s connection to that language whilst engaging mind, body and soul whilst walking the pilgrimage routes of France and Spain. In other words: walking with languages on the pilgrimage tracks is a holistic engagement - the whole is greater than its separate parts. The NSW Board of Studies K-10 Languages Syllabuses states its three objectives as: Using Language (using the target language) UL Making Linguistic Connections (First language and the target language) MLCs Moving Between Cultures (the subject’s first culture and the target culture) including aspects of acculturation with immersion) MBCs
The Australian Curriculum: Languages The Shape paper – November 2011 The aims of learning languages (page 22) 62. The interrelated aims of learning languages are to: Communicate in the target language Understand language, culture and learning and their relationship, and thereby develop an intercultural capability in communication Understand oneself as a communicator
The pilgrimage routes facilitates language learning…or maybe the reverse…languages facilitates… Point 65 in the Shape paper states: “By stepping outside the known space of their own language and culture and entering a new communicative and cultural space, the (language) learner is afforded opportunities for noticing, comparing, analysing, and reflecting on this experience and on themselves.
Two models in a pedagogical setting for doing a pilgrimage The American model First pioneered by Emeritus professor in Hispanic studies, David M Gitlitz (University of Rhode Island) in 1974 when he accompanied groups of college student- pilgrims on a academic medieval studies programs, sponsored by their universities (Indiana, Nebraska, Binghamton and Rhode Island). 1979; 1987; 1993; 1996 Lately, by Dr Annie Hesp at Virginia Tech University “I realized this would be an ideal way to teach kids Spanish and a way that kids really want to learn.”
The American model… continued Dr Hesp’s testimony continued : “We’re often throw into our classroom with other Americans when what we really want, is to get away.” With funding from GIEU (The Global Intercultural Experience for undergraduates at the University of Michigan) this Spanish language teacher got her Spanish language students to physically connect with the Camino de Santiago Walking the pilgrimage in Spain is a “notable departure from orthodox Spanish study abroad fare – Madrid, Barcelona, Seville.” “It’s a fantastic way to see the Spain that students really want to see, but that study abroad has a hard time providing.” “It’s like walking through the Middle Ages…the cheapest and most mind-altering way to spend a month in another country that I can think of.” Even the blisters from four to eight hours of walking did not suppress most students’ excitement. “A lot of them would probably tell you it was one of the most memorable experiences of their life”
The inclusive model – advocated Undertaking the pilgrimage route on your own or with your partner – (maximum two people) If below years of age: doing it with a mentor or as a family member (numbers vary – ideally it should never be more than four people) Inclusiveness inevitably occurs when on one’s own and/or with one’s partner only Conversely, exclusivity invariably occurs when the group is self- contained and naturally repels ‘outsiders’ who are not part of the ‘group’ Much more pedagogy is being deployed when there are fewer numbers (the individual has to engage more often), the target language is required and needed more frequently.
10 stages: schematic model for pedagogical engagement whilst on pilgrimage - ( source Tommi Mendel from Pilgrimages Today, a symposium on pilgrimages, Finland, August 2009 ) 1 Decision- making/motivation 2 Preparation 3 Departure 4 Transition 5 Journey 6 Arrival 7 Return 8 Re-integration 9 Working up the experiences 10 Lasting effects
1 - Decision-making At a specific point in time after getting to know the existence of this network of pilgrimage routes Decision-making follows: triggers (i.e. transitions/rites of passage/milestones e.g. going into full-time employment; end of an undergraduate course; long-service leave; super cheap holiday; being a trekker/hiker/bushwalker; mourning loss/grieving; losing a job; adventure; character building A language teacher/student: to use his/her languages and immerse themselves Personal/professional interests: art; history; architecture or religious commitment/faith
2 - Preparation Time : min. 6 months to max. 2-7 years – huge variation Physical preparation : training & addressing existing medical issues impacting on the individual’s ability Choosing & acquiring appropriate gear : “Good walking gear improves the walking outcome” CD Blog Reading & researching about the specific pilgrimage route : addressing language issues Choosing which communication devices – if any Sourcing other resources : guidebooks; maps etc.
2a – Pedagogical Preparation Target language studies continue : e.g. Korean; German; Japanese Specific language studies commenced for the chosen pilgrimage route (French, Portuguese, Spanish etc.) if not a target language (Professional) language journal commenced in a number of languages (at least in two languages): (source David Nunan*) This language journal should be so written as to be able to be shared and maybe published on-line; in print form or using other media. To document the cognitive, emotional, physical and for want of a better term the spiritual journal sequentially by the subject using the 10 stages schematic model shown earlier : Decision-Making to Lasting effects Creating or contributing to other texts in parallel to the future source text (the language journal) i.e. a blog or a vlog (video blog) in an educational setting Research projects on various elements: e.g. history, culture, regionalism, autonomous communities and their particular festivals/traditions/customs/cuisine etc. The World Heritage sites; the Islamic and Jewish influences on the pilgrimage
3 - Departure Date & location decided, subject to leave being granted Family, friends & colleagues informed or giving consent Commitment made for a flight to Europe Practical arrangements made during one’s absence Sufficient funds in place for on-going financial commitments + a daily pilgrimage budget accurately worked out
4 - Transition The subject/individual is now feeling a sustained range of emotions and feelings; from the positive to the negative… Once the subject has left his/her familiar environment (comfort zone) transformative attitudes start to kick in Changing roles from being a full-time student or teacher to being a (journeyman) pilgrim Anxiety and/or stress of being outside one’s comfort zone is being replaced by some positive inputs An explosion of sensorial stimuli as one gets closer to the head of the track or starting point Excitement builds up commensurate with the first foot placed on the pilgrimage track
5 – Journey Core business of walking every day; engagement and trouble shooting Managing pre-existing issues Data gathering consistent with the individual’s project Managing a tsunami quantity of pedagogy MBC (Moving between Cultures) Using Languages Making Linguistic Connections When appropriate, creating and drafting written texts after the walking and daily routines have first been completed
6 - Arrival Invariably, arrival is at Santiago de Compostela Celebrating appropriately Receiving either the certificate of attainment or the “Compostela” Exploring for 2/3 days (maximum) the World Heritage listed city Decision to keeping walking to Finisterre/Fisterra (Galician) The role and core-business of the walker-pilgrim changes Opportunities to write more Challenges and issues when walking stops after 30 days
7 - Return Pilgrim returning to: Country & home Community Family; friends and colleagues Work; studies and familiar routines Opportunities for further reflection and time- permitting, frenetic writing opportunities Completion of pedagogical projects and assignments as agreed (educational contract) to or as an aim
8 - Reintegration The individual/subject who was a pilgrim on the track is reinserting himself/herself into their previous lives… into their previous roles and responsibilities However: this reinsertion is never quite the same as it was before departure Evidence of modifications and transformations showing up Detachment is taking place between past and present emotions and feelings WIP (the individual is a ‘work in progress’)
9 – Working up the experiences Taking place internally is both analysis of the experiences and then a synthesis coming to the surface The returned pilgrim is constantly engaging in Reflection; memory recall; images of their pilgrimage; the comings and goings of their consciousness In pedagogical terms: All assignments, research topics, questions, personal interests have been published or will shortly be published or posted on the internet Professional language journal of the journey is completed
Conclusion In Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows Toad has just informed Mole and Rat that “Boating” is now definitively passé, rather he has discovered the pleasures and attractions of the “open road”.. “…the dusty highway, the heath, the common, the hedgerows, the rolling downs! Camps, villages, towns, cities! Here today, up and off to somewhere else tomorrow! Travel, change, interest, excitement! The whole world before you, and a horizon that’s always changing! And mind!” For a pilgrim journeying on foot along the pilgrimage routes with languages you cannot do better and you go further in every sense of the word.
Recommended bibliography David Gitlitz’s & Linda Kay Davidson’s text (2000): The Pilgrimage Road to Santiago – The Complete Cultural Handbook – including art; architecture ISBN ; geology; history; folklore; saints’ lives; flora & fauna. Conrad Rudolph’s (2004) Pilgrimage to the End of the World – the Road to Santiago de Compostela ISBN The Pilgrim’s Guide – a 12 th Century Guide for the Pilgrim to St James of Compostela – Translated from the Latin by James Hogarth – Published by the Confraternity of St James, Known as the Codex Calixtinus Denise Péricard-Méa (2006) Les routes de Compostelle Editions Jean-Paul Gisserot