Presentation on theme: "The pedagogy of the pilgrimage routes in France and Spain"— Presentation transcript:
1The pedagogy of the pilgrimage routes in France and Spain Marc GrossmanJuly 2013AFMLTA - Canberra
2Les Chemins de St-Jacques-de-Compostelle Los Caminos de Santiago de Compostela Christ’s Apostle James in northern Spain CESpain’s geographical, historical & religious contextThe Islamic invasion of Iberia – 711 CE – 8th centuryCirca. 813 bones/relics of James ‘found’ (no DNA)Battle of Clavijo (near Logroño) circa. 852 (no evidence but a psychological watershed - “Santiago Matamoros”)During the Middle Ages – Early and Middle – a European Union of sorts did exist – its common values were Christian – homogeneity was the order of the day.St James’ career takes off after his death – he is Spain’s patron saint
5What is pilgrimage? Etymology of the word pilgrimage – evolving Titus Maccius Plautus – Roman playwright – BCE (Before the Common Era) – word source “Asinaria” The One About the AssesOriginal use non-religiousA “classic” (religious) definition in 3 partsA journey to a place of significance (often arduous)The journey, the destination and the arriving are equally importantA spiritual/religious significance for the traveller
6Primary source -12th century pilgrim’s guide Codex Calixtinus by Aimery Picaud – French cleric – circa (The Liber Jacobi – Book of Saint James)Insight into the profound prejudices of the times: Frenchman’s opinions towardsThe BasqueThe Navarrese (from Navarra on the Spanish side)GaliciansRich pedagogical material + other primary sources (to be discussed later)“This is a barbarous people (Navarrese), different from all other peoples in customs and in race, malignant, dark in colour, ugly of face
7Pilgrimage in the modern context 20th century (the journey is paramount)Religious motivations + non-religious – Europe’s identityPost-World War II Europe – repairing the recent past…1987 Council of Europe declared the Camino de Santiago as the first European cultural route1993 Camino de Santiago (el Camino Francés) was placed on the World Heritage list1998 France had all its four original medieval pilgrimage routes also placed on the World Heritage list titled: “Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France”David Gitlitz wrote in his preface to his text: “You will learn what all of our pilgrim companions have learned on the Santiago Road: the going is more memorable than the getting there.”A modern evolving definition comes from Julia Gillard as Prime Minister in October, 2012 at the Bali Memorial service on the 10th anniversary to the victims of the Bali bombing:”Ten years later and we witness today another sort of courage: the courage it has taken for the survivors and families to make this pilgrimage. The physical journey by plane has been easy but the inner journey is wrenchingly hard." Read more:
8Statistics 1: Le Puy en Velay – Le* GR65- 14,187 - 61 nationalities Le Sigle de Sentier de Grande Randonnée – c-à-d Le Sentier de Grande Randonnée
9Statistics 2: St-Jean-Pied-de-Port 2012total of 45, nationalitiespilgrims passed by the Friends Office – Les Amis de Chemin de Saint-Jacques Pyrénées-Atlantiques (l’Accueil Saint-Jacques)France – 9, Japan - 354Spain – 7, New Zealand - 296Germany – 5,322 Taiwan - 23South Korea – 1,996 China - 15Australia – Philippines - 4
10Statistics 3 - Santiago de Compostela Certificate (The Compostela or certificate of attainment) 192,488 (108,809 males – 56%) (83,679 females – 44%)On foot (164,778 – 86%) - 22 in wheel chairs (0.01%)Motivation (101,171 religious/cultural/spiritual – 53%)Tracks:Camino Francés: 134,979 – 70%Camino Portugués: 25,628 – 13%Camino del Norte: 12,919 – 7%Vía de la Plata: 8,163 – 4% (Ailsa Piper’s text: Sinning …)
11Statistics 4 – Santiago de Compostela Age of pilgrim walkers arriving in Santiago30 – 60 years of age: 109,310 (57%)Less than 30 years of age: 54,731 (28%)Greater than 60 years of age: 28,447 14%Dominant professional backgrounds of pilgrims:Employed & in employment: 43,069 (22%)Students 34,747 (18.00%)Technicians/IT 24,754 (13.00%)Retired from the workforce 22,094 (11%)Liberal professions 21, (11%)Teachers 14,400 (7%)
12Statistics 5 – Santiago de Compostela Point of departure for pilgrims:Sarria (in Galicia – 107 km from Santiago de Compostela) 40,734 (21%)St-Jean-Pied-de-Port (French Pyrenees) 22,214 (12%)León 10,406 (5%)Roncesvalles 8,468 (4%)Total of Nationalities = 68Spain 95,275 (50%) South Korea 2,493 (2%)Germany 15,620 (8%) Australia 1,885 (0.98%)Italy 12,404 (6%0) Japan 860 (0.45%)Portugal 10,329 (5%) New Zealand 377 (0.20%)Filipinos at Santiago de Compostela:127 (0.07%) a dominant Catholic country…90%+ being Catholics.. No culture of walking – walking is synonymous with poverty and the uneducated classes – there is a sort of stigma against walking…
13Pedagogy dovetailed into the pilgrimage routes The focus of this paper/workshop is to establish the inseparable link between language learning at any age and the language learner’s connection to that language whilst engaging mind, body and soul whilst walking the pilgrimage routes of France and Spain. In other words: walking with languages on the pilgrimage tracks is a holistic engagement - the whole is greater than its separate parts.The NSW Board of Studies K-10 Languages Syllabuses states its three objectives as:Using Language (using the target language) ULMaking Linguistic Connections (First language and the target language) MLCsMoving Between Cultures (the subject’s first culture and the target culture) including aspects of acculturation with immersion) MBCs
14The Australian Curriculum: Languages The Shape paper – November 2011The aims of learning languages (page 22)62.The interrelated aims of learning languages are to:Communicate in the target languageUnderstand language, culture and learning and their relationship, and thereby develop an intercultural capability in communicationUnderstand oneself as a communicator
15The pilgrimage routes facilitates language learning…or maybe the reverse…languages facilitates… Point 65 in the Shape paper states: “By stepping outside the known space of their own language and culture and entering a new communicative and cultural space, the (language) learner is afforded opportunities for noticing, comparing, analysing, and reflecting on this experience and on themselves.
16Two models in a pedagogical setting for doing a pilgrimage The American modelFirst pioneered by Emeritus professor in Hispanic studies, David M Gitlitz (University of Rhode Island) in 1974 when he accompanied groups of college student-pilgrims on a academic medieval studies programs, sponsored by their universities (Indiana, Nebraska, Binghamton and Rhode Island). 1979; 1987; 1993; 1996Lately, by Dr Annie Hesp at Virginia Tech University“I realized this would be an ideal way to teach kids Spanish and a way that kids really want to learn.”
17The American model… continued Dr Hesp’s testimony continued :“We’re often throw into our classroom with other Americans when what we really want, is to get away.”With funding from GIEU (The Global Intercultural Experience for undergraduates at the University of Michigan) this Spanish language teacher got her Spanish language students to physically connect with the Camino de SantiagoWalking the pilgrimage in Spain is a “notable departure from orthodox Spanish study abroad fare – Madrid, Barcelona, Seville.”“It’s a fantastic way to see the Spain that students really want to see, but that study abroad has a hard time providing.”“It’s like walking through the Middle Ages…the cheapest and most mind-altering way to spend a month in another country that I can think of.”Even the blisters from four to eight hours of walking did not suppress most students’ excitement. “A lot of them would probably tell you it was one of the most memorable experiences of their life”
18The inclusive model – advocated Undertaking the pilgrimage route on your own or with your partner – (maximum two people)If below years of age: doing it with a mentor or as a family member (numbers vary – ideally it should never be more than four people)Inclusiveness inevitably occurs when on one’s own and/or with one’s partner onlyConversely, exclusivity invariably occurs when the group is self-contained and naturally repels ‘outsiders’ who are not part of the ‘group’Much more pedagogy is being deployed when there are fewer numbers (the individual has to engage more often), the target language is required and needed more frequently.
1910 stages: schematic model for pedagogical engagement whilst on pilgrimage - (source Tommi Mendel from Pilgrimages Today, a symposium on pilgrimages , Finland, August 2009)1 Decision-making/motivation7 Return8 Re-integration9 Working up the experiences2 Preparation3 Departure10 Lasting effects4 Transition5 Journey6 Arrival
201 - Decision-makingAt a specific point in time after getting to know the existence of this network of pilgrimage routesDecision-making follows:triggers (i.e. transitions/rites of passage/milestones e.g. going into full-time employment; end of an undergraduate course; long-service leave; super cheap holiday; being a trekker/hiker/bushwalker; mourning loss/grieving; losing a job; adventure; character buildingA language teacher/student:to use his/her languages and immerse themselvesPersonal/professional interests:art; history; architecture or religious commitment/faith
212 - PreparationTime : min. 6 months to max. 2-7 years – huge variationPhysical preparation : training & addressing existing medical issues impacting on the individual’s abilityChoosing & acquiring appropriate gear : “Good walking gear improves the walking outcome” CD BlogReading & researching about the specific pilgrimage route : addressing language issuesChoosing which communication devices – if anySourcing other resources : guidebooks; maps etc.
222a – Pedagogical Preparation Target language studies continue : e.g. Korean; German; JapaneseSpecific language studies commenced for the chosen pilgrimage route (French, Portuguese, Spanish etc.) if not a target language(Professional) language journal commenced in a number of languages (at least in two languages): (source David Nunan*)This language journal should be so written as to be able to be shared and maybe published on-line; in print form or using other media.To document the cognitive, emotional, physical and for want of a better term the spiritual journal sequentially by the subject using the 10 stages schematic model shown earlier : Decision-Making to Lasting effectsCreating or contributing to other texts in parallel to the future source text (the language journal) i.e. a blog or a vlog (video blog) in an educational settingResearch projects on various elements: e.g. history, culture, regionalism, autonomous communities and their particular festivals/traditions/customs/cuisine etc.The World Heritage sites; the Islamic and Jewish influences on the pilgrimage*Dr David Nunan’s text co-authored : Exploring Second Language Classroom Research is a comprehensive introductory manual for beginning and advanced researchers. Authored by two leading experts in the field, the text explores research traditions and processes. The text is illustrated with a variety of qualitative and quantitative data and includes tasks for reflection and application.
233 - Departure Date & location decided, subject to leave being granted Family, friends & colleagues informed or giving consentCommitment made for a flight to EuropePractical arrangements made during one’s absenceSufficient funds in place for on-going financial commitments + a daily pilgrimage budget accurately worked out
244 - TransitionThe subject/individual is now feeling a sustained range of emotions and feelings; from the positive to the negative…Once the subject has left his/her familiar environment (comfort zone) transformative attitudes start to kick inChanging roles from being a full-time student or teacher to being a (journeyman) pilgrimAnxiety and/or stress of being outside one’s comfort zone is being replaced by some positive inputsAn explosion of sensorial stimuli as one gets closer to the head of the track or starting pointExcitement builds up commensurate with the first foot placed on the pilgrimage track
255 – JourneyCore business of walking every day; engagement and trouble shootingManaging pre-existing issuesData gathering consistent with the individual’s projectManaging a tsunami quantity of pedagogyMBC (Moving between Cultures)Using LanguagesMaking Linguistic ConnectionsWhen appropriate, creating and drafting written texts after the walking and daily routines have first been completed
266 - Arrival Invariably, arrival is at Santiago de Compostela Celebrating appropriatelyReceiving either the certificate of attainment or the “Compostela”Exploring for 2/3 days (maximum) the World Heritage listed cityDecision to keeping walking to Finisterre/Fisterra (Galician)The role and core-business of the walker-pilgrim changesOpportunities to write moreChallenges and issues when walking stops after 30 days
277 - Return Pilgrim returning to: Country & homeCommunityFamily; friends and colleaguesWork; studies and familiar routinesOpportunities for further reflection and time-permitting, frenetic writing opportunitiesCompletion of pedagogical projects and assignments as agreed (educational contract) to or as an aim
288 - ReintegrationThe individual/subject who was a pilgrim on the track is reinserting himself/herself into their previous lives… into their previous roles and responsibilitiesHowever: this reinsertion is never quite the same as it was before departureEvidence of modifications and transformations showing upDetachment is taking place between past and present emotions and feelingsWIP (the individual is a ‘work in progress’)
299 – Working up the experiences Taking place internally is both analysis of the experiences and then a synthesis coming to the surfaceThe returned pilgrim is constantly engaging inReflection; memory recall; images of their pilgrimage; the comings and goings of their consciousnessIn pedagogical terms:All assignments, research topics, questions, personal interests have been published or will shortly be published or posted on the internetProfessional language journal of the journey is completed
30ConclusionIn Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows Toad has just informed Mole and Rat that “Boating” is now definitively passé, rather he has discovered the pleasures and attractions of the “open road”..“…the dusty highway, the heath, the common, the hedgerows, the rolling downs! Camps, villages, towns, cities! Here today, up and off to somewhere else tomorrow! Travel, change, interest, excitement! The whole world before you, and a horizon that’s always changing! And mind!”For a pilgrim journeying on foot along the pilgrimage routes with languages you cannot do better and you go further in every sense of the word.
31Recommended bibliography David Gitlitz’s & Linda Kay Davidson’s text (2000): The Pilgrimage Road to Santiago – The Complete Cultural Handbook – including art; architecture ISBN ; geology; history; folklore; saints’ lives; flora & fauna.Conrad Rudolph’s (2004) Pilgrimage to the End of the World –the Road to Santiago de Compostela ISBNThe Pilgrim’s Guide – a 12th Century Guide for the Pilgrim to St James of Compostela – Translated from the Latin by James Hogarth – Published by the Confraternity of St James, Known as the Codex CalixtinusDenise Péricard-Méa (2006) Les routes de Compostelle Editions Jean-Paul Gisserot