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Section 1: Colonial Rule in South East Asia The New Imperialism The Scramble for Territories new wave of Western expansion Imperialism “New Imperialism”

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1: Colonial Rule in South East Asia The New Imperialism The Scramble for Territories new wave of Western expansion Imperialism “New Imperialism”"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Section 1: Colonial Rule in South East Asia

3 The New Imperialism The Scramble for Territories new wave of Western expansion Imperialism “New Imperialism” Motives for Imperialism Economic Motives Rivalries Nationalism Social Darwinism and racism Racism Religious or humanitarian “The White Man’s Burden” “heathen masses” Democracy and capitalism

4 Section 1: Colonial Rule in South East Asia Colonial Takeover Great Britain Southeast Asia Began with the British 1819 – Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles Malay Peninsula – Singapore Kingdom of Burma (Myanmar) France Vietnam Christian missionaries Confucian Doctrine Vietnam too weak The French Mekong River delta City of Saigon 1884 –City of Hanoi Protectorate Cambodia, Annam, Laos, and Tonkin – to create French Indochina

5 Section 1: Colonial Rule in South East Asia Thailand – The Exception France and Great Britain Siam (Thailand) Two Rulers : King Mongkut King Chulalongkorn western learning maintained relations 1896 –independent buffer state United States 1898 – Spanish American War Commodore George Dewey President William McKinley “civilize” Emilio Aguinaldo Guerrilla warfare Filipino-American War

6 Section 1: Colonial Rule in South East Asia Colonial Regimes Indirect or Direct Rule Indirect Rule Local rulers Natural resources Cheaper Less impact on local culture Direct Rule Justification for the conquests Representative government Religion Language Educated “heathen” fear Colonial Economies No Industry Led to plantation agriculture Peasants (wage laborers) Plantation owners High taxes Benefits of colonial rule Modern economic system Railroads, roads, schools, Export market

7 Section 1: Colonial Rule in South East Asia Resistance to Colonial Rule Resistance Ruling Class Burma Vietnam Can Vuong (“Save the King”) Peasant revolts Burma – 1930 Buddhist Monk Saya San Early resistance movements failed New resistance Nationalism Westernized intellectuals 1930’s

8 Section 2: Empire Building in Africa

9 West Africa and North Africa Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Portugal West Africa Raw materials Slave Trade Tension Great Britain annexed Gold Coast Nigeria France 1900 –French West Africa Germany Togo, Cameroon, German Southwest Africa, and German East Africa

10 Section 2: Empire Building in Africa North Africa Great Britain Egypt Ottoman Empire Muhammad Ali reforms to modernize Egypt Europeans wanted to build a canal Ferdinand de Lesseps - Suez Canal British -“Their lifeline to India” 1875 – British will buy Egypt’s share 1881 – Revolt Protectorate Sudan British “to protect their interests” Muslim Cleric Muhammad Ahmad (the Mahdi) British – General Charles Gordon Khartoum in 1885 France 1879 –Algeria 1881 –Tunisia and Morocco protectorates Italy Ethiopia and 1911 –Tripoli and will rename Libya

11 Section 2: Empire Building in Africa Central and East Africa Central Africa Explorers David Livingstone Uncharted regions Made detailed notes Maps Henry Stanley New York Herald “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” Livingstone will die in 1873 Congo River to the Atlantic Ocean British King Leopold II of Belgium Leopold will hire Stanley in 1876 France

12 Section 2: Empire Building in Africa East Africa 1885 – Great Britain and Germany Otto Von Bismarck “ all this colonial business is a sham, but we need it for the elections” Great Britain, Germany, Belgium and Portugal Berlin Conference ( ) German and British Portugal - Mozambique No delegates from African nations were present

13 Section 2: Empire Building in Africa South Africa The Boer Republics Rapid expansion Boers and Afrikaners During the Napoleonic Wars The Boers Orange and Vaal Rivers Two independent republics: Orange Free State Transvaal White superiority was ordained by God Indigenous people into reservations Zulus -leader was Shaka

14 Section 2: Empire Building in Africa Cecil Rhodes “ I think what [God] would like me to do is to paint as much of Africa British red as possible” Transvaal Rhodes will be replaced Boer War (1899 – 1902) Boers used guerilla warfare Burn crops and detention camps –Union of South Africa Self-governing state

15 Section 2: Empire Building in Africa Effects of Imperialism Colonial Rule in Africa 1914 Liberia and Ethiopia The British ruled with indirect rule 1903 in Sokoto in Northern Nigeria Good Bad foster class and tribal tensions The French ruled with direct rule Governor-general Assimilation Rise of African Nationalism New class of Africans West culture Came to resent to foreign occupation European Superiority Confusion Organize political parties and movements

16 Section 3: British Rule in India

17 The Sepoy Mutiny Events Leading to Revolt British East India Trading Company Sepoys 1857 Sepoy Mutiny /The first war of Independence /Great Rebellion The problem: pig and cow grease soldiers had to bite off the ends Sepoys Sepoys in Meerut Other revolts broke out all over India Muslims and Hindus Many atrocities– Kanpur Effects of the Revolt Transfer of power 1876 – Queen Victoria Viceroy Help to fuel Indian nationalism

18 Section 3: British Rule in India British Colonial Rule Benefits of British rule Order and stability Fair and honest government New school system Built roads, canals, universities and medical centers Postal service Built a Railroad system Costs of British Rule Economic Costs Most of the country remained poor British Industries Zamindars British - farmers to stop growing food Degrading British racism and arrogance

19 Section 3: British Rule in India Indian Nationalists Early Nationalists Upper class and English educated Preferred reform to revolution Indian National Congress Mohandas Gandhi 1915 – returns to India nonviolent resistance

20 Section 3: British Rule in India Colonial Indian Culture Cultural revolution in India University of Calcutta Own national identity Indian novelists and poets Nationalist Newspapers Regional languages – nationalist support Journalist Balwantrao Gangahar Tilak Kesari (“The Lion”) Editor G.S. Aiyar Swadeshamitram (“Friend of Our Nation”) Triplicane Literary Society Tagore Rabindranath Tagore Most famous Indian author Bande Mataram (“Hail to Thee, Mother”) International university Fought to promote Indian pride in nationalism

21 Section 4: Nation Building in Latin America

22 Nationalist Revolts American Revolution Creoles land and business Spanish and the Portuguese Prelude to Revolution Creoles Peninsulares Napoleon’s wars Island of Hispaniola – in Saint Domingue François-Dominique Toussaint-Louverture Revolt in Mexico 1810 Miguel Hidalgo Native American and Mestizos September 16, 1810 Creoles and the Peninsulares Agustin de Iturbide 1821 Mexico will declare their independence

23 Section 4: Nation Building in Latin America Revolts in South America “Liberators of South America” Jose de San Martin (Argentina) Led revolts throughout the continent 1810 –Argentina Chile Battle of Chacabuco Chile independence in 1818 Peru Joined forces with Simon Bolivar and defeated the Spanish Simon Bolivar (Venezuela) 1810 in Venezuela New Granada (Columbia) and Ecuador 1824 – Argentina, Columbia, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia 1822 – Brazil 1823 – Central American states had become independent 1838 divided into five republics: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua Threats to Independence 1820’s Concert of Europe British US– President James Monroe Monroe Doctrine

24 Section 4: Nation Building in Latin America Nation Building Problems – wars, revolts, lack of transportation, communication, etc. Rule of the Caudillos Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna “Napoleon of the West” 1835 –Texas territory of Mexico War with the US ( ) Benito Juarez 1855 – 1876 Brought liberal reforms Juan Manuel de Rosa Argentina A New Imperialism Great Britain and the US US “ Dollar Diplomacy” (William Howard Taft) Foreign investors Economic Dependence Cash Crops Persistent Inequality Landed elites Large estates held the best land Land was the basis of wealth, social prestige, and political power

25 Section 4: Nation Building in Latin America Change in Latin America The U.S. and Latin America By the 1870’s - a constitution Late 1800s the US began to intervene 1895 – Jose Marti - Cuba Spanish-American War 1903 – President Teddy Roosevelt Panama Canal (Opened in 1914) American investments and US military Nicaragua – 1912 – 1933 Revolution in Mexico Porfirio Diaz (1877 – 1911) Francisco Madero Emiliano Zapata – Mexican Revolution New constitution in 1917 Mexican Patriotism Prosperity and Social Change After 1870 age of prosperity Exports & Imports After 1900 Middle Class in LA


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