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#1 Middle Ages Review: Periods of History

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Presentation on theme: "#1 Middle Ages Review: Periods of History"— Presentation transcript:

0 Unit 1

1 #1 Middle Ages Review: Periods of History Period between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. Dating approximately MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

2 Vernacular Languages #2 SHOW NEXT Review: High Middle Ages/Renaissance
The common speech of the masses. They were the alternative to Latin, the language of the learned. The late Middle Ages saw the rise of the vernacular literature, though Latin remained the universal tongue of scholarship, politics, and the Church in Western Europe until after the Middle Ages and the Reformation. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

3 Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille
#3 Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille Review: Growth of Nations Ferdinand and Isabella married in 1479, which united Aragon and Castille into one Spanish nation. During their reign, they captured Granada from the Moors in 1492, took powers away from the Church courts and Spanish nobility, and forcibly united Spain along a Catholic identity through the Inquisition. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

4 Maximilian I #4 SHOW NEXT
Review: Growth of Nations Holy Roman Emperor elected in He began a long line of Hapsburg emperors. His marriage caused the Holy Roman Empire to gain the Netherlands, Luxemborg, and Burgundy. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

5 Vulgate #5 Review: Life in the Middle Ages Latin translation of the bible by Jerome ( C.E.) and adopted as the standard version by the Catholic Church. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

6 Ottoman Empire #6 SHOW NEXT
Review: Life in the Middle Ages Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

7 Millets #7 Review: Life in the Middle Ages Groups of religious and ethnic minorities who formed administrative units. These units were governed by laws particular to their needs within the Ottoman Empire. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

8 Also known as the Bubonic Plague.
Black Death #8 Review: Life in the Middle Ages Epidemic that broke out in 1347 due to growing urbanization and unsanitary conditions. It spread along major trade routes, and may have killed nearly 30 percent of Europeans between Also known as the Bubonic Plague. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

9 War of Roses #9 SHOW NEXT Review: Growth of Nations MARK FOR REVIEW
War between the York and Lancaster houses in England for control of the English crown. The white rose symbolized the York House and the red rose symbolized the Lancaster House. By 1485, Henry Tudor of Lancaster defeated King Richard of York. Tudor set up a strong monarchy in England. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

10 Hundred Years’ War #10 SHOW NEXT
Review: Growth of Nations War between England and France which lasted from King Edward III (England) claimed the French throne despite France’s appointment of Philip VI of Flanders as King. France officially won the war and expelled the English from all French lands except Calais. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

11 Renaissance #11 SHOW NEXT
Review: Periods of History Era from , sometimes called the “Age of Transition,” as it marked a period of innovation toward modern Europe from the Middle Ages. Literally meaning “rebirth,” this epoch saw a return to classical Greek and Roman concepts and a flourishing of humanism. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

12 Leonardo da Vinci #12 SHOW NEXT Review: Italian Renaissance
Renaissance sculptor, scientist, engineer, architect, and painter. His most famous works include The Last Supper and Mona Lisa. His artistic style embodied the spirit of Renaissance investigation and its focus on the realistic portrayal of human life. He lived from MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

13 Florentine diplomat and historian who lived from 1469-1527.
#13 Niccolo Machiavelli Review: Italian Renaissance Florentine diplomat and historian who lived from Wrote the famous essay, The Prince, which described his view of realistic government with a strong leader concerned only with political power and success and embracing the ideal of seeking to be feared rather than loved by the masses. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

14 Baldassare Castiglione
#14 Baldassare Castiglione Review: Italian Renaissance Italian diplomat who lived from Published the most famous Renaissance book, The Book of the Courtier. This became the archetype for the “Renaissance man,” who was versed in liberal arts and social graces, as contrasted to the more unrefined Middle Ages knight. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

15 Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism.
#15 Francesco Petrarch Review: Italian Renaissance Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his “lady love” who spoke no Latin. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

16 #16 Humanists Review: Italian Renaissance Renaissance scholars of classical Greek and Roman works of literature and thought who were great advocates of liberal arts education and the importance of the individual. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

17 #17 De Medicis Review: Italian Renaissance Wealthy merchant family of bankers who controlled the Italian city-state of Florence during the Renaissance era. Their subsidization of the arts, especially under Lorenzo, supported the flowering of the Renaissance. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

18 Albrecht Dürer #18 SHOW NEXT Review: Northern Renaissance
German artist who lived from Famous for his woodcuts and copper engravings. Influenced by Venetian artists, he was versed in classical teachings and humanism. He was also the first to create printed illustrations in books. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

19 The Van Eyck Brothers #19 SHOW NEXT Review: Northern Renaissance
Flemish painters who applied great attention to the details in their work, particularly in their capturing of human facial expressions. Their altarpiece for a church in Ghent captures the expressions of Adam and Eve in a way that is more realistic than the symbolic depiction of the Middle Ages Artists. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

20 Thomas Moore #20 SHOW NEXT Review: Northern Renaissance
English humanist, contemporary of Erasmus, and author of Utopia, in which he condemned governments as corrupt, and private property. As the first lay chancellor of England, he was later executed by Henry VIII when he refused to agree that the King was the supreme head of the English Church. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

21 Dutch scholar known as “Prince of Northern Humanists.”
Desiderius Erasmus #21 Review: Northern Renaissance Dutch scholar known as “Prince of Northern Humanists.” Lived from He criticized the lack of spirituality in the Church in The Praise of Folly, which ridicules the superstition, ignorance, and vice of Christians on pilgrimages, in fasting, and the Church’s interpretation of the Bible. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

22 Johannes Gutenberg #22 SHOW NEXT
Review: Northern Renaissance The European inventor of the printing press, which allowed books to be printed quickly and economically. He used his invention to print copies of the Bible. This innovation aided the spread of Renaissance and Reformation ideas throughout Europe. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

23 Treaty of Nanjing #23 SHOW NEXT
Review: Age of Exploration 1842 agreement ending the Opium War between China and England and giving England control of Hong Kong and regional ports, as well as awarding British citizens extraterritoriality rights. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

24 Dutch East India Company
#24 Dutch East India Company Review: Age of Exploration Founded in 1602, this joint-stock company had total control over trading (mainly in spices) between the East Indies and the Netherlands. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

25 Commercial Revolution
#25 Commercial Revolution Review: Age of Exploration A period of economic innovation that was a result of colonization and exploration between the late fifteenth and eighteenth centuries. The Commercial Revolution saw the rise of joint-stock companies and the growth of mercantilism. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

26 Ferdinand Magellan #26 SHOW NEXT
Review: Exploration and Colonization Portuguese navigator whose crew first circumnavigated the globe and thus proved that the world was round and that the New World was not a part of Asia. Furthermore, Magellan’s exploration of the Pacific Ocean yielded its name because of its pacific, or calm, nature. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

27 Amerigo Vespucci #27 SHOW NEXT Review: Exploration Colonization
Italian navigator who crossed the Atlantic several times and officially called the land thought by Columbus to be Asia the “New World.” Later, a German cartographer renamed this land “America” in honor of Vespucci’s work. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

28 Treaty of Tordesillas #28 SHOW NEXT
Review: Exploration Colonization Agreement between Spain and Portugal to divide from north to south the Atlantic Ocean so that the two nations would not be competing for the same lands in their zealous explorations. Spain was to explore the lands west of the line, while Portugal was to have the eastern region. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

29 Christopher Columbus #29 SHOW NEXT Review: Exploration Colonization
Italian explorer commissioned by Queen Isabella of Spain to find a shorter route to Asia by sailing westward. In 1492, Columbus sailed on the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria going west across the Atlantic. He landed on what he called the Indies but were actually islands in the Caribbean. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

30 Bartholomeu Dias #30 SHOW NEXT Review: Exploration Colonization
Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa and thus found the route to the Indian Ocean. This helped establish an overseas trade route from Europe to India and the East Indies, which provided Europeans with the cargoes of jewels and spices they so desired. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

31 Middle Passage #31 SHOW NEXT Review: Exploration Colonization
Second leg of the three-part trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americans in which African slaves traveled across the Atlantic. The slaves were sold for products produced on the large farms, or plantations. This passage was cruel and fatal for many. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

32 His voyages led to England’s claim in North America.
#32 John Cabot Review: Colonialism Fifteenth-century English explorer explorer who traveled to the coasts of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and New England. His voyages led to England’s claim in North America. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

33 #33 Sea Dogs Review: Colonialism Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and Sir Walter Raleigh were among this group of adventurous English sea captains who challenged Portuguese and Spanish sea trade supremacy and robbed foreign vessels of their valuables. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

34 #34 Henry Hudson Review: Colonialism Dutch sailor who searched for the Northwest Passage and claimed much of Northern Canada when he was employed by the British. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

35 #35 Jamestown Review: Colonialism England’s first permanent settlement (1607) in North America, it was located in what is today Virginia. MARK FOR REVIEW SHOW NEXT

36 The End END REVIEW


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