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Unit 1. Period between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. Dating approximately 476-1450. Middle Ages #1 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review:

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1. Period between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. Dating approximately 476-1450. Middle Ages #1 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1

2 Period between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. Dating approximately Middle Ages #1 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Periods of History

3 The common speech of the masses. They were the alternative to Latin, the language of the learned. The late Middle Ages saw the rise of the vernacular literature, though Latin remained the universal tongue of scholarship, politics, and the Church in Western Europe until after the Middle Ages and the Reformation. Vernacular Languages #2 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: High Middle Ages/Renaissance

4 Ferdinand and Isabella married in 1479, which united Aragon and Castille into one Spanish nation. During their reign, they captured Granada from the Moors in 1492, took powers away from the Church courts and Spanish nobility, and forcibly united Spain along a Catholic identity through the Inquisition. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille #3 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Growth of Nations

5 Holy Roman Emperor elected in He began a long line of Hapsburg emperors. His marriage caused the Holy Roman Empire to gain the Netherlands, Luxemborg, and Burgundy. Maximilian I #4 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Growth of Nations

6 Latin translation of the bible by Jerome ( C.E.) and adopted as the standard version by the Catholic Church. Vulgate #5 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Life in the Middle Ages

7 Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I. Ottoman Empire #6 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Life in the Middle Ages

8 Groups of religious and ethnic minorities who formed administrative units. These units were governed by laws particular to their needs within the Ottoman Empire. Millets #7 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Life in the Middle Ages

9 Epidemic that broke out in 1347 due to growing urbanization and unsanitary conditions. It spread along major trade routes, and may have killed nearly 30 percent of Europeans between Also known as the Bubonic Plague. Black Death #8 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Life in the Middle Ages

10 War between the York and Lancaster houses in England for control of the English crown. The white rose symbolized the York House and the red rose symbolized the Lancaster House. By 1485, Henry Tudor of Lancaster defeated King Richard of York. Tudor set up a strong monarchy in England. War of Roses #9 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Growth of Nations

11 War between England and France which lasted from King Edward III (England) claimed the French throne despite France’s appointment of Philip VI of Flanders as King. France officially won the war and expelled the English from all French lands except Calais. Hundred Years’ War #10 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Growth of Nations

12 Era from , sometimes called the “Age of Transition,” as it marked a period of innovation toward modern Europe from the Middle Ages. Literally meaning “rebirth,” this epoch saw a return to classical Greek and Roman concepts and a flourishing of humanism. Renaissance #11 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Periods of History

13 Renaissance sculptor, scientist, engineer, architect, and painter. His most famous works include The Last Supper and Mona Lisa. His artistic style embodied the spirit of Renaissance investigation and its focus on the realistic portrayal of human life. He lived from Leonardo da Vinci #12 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Italian Renaissance

14 Florentine diplomat and historian who lived from Wrote the famous essay, The Prince, which described his view of realistic government with a strong leader concerned only with political power and success and embracing the ideal of seeking to be feared rather than loved by the masses. Niccolo Machiavelli #13 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Italian Renaissance

15 Italian diplomat who lived from Published the most famous Renaissance book, The Book of the Courtier. This became the archetype for the “Renaissance man,” who was versed in liberal arts and social graces, as contrasted to the more unrefined Middle Ages knight. Baldassare Castiglione #14 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Italian Renaissance

16 Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his “lady love” who spoke no Latin. Francesco Petrarch #15 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Italian Renaissance

17 Renaissance scholars of classical Greek and Roman works of literature and thought who were great advocates of liberal arts education and the importance of the individual. Humanists #16 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Italian Renaissance

18 Wealthy merchant family of bankers who controlled the Italian city-state of Florence during the Renaissance era. Their subsidization of the arts, especially under Lorenzo, supported the flowering of the Renaissance. De Medicis #17 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Italian Renaissance

19 German artist who lived from Famous for his woodcuts and copper engravings. Influenced by Venetian artists, he was versed in classical teachings and humanism. He was also the first to create printed illustrations in books. Albrecht Dürer #18 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Northern Renaissance

20 Flemish painters who applied great attention to the details in their work, particularly in their capturing of human facial expressions. Their altarpiece for a church in Ghent captures the expressions of Adam and Eve in a way that is more realistic than the symbolic depiction of the Middle Ages Artists. The Van Eyck Brothers #19 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Northern Renaissance

21 English humanist, contemporary of Erasmus, and author of Utopia, in which he condemned governments as corrupt, and private property. As the first lay chancellor of England, he was later executed by Henry VIII when he refused to agree that the King was the supreme head of the English Church. Thomas Moore #20 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Northern Renaissance

22 Dutch scholar known as “Prince of Northern Humanists.” Lived from He criticized the lack of spirituality in the Church in The Praise of Folly, which ridicules the superstition, ignorance, and vice of Christians on pilgrimages, in fasting, and the Church’s interpretation of the Bible. Desiderius Erasmus #21 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Northern Renaissance

23 The European inventor of the printing press, which allowed books to be printed quickly and economically. He used his invention to print copies of the Bible. This innovation aided the spread of Renaissance and Reformation ideas throughout Europe. Johannes Gutenberg #22 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Northern Renaissance

24 1842 agreement ending the Opium War between China and England and giving England control of Hong Kong and regional ports, as well as awarding British citizens extraterritoriality rights. Treaty of Nanjing #23 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Age of Exploration

25 Founded in 1602, this joint- stock company had total control over trading (mainly in spices) between the East Indies and the Netherlands. Dutch East India Company #24 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Age of Exploration

26 A period of economic innovation that was a result of colonization and exploration between the late fifteenth and eighteenth centuries. The Commercial Revolution saw the rise of joint-stock companies and the growth of mercantilism. Commercial Revolution #25 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Age of Exploration

27 Portuguese navigator whose crew first circumnavigated the globe and thus proved that the world was round and that the New World was not a part of Asia. Furthermore, Magellan’s exploration of the Pacific Ocean yielded its name because of its pacific, or calm, nature. Ferdinand Magellan #26 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Exploration and Colonization

28 Italian navigator who crossed the Atlantic several times and officially called the land thought by Columbus to be Asia the “New World.” Later, a German cartographer renamed this land “America” in honor of Vespucci’s work. Amerigo Vespucci #27 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Exploration Colonization

29 Agreement between Spain and Portugal to divide from north to south the Atlantic Ocean so that the two nations would not be competing for the same lands in their zealous explorations. Spain was to explore the lands west of the line, while Portugal was to have the eastern region. Treaty of Tordesillas #28 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Exploration Colonization

30 Italian explorer commissioned by Queen Isabella of Spain to find a shorter route to Asia by sailing westward. In 1492, Columbus sailed on the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria going west across the Atlantic. He landed on what he called the Indies but were actually islands in the Caribbean. Christopher Columbus #29 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Exploration Colonization

31 Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa and thus found the route to the Indian Ocean. This helped establish an overseas trade route from Europe to India and the East Indies, which provided Europeans with the cargoes of jewels and spices they so desired. Bartholomeu Dias #30 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Exploration Colonization

32 Second leg of the three-part trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americans in which African slaves traveled across the Atlantic. The slaves were sold for products produced on the large farms, or plantations. This passage was cruel and fatal for many. Middle Passage #31 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Exploration Colonization

33 Fifteenth-century English explorer explorer who traveled to the coasts of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and New England. His voyages led to England’s claim in North America. John Cabot #32 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Colonialism

34 Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and Sir Walter Raleigh were among this group of adventurous English sea captains who challenged Portuguese and Spanish sea trade supremacy and robbed foreign vessels of their valuables. Sea Dogs #33 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Colonialism

35 Dutch sailor who searched for the Northwest Passage and claimed much of Northern Canada when he was employed by the British. Henry Hudson #34 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Colonialism

36 England’s first permanent settlement (1607) in North America, it was located in what is today Virginia. Jamestown #35 SHOWNEXT MARK FOR REVIEW Review: Colonialism

37 The End REVIEWEND


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