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Elements of Music Literacy

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1 Elements of Music Literacy
Todd Decker

2 Section I

3 Music Sound organized in time Many kinds of sounds
Composers/organizers 19th century Hero/artist Harness forces of nature; turn them to his will CONTROL! Solo performer—virtuoso

4 THE ELEMENTS OF SOUND or, catch the wave, dude
Frequency vs wavelength (pitch) how fast a wave oscillates; rate Amplitude/wave height (loudness/dynamics) how loud—how much air is moved Waveform (Tone Color or Timbre) fundamentals and overtones Envelope (Articulation) Initiate (or attack), sustain, release Duration How long a pitch lasts Wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency: waves with higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths, and lower frequencies have longer wavelengths Amplitude is half the distance between crest and trough Timbre--The conscious brain “hears” the fundamental; the subconscious brain “hears” the overtones—the combination of the two is why you know the difference between a trumpet and a violin playing the same frequency pitch. It’s also why you can tell it’s your friend on the other end of the line when you pick up the phone—it’s all in the overtones! Every sound has an envelope: a start, a middle, and an end. Different instruments (and different styles of play on the same instrument) can alter all three of the parts of the envelope, which in turn affects the timbre of the note or pitch. Duration is notated using whole notes, quarter notes, eighth notes, etc. 4

5 U.S. Navy F/A-18 breaking the sound barrier

6 Sound Waves

7 Elements of Sound in the Romantic Era
Technological advances improvements in instrument manufacture standardization in tuning systems Orchestration Mix of instruments (see Berlioz) Size of orchestras increase from 40 to more than 100 Mega-concerts Technological advances allowed musicians to explore the extremes of range, dynamics, timbre, and articulation improvements and standardization in tuning systems and instrument manufacture allowed for increasingly varied combinations of instruments 7

8 Frequency/Range Range of instruments increase significantly
Mozart Piano: five octaves Beethoven Piano: six octaves Modern Piano: seven and a half octaves Instrument families or “choirs” Developed to play a combined range of more than four octaves Saxophone, oboe/bassoon, and clarinet “families” were invented or perfected in the Romantic era

9 Frequency/Range What’s your pitch?
Fastball, curveball, slider, knuckleball If the catcher doesn’t know what’s coming, LOOK OUT! One player’s change-up is another player’s fastball system of equal temperament or tuning Allowing touring musicians to play with local musicians and have everyone on the same page, so to speak Now, if we could just get umpires to have equal tempered strike zones . . . One essential issue in the study of pitch is determining the exact frequency of any given pitch. If there is not agreement on this, then any music played by more than one person will be consistently out of tune. Throughout music history the search for a tuning system applicable to all instruments, especially keyboards, has occupied musicians and scientists alike. By the end of the nineteenth century, almost all had agreed upon a system of equal temperament or tuning. In this system, all half steps are equal, and all keys have the same distances between their respective pitches. It is hard to imagine, but before this time a piano in one town might be tuned differently from a piano in another. 9

10 Amplitude/Dynamics Technology alters dynamic control, allowing for more contrast in Loud and Soft parts Musicians can do more Enabling composers to do more ff – Fortissimo f – Forte mf – mezzo-forte mp – mezzo-piano p – piano pp – pianissimo Technical advances also enabled instruments, whether alone or in combination, to control dynamics over a much wider range in the Romantic era.Not only could instruments deliver the extremes of loud and soft, they could do so throughout the majority of their range. This enabled composers to use dynamics in a much more expansive way. Contrasts between loud and soft could be regulated so that indications of very soft, medium soft, or even extremely loud might be achieved. By the end of the nineteenth century, scores regularly appeared with as many as six to eight distinct gradations of dynamics. 10

11 Timbre New instruments were invented:
saxophone, tuba, the valve trumpet, the rotary valve horn, the Wagner tuba, the modern piano, and even the accordion We’ll talk a lot more about Schubert, who Anthony Tommasini concludes is #4 in his Top Ten Composers of All Time list. 11

12 Sonata for Arpeggione by Franz Schubert
Schubert was nick-named “Schwammerl” (tubby) by his friends with friends like that, who needs enemies? Did not have a piano of his own Did not have a place of his own, so he stayed with friends (after spending most of the night out drinking in cafés) It all worked out; “Tubby” liked to put on a good show Schubertiaden—evenings sponsored by Schubert’s friends in which nothing but his music was performed Arpeggione -- six-stringed instrument tuned like a guitar, but bowed like a cello

13 Articulation Can a piano imitate an orchestra?
Can music sound evil? Good? Macabre? Can you play like she sings? Cantabile (violins “singing” like in Solveig’s Song) Expression marks: Music expresses feelings—specific feelings

14 Duration Metronome Tempo—rate of the beat
Johann Maelzel’s company built first mass-market metronome in 1816 Produces a steady beat Tempo—rate of the beat 60 beats per minute vs 120 beats per minute vs . . Specific m. m.—metronome markings for use in standardization It’s still up to the performer and/or conductor

15 Temporal Organization in Music

16 Temporal Organization in Music
Duration – the length of time a sound lasts Rhythm – a series of durations Beat – a steady series of durations, usually of the same length Tempo – the speed of the beat Meter – grouping of beats usually into 2 (duple), 3 (triple), or 4 (quadruple) Measure – one unit of the prevailing metrical grouping Syncopation emphasis on a beat that conflicts with the established grouping; emphasis in between beats Subdivision – division of beat duration into two (simple time) or three (compound time) equal parts Anacrusis – any duration(s) that come(s) before the first beat of a measure Time (Meter) signature – indicates how many beats are in a grouping (measure) for a given piece and what type of duration serves as the beat

17 Temporal Organization in Music
simple time signatures (meters) each beat is divided into two equal components the note that gets one beat has to be an undotted note the top number is not divisible by 3 except when it is 3 the number of beats is the same in every measure 3/4 time 3 beats to a measure 1/4 (quarter) note gets a beat 2/4 time 2 beats to a measure 4/4 time is so standard or typical that it is normally left off the staff—if it’s not there, it is assumed to exist Like the 2 that isn’t there with the square root (radical) sign In simple meters, the top number indicates the number of beats in the measure, and the bottom number corresponds to the duration receiving the beat. So in 3/4 time there are three beats in a measure and the quarter note serves as the beat. A top number of 2 indicates duple, 3 triple, and 4 quadruple. These all serve as top numbers in simple time signatures, so the bottom number will correspond directly to the beat. 17

18 Temporal Organization in Music
compound time signatures (meters) the top number is evenly divisible by 3, unless the top number actually is 3 the beat is a dotted quarter note or three eighth notes each beat is subdivided into three components 6/8 time is very typical 1/8 note gets a beat, 6 per measure ONE two three FOUR five six/etc. (used in mariachi music) 12/8 time (found in 12-bar blues and doo-wop music) Four beats in a measure (crazy, I know . . .) Dotted quarter note receives the beat (do the math . . .) Quadruple compound Subdivisions In compound meters, the duration serving as the beat is felt as if it is divided into three equal parts. Typically a dotted note serves as the beat in compound meters because it divides evenly into three other durational values. For instance, a dotted quarter note can be divided into three equal eighths. Since there is no numerical equivalent of a dotted note, the time signature is more complex. The time signature in a compound meter is actually indicating the number of subdivisions in a measure. A top number of 6 indicates duple, 9 triple, and 12 quadruple .In 12/8 time, there are four beats in a measure, and the dotted quarter receives the beat. It is quadruple compound. The numbers 12 and 8 refer to the number of subdivisions and the duration that serves as a subdivision respectively. One might also think of 12/8 as four groups of three eighth notes. 18

19 The Keyboard, Half Steps Whole Steps
flats sharps naturals accidentals intervals half steps or semitones half step + half step = whole step

20 Scales – arrangement of pitches
patterns of intervals whole steps and half steps diatonic – of the tonic chromatic (colored) – from outside the tonic major: w-w-h-w-w-w-h (2½ , 3½)

21 Minor Scales Natural minor (in folk music, the Aeolian scale)
w-h-w-w-h-w-w (1 ½, 2 ½, 2) A-minor: The other scale commonly found in Western music is the minor scale. Its pattern is 1 ½, 2 ½, 2.A minor scale beginning on G would be: G, A, B-f lat, C, D, E-f lat, F, G. Check this on the keyboard diagram to see how the pattern is realized in pitches. Now try building a minor scale on the pitch E.A piece of music oriented around “G” which uses the aforementioned pitches is in G minor. Try building a minor scale beginning on the pitch “A.” 21

22 Scale Degree Hierarchy
Scale degree 1: tonic Scale degree 7: leading tone (when half step) Scale degree 6: submediant Scale degree 5: dominant Scale degree 4: subdominant Scale degree 3: mediant Scale degree 2: supertonic

23 Harmonic and Melodic Minor
harmonic minor augmented second between scale degrees 6 & 7 creates a true leading tone for scale degree 7 can sound awkward; so, sometimes composers go further and raise the 6th degree by a half step as well, creating . . . melodic minor raised sixth and seventh scale degrees on the way up alterations are removed on the way back down


25 Key Signatures serve as a sign of the altered notes needed to conform to the scale of the key Consider the accidentals needed to build an E major scale. If we start on E and apply the pattern of 2 ½, 3 ½, we end up with the following pitches: E, F-sharp, G-sharp, A, B, C-sharp, D-sharp, (E).Rather than write the accidentals every time the pitch is encountered, the composer can use a key signature. A key signature serves as a sign of the altered notes needed to conform to the scale of the key. Imagine how much more convenient it would be to know, by virtue of a key signature, that every B and E in the key of G minor should be made f lat. Composers can alter any of the pitches indicated in the key signature by using accidentals for any pitch along the way E major scale on a keyboard (left), E major scale on a staff without key signature (center), and E scale on a staff with key signature (right). 25

26 Relative and Parallel Keys
Major and minor scales that contain the same pitches are said to be relative like B-flat major & G minor C-natural minor and E-flat major relative keys have the same pitches, but different tonics Major and minor scales that orient around the same tonic pitch are called parallel scales Same tonic, but because of the difference in pattern between major and minor, they contain different pitches

27 Relative major and minor
1 ½, 2 ½, 2 2 ½, 3 ½ Relative major and minor. C-natural minor (left) and E-flat major (right).

28 Other Key Relationships
Before the Romantic era, composers limited key changes within pieces to relative, parallel, and other “closely related” keys keys with one flat or sharp more or less than tonic G major and F major are closely related to C major G major has one more sharp F major has one more flat Romantic era composers explored more distant key relationships like mediant-related keys Keys whose tonic pitches are a major or minor third away D major and F major D major and B major D major and F-sharp major

29 Other Scales medieval and Renaissance approx. 1300-1650
Dorian (raised 6th scale degree) Phrygian (like nat. minor with lowered 2nd degree) Lydian (like major with a raised 4th degree) Mixolydian (like major with a lowered 7th degree) folk/traditional music that romantic composers would make reference to (in a musical way) later Dorian is like natural minor but with a raised sixth scale degree. So, A Dorian would be spelled: A, B, C, D, E, F-sharp, G, A. Note the F-sharp as opposed to the F-natural, which would have been used in minor. The Phrygian scale is like natural minor except that the second scale degree is lowered—for example, A, B-f lat, C, D, E, F, G, A. The Lydian scale is like major except that the fourth degree is raised. Imagine an E major scale and raise the fourth degree—the result is: E, F-sharp, G-sharp, A-sharp, B, C-sharp, D-sharp, E. Finally, the Mixolydian is like major except that the seventh scale degree is lowered: E, F-sharp, G-sharp, A, B, C-sharp, D, E. 29

30 Other Scales chromatic whole-tone pentatonic
all twelve pitches within the octave all half steps whole-tone six pitches all whole steps pentatonic Five tones (pitches) formed by removing the half step pairings “Pentatonic” means five tones or pitches.This scale can be formed by removing one pitch from each of the two respective half-step pairings in any of the aforementioned seven-note scales. For instance, F, G, A, B-f lat, C, D, E, (F) is an F major scale. Remove the B-f lat and the E, and the remaining pitches are F, G, A, C, D, (F); another pentatonic scale might be formed by removing the A and the E. The resulting pentatonic scale would be F, G, B-f lat, C, D, (F).Go to a keyboard and play five black keys in order. You have played a pentatonic scale. Note the absence of half steps. 30

31 Intervals
The name of any interval is further qualified using the terms perfect (P), major (M), minor (m), augmented (A), and diminished (d). This is called its interval quality. It is possible to have doubly diminished and doubly augmented intervals, but these are quite rare, as they occur only in chromatic contexts. The quality of a compound interval is the quality of the simple interval on which it is based (see Interval (music)#Simple and compound for details). 31

32 Intervals & Harmony see Table 1-1, page 14, USAD Music Guide
major triad – error in guide; fifth should read third major third + minor third – Perfect minor triad minor third + major third – Perfect diminished triad minor third + minor third augmented triad major third + major third

33 Figure 1-7, page 14 Root chords, third chords, fifth chords, seventh chords—lots of stuff we could spend the entire semester on. Any chord built using notes from outside the great diatonic scale is a chromatic harmony. Ex: secondary dominant, page 15. G-major, dominant chord is D major. So If D-major was the tonic, A-major would be the dominant. So, A-major is secondary dominant of V in G major. Using this is temporarily tonicizing the chord, and creates tension. It’s like dating your 2nd cousin—this creates tension in the family; more on tension in a moment—aren’t you relieved? If one were to stack triads over the pitches of a major scale and use only diatonic pitches, the resulting chord qualities would be: tonic – major; supertonic – minor; mediant – minor; subdominant – major; dominant – major; submediant – minor; leading tone – diminished. 33

34 Tension and Release in Music
Think of watching someone as they are in the process of losing their balance and it looks like they may fall and get hurt in the process. The more it looks like they are going to fall, the more you feel tense; when they regain their balance, that tense feeling you had goes away, and you feel relieved—hence, your tension is released! Youtube or video example here! pitch: upward motion creates tension, downward motion resolves it texture: density increases tension, sparsity resolves interval: dissonance creates tension, consonance resolves tension tempo: acceleration creates tension, slowing resolves it intonation: bending away from the nominal pitch increases tension, returning resolves it harmony: there’s a very sophisticated system of creating and resolving tension in western harmony (you can buy books and take college courses on it) syncopation: playing off the beat creates tension, on the beat resolves it beat division: more divisions per beat creates tension, fewer resolves tension dynamics: louder creates tension, softer releases tension (this is debatable–you could make a decent case that moving away from the center increases tension, while moving toward decreases. Either way, change in dynamics can create and resolve tension) articulation: shorter (stacatto) creates tension, longer (legato) releases repetition: repetition builds tension, variation resolves it ornamentation: ornaments increase tension, simplicity resolves it 34

35 Tension and Release in Music
Dissonance notes that clash seconds, sevenths, or any augmented or diminished intervals Consonance notes that sound “good” together unisons, thirds, fifths, sixths, and octaves Fourths can go either way depending upon context Harmonic progression Movement from stability to instability and back again pitch: upward motion creates tension, downward motion resolves it texture: density increases tension, sparsity resolves interval: dissonance creates tension, consonance resolves tension tempo: acceleration creates tension, slowing resolves it intonation: bending away from the nominal pitch increases tension, returning resolves it harmony: there’s a very sophisticated system of creating and resolving tension in western harmony (you can buy books and take college courses on it) syncopation: playing off the beat creates tension, on the beat resolves it beat division: more divisions per beat creates tension, fewer resolves tension dynamics: louder creates tension, softer releases tension (this is debatable–you could make a decent case that moving away from the center increases tension, while moving toward decreases. Either way, change in dynamics can create and resolve tension) articulation: shorter (stacatto) creates tension, longer (legato) releases repetition: repetition builds tension, variation resolves it ornamentation: ornaments increase tension, simplicity resolves it 35

36 Tension and Release in Music
authentic cadence When dominant 7th chord resolves to the tonic cadence – “to fall” “falling” from tension (7th chord) to stability (tonic chord) – I feel so much better now! Think of a good movie, or good novel, etc. You get all revved up because of the tension, and you feel really good when the tension is released and you are no longer on the edge of your seat half cadence – appears as a V (dominant) chord at the end of a phrase

37 Elements of Music Articulation Duration Dynamics Form Harmony
Melody/Line Meter Notation/Terminology Scales Texture Timbre Tonality/Pitch Centricity

38 Elements of Music in Context: Mazurka, Op.67, No.2 Frédéric Chopin
Page 17. Play piece and watch the notes go by while learning/reading about boxed sections

39 Frédéric Chopin wrote at least sixty-nine mazurkas
Frédéric Chopin wrote at least sixty-nine mazurkas. These dances are of Polish origin and are typically in a triple meter with emphasis on the second or third beat. Look at the beginning of this mazurka to see how the first-beat eighth notes lead to the second beat of many measures. 2. By the Romantic era, almost all composers, with the assistance of their publishers, organized their music into Opus (work) numbers. Music of this type is usually published with this terminology provided along with the title. An opus could consist of one or many pieces. Chopin’s Opus 67 consists of four mazurkas that were actually collected and published after the composer’s death. This particular mazurka is the second in the group of four. 3. Two staves connected by a brace are typical of piano music notation. Typically the top staff uses a treble clef and the bottom a bass clef. In piano music, the top staff also indicates the music to be played by the right hand while the bottom staff indicates music to be played by the left hand. 4. This triple simple time signature indicates a meter where the quarter note is the beat, and there are three beats in each measure. The word “mazurka” in the title provides additional information as to how the meter is to be interpreted. 5. Cantabile is an expression mark that translates as “singing.” The pianist usually interprets this by using very connected articulation and by taking some liberties with the tempo as might a solo singer. The pianist also adjusts the timbre, or their sound, by changing the technique by which they strike the keys. 6. This is a metronome marking that indicates that the quarter note duration is to be played at a specific rate. In this case, the rate is 144 quarters per minute, a rather fast tempo. 7. This is a dynamic indication of piano, which translates as “quiet.” It is very common to provide a dynamic marking at or near the beginning of a piece. 8. This notation is a very ornate version of Ped., the abbreviation for pedal. The piano of this era (as well as the modern piano) had a pedal which, when depressed, allowed the strings to ring indefinitely after being struck. The symbol enclosed to the right of the box instructs the player to lift the pedal.This impacts the duration of each pitch struck while the pedal is depressed. It also creates harmony out of all the pitches that continue to ring during this time. Here all of the pitches of a D dominant seventh chord are combined over one pedal indication. 9. This “grace note” ornaments the melody by instructing the player to add a very short duration just before the upcoming principal note.Such melodic ornaments are typically found in solo piano music. 10. This key signature usually indicates a G tonality using a minor scale or a B-f lat tonality with a major scale. This mazurka is in G minor but upon further inspection B-f lat major can be seen in the middle portion of the work. 11. sf is the abbreviation for sforzando (or sforzato), which means suddenly accented. This is an example of an articulation achieved by using a louder dynamic. 39

40 12. This “diminuendo” marking means to make the dynamic gradually softer.
13. Triplets used here instruct the performer to play three equal durations in the space previously occupied by two.Compare this first beat subdivision to that seen in measure one. 14. Legatissimo means as smoothly as possible, an articulative indication. 15. There are a few things to note here. First, one can find each note of the chromatic scale i n t he t op staff over the course of this passage. Such intense use of all the pitches usually indicates tension and movement forward. Second, the texture here is more homophonic than it is elsewhere. The pitches in each respective staff are played, for the most part, at the same time. Compare the beginning, where the overall texture is more accompanimental, with measures 33–40, where the texture is monophonic. Third, the harmonic progression is a circle of fifths. This means that the roots of each chord, in turn, are a fifth below the previous chord. The passage starts with a G7 followed by a C7, then an F7, and so on. Try to identify the chords that follow. As is the case with the chromatic scale, circle of fifth progressions usually indicate movement forward and the building of tension.(Note the dissonant dominant seventh chords used here). 40

41 16. The authentic cadence here is a harmonic device used to confirm the tonality of B-f lat. The key governing the entire passage from measures 17–32 is B-f lat major. 17. Sotto voce is a term borrowed from the vocal genre. It means “voice under,” which is understood as a more subdued, simpler timbre. It would also imply a quieter dynamic. 41

42 18. The sf indications on the third beat of each measure as well as the ties through the first beats of measures 47 and 48 create a strong sense of metric syncopation. 19. This authentic cadence is a harmonic device used to confirm the home key of G minor. 20. There is no box for this number. Consider the overall form o f t his piece. It is ternary with the A section being measures 1 through 16, B being 17 through 40, and the return of A being from 41 to the end. Measures 33 through 40 constitute a “retransition.” Retransitions are often found at the end of B sections in ternary forms. They serve to take the music back to where it once was. 42

43 Section II

44 Section II – Program Music Introduction: Historical Context Rise of the Individual
Rejection of “absolute” systems Political orders, religions, royal authority Individual worth—what a concept! Now I gotta go find myself Realize your destiny Each individual must find their path to fulfillment Luke Skywalker; Darth Vader; Destiny; Redemption; Science & Technology vs. Mysticism

45 The Pendulum Swings Dark ages, enlightenment, science, romance
We’re all on a roller-coaster ride of ups and downs, ins and outs, science and mysticism The very advances brought on by science (food production, transportation of goods, waste treatment, disease control, access to clean water, etc.) made more leisure time Time to contemplate, explore, and create

46 Urbanization, Nature, and Beyond
Workers move to cities; large workplaces; individual “cogs” in a large machine driving capitalism Longing for countryside/fascination with nature Picnics; camping trips; city parks; country homes; fresh air; sunshine; peaceful surroundings Nature the real-deal; truth; enlightenment; spirit of life Move away from artifice of society; journey back to nature; reconnect with your “self” Explore the supernatural Mysticism, the macabre, reality-altering substances (i.e., drugs) Ancestral tales, myths, customs

47 Role of Artist in Society Rise of the artist as individual
“a composer or performer’s individual feelings, interpretation, and expression were considered paramount hoping to contribute something to the infinite and the unknowable, somehow gifting their times as well as posterity with a glimpse of the eternal” By the mid nineteenth century, there was a widespread feeling that instrumental music had reached some sort of closure classical forms of instrumental music(binary, ternary, sonata, rondo) seemed restrictive and impinged upon artists’ freedom to express themselves

48 Unity Across the Arts looked to extra-musical sources for inspiration
Poetry, theatre, literature, painting, dance, and the expression of nature or the supernatural became a new inspiration and formal guide for many composers sometimes direct (storm, footsteps, bouncing head) sometimes indirect (imaginative suggestion)

49 Absolute vs Program music
E.T. A. Hoffmann and Arthur Schopenhaurer (and many others) on the absolute side music of the highest sort is “pure” instrumental music; transcendental qualities are dimmed by association with text, poetry, story lines. etc. Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert (and many others) on the Romantic (programmatic) side Renewal of music [is] through its inner connection with poetry And so we see two opposing trends in the nineteenth century: that of “absolute music,” as described in the above quotation, and that of “program music,” which looked to specific extra-musical sources for inspiration. Some describe this as the contrast between a Classical approach, in which the art stands on its own and allows each individual to take from it what he or she may, allowing the purity of form and expression to speak for itself, and the more Romantic approach in which the artist looks to share something very specific and individual with the listener, seeking to transport and transform the listener through the emotion expressed by the music. 49

50 Franz Liszt (1811–86) good looks, magnetism, power, colossal technique, unprecedented sonority “I have heard no performer whose musical perceptions so extend to the very tips of his fingers.” Felix Mendelssohn composer, conductor, critic, littérateur, Don Juan, abbé, teacher, symbol

51 Franz Liszt born in Raiding, Hungary
playing piano by age 7, composing at 8 influenced by Berlioz, Paganini, Chopin his programs were very calculated Until 1839, followed the conventional format for concerts sharing time with other artists or orchestra realized it should be all about himself! called his solo appearances soliloquies later called recitals—which is what we call solo performances today! long hair, profile performance, hands high, showmanship, gloves, affairs (the women swooned when they heard him play),

52 Franz Liszt – the grand old man
always expected to be treated as an equal with royalty no back-door entrances for him! Young composers from all over Europe brought him their music Grieg, Smetana, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Balkirev, MacDowell, even Brahms although Liszt and Brahms had a big falling out over the direction music was going in—Brahms won the battle, Liszt won the war

53 Ludwig van Beethoven Born in Bonn played violin & piano
mom died when teen; dad goes on a bender moves to Vienna in 1792 studies with Haydn destined to be the next Mozart Kind of like Kobe or Lebron destined to be the next Jordan 1801, at age 31, going deaf; almost completely deaf by 1814—age 44

54 Ludwig van Beethoven and His Sixth Symphony (Pastoral)
(music with scenes to get you in the mood) 1808 – composed 6th Symphony (middle period) Middle period: large-scale pieces, extended forms, moved into Romanticism anticipates the genre of tone poems past emotions evoked by scenes of nature I. Awakening of Cheerful Feelings upon Arrival in the Country II. Scene at a Brook III. Happy Gathering of Country Folk IV. Thunderstorm; Storm V. Shepherd’s Song; cheerful and thankful feelings after the storm Many see Beethoven’s Sixth Symphony, named the Pastoral Symphony by the composer, as the starting point for program music of the Romantic era. This work draws its inspiration from country folks, their everyday lives, and their interaction with the natural world. 54

55 Pastoral—4th movement in F minor (Allegro)
movements 3, 4, and 5 all play without a break between 4th is sometimes referred to as the intro. to 5th 5th is in parallel key of F major (Allegretto) view link while reading analysis on pages 26 There is plenty of ‘picture-painting’ in the fourth movement (Allegro), which was composed as a sort of ‘extra’ before the final movement. Simply titled “Thunder-storm”, that is exactly what it portrays, from its introductory tension-inducing tremolo (threat of thunder, #1) right up to the ending diminuendo (storm dying down, #140). The entire movement is very chromatic, with cross-rhythm (four semiquavers against five) figures in the lower strings generally being supported by either quaver ‘sf’ chords (lightning flash) or very sustained chords in the other instruments. Tremolo is employed almost constantly throughout, executed in various forms, including scales (lower strings, #75) and arpeggios (violins, #78), to provide tension. Other techniques (e.g. triplet figures, double basses, #19; chromatic slides, first violins, #5) help to create this uneasy anticipation. Other elements of storm-like quality are: staccato quaver-figure scales (patter of raindrops, #3); short, ascending arpeggio figures (lightning flash, first violins, #33); timpani trills (thunder rolls, #21); tonal modulations while generally being in a minor key; and the general range in dynamics, from ‘pp’ to ‘ff’, sometimes abruptly, indicating the rise, swell and fall of an unpredictable storm. As the movement dies down and the opening ‘raindrops’ motif is turned into a hymn-like theme, the last few raindrops (flutes, # ) lead us on to the fifth and final movement. 55


57 Felix Mendelssohn ( ) pianist, musicologist, organist, conductor, composer wealthy, conservative family born in Hamburg, lived in Berlin anti-Semitic surroundings loved sister (Fanny), who was a pianist-composer, too took the Grand Tour from Influenced by what he saw, wrote many descriptive pieces: Italian Symphony, Scottish Symphony, etc.

58 Fingal’s Cave while on the Grand Tour visited the Hebrides off the coast of Scotland Fingal’s cave on island of Staffa Refuge of Finn McCool, a mythical Irish warrior-leader two contrasting themes 1st: low strings and bassoons (the cave) main motive is six notes long—repeated softly as an echo from within the cave 2nd: violins (rolling, crashing waves of the sea) Rises and falls in pitch and dynamics—just like the waves

59 Bedřich Smetana, Nationalism, and Die Moldau (Vltava)
born in 1824 in Prague, Bohemia (now, Czech Republic – violinist, pianist, composer – all at a young age forced to leave homeland after abortive 1848 uprising (Austria had moved in); moved to Sweden came back in 1862 when political climate improved Má Vlast (My Country) – six symphonic poems (like Liszt), each depicting a person or place of historical significance to Bohemia Vyšehrad – The High Citadel Vltava – The River Moldau (“Die Moldau” in German) Šárka – legendary female warrior Z Českych Luhůa Hájů – From Bohemia’s Meadows and Forests Tabor – a Hussite stronghold Bláník – a mountain in southern Bohemia; Hussite analogue of Valhalla

60 Vltava – Die Moldau 1874 Moldau fed by two streams (warm & cold)
represented by flutes, clarinets (inverted melody) upper strings (violins, violas) & oboes enter as main Vltava theme the two stream motives are combined in the low strings (cellos, basses) to form the river Moldau passes hunting party (French horns) passes wedding (cue polka music) strings, clarinets, bassoons at first; full orchestra later; then dies out as river moves on Night falls Bassoons and soft strings; flutes as water nymphs St. John rapids Brass section; dissonance; lively scales in strings River flows into Prague; Vltava theme comes back BIG; river goes on 60

61 Jean Sibelius (1865 – 1957) Finnish nationalist composer
played violin, piano, taught himself composition left law school to study music full time 1890’s nationalist movement as protest against Russian domination (this, after centuries of Swedish domination) Bourgeois elite speak Swedish; peasants speak Finnish although upper-class and Swedish-speaker, Sibelius interested in Finnish mythology (as well as Finnish girls)

62 Jean Sibelius (1865 – 1957) studies in Berlin, then Vienna
inundates himself with Finnish culture Finnish literature, poetry, folk music epic poetry (trochaic tetrameter) DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da did not directly quote folk melodies; sought to capture the underlying spirit and character composed the Lemminkainen Suite four-movement symphonic poem based on the Finnish national epic Kalevala Epic? How about 22,795 verses, divided into fifty songs?! originally conceived as a mythological opera, like Wagner’s Ring later changed to an orchestral piece in four movements also can be considered a collection of symphonic poems

63 The Lemminkäinen Suite, or Four Legends from the Kalevala
Lemminkäinen and the Maidens of the Island: The Swan of Tuonela: was 3rd, changed to 2nd Lemminkäinen in Tuonela: was 2nd, now 3rd Lemminkäinen's Homeward Journey: L. And the Maidens of the Island: depicts L. sailing to Saari and finding the menfolk are all away; he enjoys himself among the women until having to flee upon the return of their menfolk 63

64 The Lemminkäinen Suite, or Four Legends from the Kalevala
The Swan of Tuonela: The tone poem is scored for a small orchestra of oboe, cor anglais, bass clarinet, bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trombones, timpani, bass drum, harp, and strings (no flutes or trumpets) Swan swims in the Black water Tuoni River (it is Hell, after all) English horn (cor anglais) as the Swan 5th lower than oboe, more nasal timbre switching back and forth with solo cello; conversation-style (antiphonal texture) muted strings accompany the lead melody timbres are subdued, dark, warm, rich Decker note: muted strings & muted brass in various places throughout (USAD Guides does not mention this) The Swan of Tuonela The first edition of the score was headed :'Tuonela, the land of death, the hell of Finish mythology, is surrounded by a large river with black waters and a rapid current, on which the Swan of Tuonela floats majestically, singing' As stated this was developed from the overture of The Building of the Boat, written at a time when Sibelius was heavily influenced by Wagner and the mood of this piece is reminiscent of the Lohengrin Overture and the cor anglais solo has a precedent in the opening of the third act of Tristan and Isolde. To quote Prof Erik Tawaststjerna 'the bass clarinet and the great drum, the "col legno" playing of the strings and the harp's timbre's in the lower register produce towards the end a sound effect like the shadow of death in Mahler's score..... the final passage on the cello, which rises to the highest register of the instrument, fixes a vision of the dead souls in the eternal twilight of Tuonela 64

65 Program Music—The Supernatural as Inspiration
Paul Dukas ( ) Paris Conservatoire at 16; keen sense of orchestration; interested in a range of extra-musical subjects: History, philosophy, politics, literature The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (L’Apprenti sorcier) A symphonic scherzo (sprightly & humorous) based on Der Zauberlehrling (by Goethe) which was based on a Lucian dialogue Lucian was an Assyrian writer from the 2nd Century A.D. The Sorcerer’s Apprentice In the story, a sorcerer leaves his workshop in the hands of his apprentice. Intending to enjoy his freedom, the young apprentice decides to take a bath, enchanting a broom to fetch pails of water to fill the tub. Unfortunately, the apprentice forgets the spell to stop the broom, and the tub begins to overflow. He chops the broom in half with an axe, hoping that will stop it, but instead it grows into two unstoppable brooms that fetch and dump water at double-speed. The entire place begins to flood, and the apprentice is powerless to stop it. Finally, amid the ever-increasing chaos, the sorcerer returns, breaks the spell, and everything is back to normal. 65

66 The Sorcerer’s Apprentice

67 Camille Saint-Saëns (1835 – 1921)
composer, virtuoso pianist, organist, and writer first formal piano concert at age 10 played Mozart & Beethoven from memory Gounod described him as “the French Beethoven” 1848 – Paris Conservatoire (age 13) also studied French lit, religion, Latin, Greek, math, astronomy, archaeology, and philosophy As a very young boy, Camille Saint-Saëns was fascinated by all kinds of sounds. He loved to listen to clocks chiming, doors creaking, and especially to the sound of a large kettle boiling. When he was only 2 ½ years old, he began playing his great-aunt’s piano. He loved the sound of each note, letting it die away before playing another. His great-aunt gave him his first piano lessons and by age five, he was playing “serious” music by great composers.

68 Danse macabre (1874) Symphonic poem (tone poem; same diff.)
Death (as skeleton) plays violin in graveyard let’s dance to death! bubonic plague (Black Death of 14th century) ever dance around a maypole to Ring around the Rosy? popular kids song back in the “olden” days Originally based on poem by Henri Cazalis Reworked so that musical imagery reflects the text first Frenchman to compose a work in this genre

69 Dance macabre (Dance of Death) by Henri Cazalis
Zig, zig, zig, Death in cadence, Striking with his heel a tomb, Death at midnight plays a dance-tune, Zig, zig, zig, on his violin. The winter wind blows and the night is dark; Moans are heard in the linden-trees. Through the gloom, white skeletons pass, Running and leaping in their shrouds. Zig, zig, zig, each one is frisking. The bones of the dancers are heard to crack- But hist! of a sudden they quit the round, They push forward, they fly; the cock has crowed.

70 Danse macabre solo violin, xylophone (represents skeletons)
violin E-string tuned down a half-step to E-flat Scordatura – mis-tuning Diminished fifth (between A and E-flat) allows player to use open strings for a brighter sound devil’s interval in G-minor; G Phrygian scale (like natural minor, but 2nd degree of A-flat) flute introduces this idea

71 Danse macabre Melodic minor scales ascend with raised 6th & 7th degrees and descend lowered back down descending melodic minor contains same pitches as natural minor Note use of E-nat, F-sharp, F-nat, and E-flat Much of the drama of the piece is created through interplay of these melodic ideas and the scales they come from

72 Danse macabre -- Form tolling of the bells (12 for midnight)
tritone idea cellos and basses, then solo violin 1st melody played by flutes solo violin introduces 2nd idea (melody) next section (for 80 seconds) alternates (in various forms) between the two ideas Decker note: The broad waltz theme in the Danse macabre may be recognized as a variation on the Dies irae, the ancient liturgical chant for the dead Return of devil’s interval Decker note: I hear the strings playing colegno here USAD guide does not mention this imitative passage (at 2:10); overlapping themes 2nd “b” theme, reworked in “frenzied distorted fashion” solo violin returns with more lyrical version of tune “a” idea (flutes) almost completely absent the two main themes combine and are played at same time at dawn, all of the demons go back to their graves

73 Danse Macabre Sequence of things happening in Danse with instrument indicated: Clock strikes midnight (harp) Death tunes his violin (violin) The dance begins, one skeleton appears (flute) More skeletons are dancing The xylophone makes the sound of dry bones (xylophone) The wind blows through the dark trees (string instruments) The skeletons laugh as they dance (violins) Mysterious moans come from the trees (string instruments) The dance reaches its loudest and fastest point (all) A rooster crows (oboe) The dance ends, all the skeletons return to their graves Some people think the last two notes of the piece represent the last two coffin lids quietly slamming shut for another year

74 Hector Berlioz and Symphonie Fantastique
Unlike most composers, he had no instruction on piano and did not use the keyboard to help compose at age 13 Played flute, guitar age 17 entered medical school in Paris Paris is a great place to get side-tracked! switched to music at the Conservatoire in 1826 1827 – saw Hamlet performed; was struck by the “veracity of dramatic expression and freedom from formal constraints” became OBSESSED with Harriet Smithson, who played Ophelia his Ophelia, or Juliet, or Desdemona spent two years CONSUMED with his desire to be with Harriet, who was at a high point in her career, while Berlioz was a nobody; that soon changed, as her career went down as his went up “the idealized relationship of which Berlioz dreamed proved to be far different from the real thing, as Harriet Smithson was not a perfect amalgamation of stylized theatrical heroines.”

75 Symphonie Fantastique
is an embodiment of the composer’s overwhelming obsession, love, and frustration, borne from this short-lived and disenchanting romance is also an excellent example of the composer’s talent for orchestration even though this was his first symphony Beethoven’s 3rd and 5th inspired Berlioz freedom of expression & power of instruments wrote Treatise on Instrumentation (Orchestration)

76 Symphonie Fantastique
An Episode in an Artist’s Life five movements: Dreams, passions – an allegro with a slow introduction A Ball – a waltz Scene in the Fields – a slow movement March to the Scaffold – a march Dream of the Witches’ Sabbath – a finale

77 Symphonie Fantastique
idée fixe (obsession) recurring theme associated with the “beloved image” Manipulated & developed as the artist’s experiences alter his obsession

78 Idée fixe

79 Symphonie Fantastique
written in “cut time” or 2/2 time Most typical meter for a march; footsteps sometimes written in 2/4 or 6/8 (duple meter) like Danse macabre, 4th movement uses two themes in alternation to tell story serious theme 25 seconds into movement Very specific dynamic indications; three sequential repetitions in the 2nd, 4th, and 6th measures; melody has downward contour—hinting at where our hero is ending up or down!

80 2nd theme, about 90 seconds into movement
Bombastic Bitter irony to its spirited lilt Once again, avoids strong emphasis on the first beat of some measures Accent on off beat of measure one Final arrival on an off beat Serves to keep the music off-balance Almost a feeling of stumbling to his doom Feeling grows greater as theme moves forward; syncopations are more insistent

81 Robert Schumann father was a bookseller, publisher, lexicographer, novelist gifted singer; composing at 7; studied piano later on, also flute, cello first public performance (on piano) at 11 wrote songs (lieder) – words were important to his music 1828 – entered law school, never went to class Studied piano with Friedrich Wieck, living at his house in Leipzig became transfixed with music of Schubert

82 Robert Schumann influenced by literary works of Jean Paul Richter and E.T.A. Hoffmann concepts like Doppelganger, split-self Jean Paul wrote, “Sound shines like the dawn, and the sun rises in the form of sound; sound seeks to rise in music, and color is light.” He also said that it is music alone “which can open the ultimate gates to the Infinite.” He also said, “So life fades and withers behind us, and of our sacred and vanished past, only one things remains immortal—music.”

83 Robert Schumann invented a society known as the Davidsbund
the band of David; gave pen names to members Schumann had two names: Florestan, reflecting the exuberant side of his nature, and also the virtuoso performer Eusebius, the reflective side, also a cleric/writer/scholar Friedrich Wieck was Meister Raro Clara was Cilia or later, Chiara Schumann would have loved to play D&D or WOW all of the Davidites were leagued together to combat the Philistines, those unimaginative hacks who immersed themselves in safe music

84 Robert Alexander Schumann
performing is out; messed up fingers either with his contraption (chiroplast) or because of mercury in syphilis medications music critic/editor/publisher lengthy court battle to win Clara from father it took years; lots of bad press, bad will, etc. it worked out; they had eight kids five survived childhood—times were tough Robert and Clara really loved each other, but Clara had to bring home the money because Robert had some very real (and sad) mental issues early in 1852 he went through an entire week during which he said that angels were dictating music to him while devils in the form of hyenas were threatening him with Hell Clara was the first hugely successful female virtuoso

85 Schumann’s Music made the other romanticists look boring
his 1st published composition appeared in 1831 the Abegg Variations—he constructed the theme on the letters of a girls name before marrying Clara, Robert loved Ernestine von Fricken Carnaval, or “Dainty scenes on four notes”, is derived from the name of her hometown, Asch the German word for carnival is fasching the whole thing is quite cryptic:

86 Robert A. Schumann’s Carnaval
A cycle of 21 short pieces, each with a descriptive title representing a masquerading character in a Carnival celebration Clara (pre-marriage), Chopin, Wieck, Paganini, Mendelssohn, and others, including, of course, his alter-egos, doppelgangers, split-self, E. and F.

87 Eusebius (introvert, cleric) -- #5 of 21
Key of E-flat major, 32 measures long, each line of this musical poem is four measures long a, a, b, a, b, a, b, a; climax coming with second “b, a” section adagio (pensive and sensitive), starts slow, gets slower, melody begins with septuplets in six of the first eight measures (in 2/4 time!) imagine dividing a pizza into four slices, with two slices on each plate (or measure); now, each set of two slices has to be divided between seven people later on, the quarter note beat is divided into five parts followed by division into three parts just thinking about trying to do this makes me uncomfortable! this creates discomfort because of syncopation and also because people are generally fraction phobic at the same time, it also has an ethereal, or dreamlike quality to it it floats maybe because you’ve given up all hope of understanding the meter, and have resorted to dreams

88 Florestan (extrovert, virtuoso) #6
Key of G minor; 56 measures long Fiery, flamboyant, volatile, manic – passionato alternates between fast and slow (adagio) 3/4 time Tempestuous nine distinct moments of tempo change piece is going faster at end, and leaves you hanging Moves between frenetic outpourings and occasional moments of light playfulness Papillons (butterflies) – quoting Op. 2 piano work Enjoy knowing where the tonic is, but don’t visit too often

89 Edvard Grieg (1843 – 1907) Norwegian; mother concert pianist; Edvard started lessons at 6; at 15, composing 1857 entered Leipzig Conservatory as pianist which he found pedantic* Graduated, but went back home to Bergen performed Beethoven, Schumann, and his own compositions Copenhagen—cultural hub of Norwegian and Danish society studied under Niels Hage met Nina Hagerup: vocalist, 1st cousin, future wife Pedantic -- overly concerned with formal rules and trivial points of learning 89

90 Edvard Grieg raised in Danish culture and traditions
1864 – engaged to Nina -- married in 1867 Mother’s brother’s daughter In the summer of 1869, Grieg's daughter Alexandra became ill (cerebrospinal meningitis) and died, at the age of 13 months; she was their only child visited friends in Osterøy introducing him to traditional songs of Norwegian peasants 1865 – met Norwegian nationalist composer Rikard Nordraak composer of the Norwegian national anthem this influenced Grieg to write Romantic Norwegian Nationalistic music

91 Edvard Grieg 1874, Grieg in demand
Writes incidental music for Peer Gynt a play written by Henrik Ibsen (an author we studied about 10 or 12 years ago in ACADEC) took a lot more time than Grieg thought Peer Gynt is a LONG story Short gist of story: Peer Gynt has several misadventures, tries (and is successful) in seducing numerous women, including daughter of a troll king (never piss off a troll), and is finally held accountable for his life and bad decisions. Solveig (a character who waits the whole play for Peer to come to his senses and come back to her) can redeem him if it is not too late Long version:

92 Solveig’s Song Grieg arranged the Peer Gynt into two orchestral suites
The second suite (1892) is in four movements; Solveig’s Song is the 4th movement, played by solo violin Decker note: almost every recording and example I can find is of multiple violins playing—not solo

93 Grieg on his music In an 1874 letter to his friend Frants Beyer, Grieg expressed his unhappiness with what is now considered one of his most popular compositions from Peer Gynt, In the Hall of the Mountain King: “I have also written something for the scene in the hall of the mountain King - something that I literally can't bear listening to because it absolutely reeks of cow-pies, exaggerated Norwegian nationalism, and trollish self-satisfaction! But I have a hunch that the irony will be discernible.”

94 Solveig’s Song The winter may pass and the spring disappear (A minor)
The summer too will vanish and then the year and then the year. But this I know for certain: you’ll come back again you’ll come back again, And even as I promised, you’ll find me waiting then you’ll find me waiting then. Vocalise – neutral syllables (A major) God help you when wandering your way all alone (A minor) your way all alone, God grant to you his strength as you kneel at his throne you kneel at his throne. And if you now are waiting in heaven for me in heaven for me, Oh there we’ll meet again love and never parted be and never parted be. Vocalise – (A major)

95 Solveig’s Song final scene of fourth act (of five) in Peer Gynt
Legato; monophonic texture “framed” by slow, pulsing intro; strings in A minor; harp; flutes Texture becomes accompanimental for singer voice floats; simple, folk-like faith, optimism modulate (change key) to parallel major which would be what ? strings switch to quick rhythmic figure Note of hopefulness; cadence that evokes image of heaven and peaceful fulfillment vocalise – expressing music through neutral syllables feelings so powerful that only music, not words, is capable of expressing them closes in minor key; hopeful for future, but right now, life sucks The work is framed by an introspective rumination in the strings. The articulation is very connected (legato), and the texture is monophonic. It sets the serious mood for the piece at the beginning and, in the end, provides an opportunity for ref lection and a return to a melancholy mood. 95

96 Solveig’s Song Scales Minor mode – andante – walking (m.m. 72)
natural minor creates earthy, folk melody atmosphere; mode of people’s music; set’s genuine and somber tone main portion of song moves freely between three forms of the scale, allowing fro fuller range of expression lighter mood created by modulation to A major Minor mode – andante – walking (m.m. 72) real and emotional journeys Major mode – allegretto tranquillamente (120) more spirited mood; hopeful for the future

97 Solveig’s Song Articulation Meter
Tranquillamente – tranquilly, peacefully Meter Andante – 4/4; simple quadruple plodding, trudging Allegretto or vocalise – 3/4; or triple simple time Lilting, dancing Does not include the end “framing” part of the strings, but by that time, who the heck cares—Mirusia is great!

98 Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky
one of the “Mighty Handful“ or “Russian Five” composers: Mussorgsky, Balakirev, Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin Late 19th century Nationalistic composers propensity for capturing the feeling of a moment instead of adhering to strict stylistic rules sounds like just about every other Romantic composer Rimsky-Korsakov (among others) liked to re-orchestrate M’s works after he died

99 Pictures at an Exhibition - 1874
written during Mussorgsky’s mature period piano suite based on memorial exhibition of works by Viktor Hartmann It’s also been orchestrated by “over a dozen” composers, most notably by Maurice Ravel 10 movements, each depicting a work: Watercolors, stage designs, & architectural sketches The Gnome, The Old Castle, Tuileries, Bydlo (Polish Farm Cart), Unhatched Chicks, Samuel Goldnberg and Shmuyle, Marketplace at Limoges, Catacombs, Bab-yaga (The Hut on Fowl’s Legs), and The Great Gate of Kiev Each movement connected by the promenade theme

100 Unhatched Chicks – 5th movement
inspired by a watercolor costume design, intended for Trilby – a ballet in 2 acts, 3 scenes, with choreography and libretto by Marius Petipa and music by Yuli Gerber first performed at the Bolshoi Ballet in 1871 plot based on short story by Charles Nodier titled Trilby, or the Elf of the Argyle.” “Canary-chicks, enclosed in eggs as in suits of armor. Instead of head-dress, canary heads put on like helmets down to the neck.” children in costumes depicting birds, butterflies, and chicks still in their eggs unsteady dance of newborn chicks and short, soft chirps and peeps of baby birds Piano version with Promenade intro.

101 Unhatched Chicks – 5th movement
Form: scherzo & trio Popularized by Beethoven Descendent of minuet & trio of classical era Minuet is a stylized (elegant) dance; “scherzo” is a joke! Actually, it’s a “scherzino” or “little joke” Compound ternary Three-part piece; one part is a form all by itself Scherzino, trio, restatement of the scherzino “da capo” – “the head” or “the top” No repeats 2nd time through Coda or “tail” at the end, to bring the 2nd scherzino to an appropriate close

102 Unhatched Scherzino in F major -- In two parts
2nd starts off as repeat of first; expansion of ideas; sequential repetitions Ends in dominant harmony of C major F – G – A – B – C -- a fifth away from Tonic, remember? AA’ -- binary with repeat Trio – thinner or contrasting texture – In two parts AB binary form Remember the weave of thread in your clothing? Offbeat “chirping” Syncopated rhythm

103 Unhatched Timbre Timbre – Tone color
Vivo leggiero – lively and delicately Provoking thoughts of chicks scampering around the floor Una corda Piano hammer shifts over to strike only one string instead of three Lessens the resonance and decreases the amplitude Resonance = duration of sound wave throughout the room Amplitude = volume In order to better hear the articulation High range, thick chords, grace notes – all add color

104 Franz Liszt and Faust Symphony
Three Character Sketches after Goethe: Faust, Gretchen, Mephistopheles Original Elizabethan tale by Christopher Marlowe Not the Marlowe who goes up the Congo! Sells soul to the Devil for youth and power and ends up in Hell Which means he won’t end up in the Hall Bonds, Clemons, McGuire et. al. In Goethe’s version, Faust achieves redemption through the love of a woman, Gretchen, he had wronged Berlioz shows Goethe play to Liszt who then writes Faust Symphony

105 Faust Symphony Musical portrayals of the three main characters
Faust movement is longest Almost 30 minutes out of 75 total Twelve-tone composition Ahead of it’s time! Many sided personality of Faust: Passion, love, doubt, pride Gretchen – primary theme name??? What is the name of the Princess Leia theme? Steadfast and stable Faust “love motive” makes an appearance

106 More Faust Mephistopheles Devil incapable of creation; so, no theme
instead of own theme, parodies and distorts the other themes If you can’t have your own theme, make fun of other themes! In what other pieces does the Devil distort themes? In what other pieces are themes parodied or distorted? Michael Jackson’s Beat It Weird Al’s Eat It

107 Section III

108 Section III – Nationalism in Music
Composers deeply influenced by nationalism: Wagner, Liszt, Verdi, Elgar, Dvorak, etc., etc., etc. US characters that embody our nation: Paul Bunyan, John Henry, Uncle Sam How many kids of today know these names? Topographical features Grand Canyon; Rhine; Rome; Alps; sea Stories, food, rituals, traditions, historical events 9/11 anyone? Music can tap into collective psyche and enhance feelings of national pride and unity

109 Folk Music Imbued with language, speech, rhythms, and/or characteristic dance movements of a people; can tell or evoke stories, legends, or beliefs Composers use folk melodies or characteristic rhythms, patterns, scales, or melodies to draw listeners into a piece of music Especially if suppressed for a long time, feelings want to be expressed Boiling pots with lids, lots of lids

110 Composer as Hero/Patriot
Richard Wagner - Germany Looked to unify the German people Giuseppe Verdi - Italy Captured spirit and everyday concerns of the common man—elevating these to exalted heights Viva Vittorio Emanuele Re D’Italia Edvard Grieg - Norway Jean Sibelius - Finland (and his Finlandia) Edward Elgar - England Pomp and Circumstance Richard Strauss

111 Richard Strauss and Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks
Father was a superb horn player, professor, conductor Richard raised on Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert—”discovers” Brahms and Liszt later Made conducting debut in 1884 (20 years-old) Under Hans von Bulow; took over for him in 1885 at just 21 years of age Continues German music tradition with tone poem: Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks In the Manner of an Old Rogue– In Rondo Form—Set for Full Orchestra Tone poem;

112 Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks
14th century anti-authoritarianism hero/rogue Living life by his own rules Pastoral intro (what other piece hints at pastures?) Till’s theme – French horn, then passed around; rides into marketplace; laughs (clarinet); clergymen (viola soli) that Till impersonates; flirts with girls (violin solo); serious academics (bassoons); back to Till’s horse ride—interrupted by grave march (timpani and low brass) Till captured—Till’s theme vs march; on trial; convicted of heresy; sentenced to death by tuba; marched to the gallows and hanged; high-pitched scream courtesy of clarinet Epilogue; quiet rumination of Till’s theme until impudent spirit reasserts itself (after death!) to finish the piece Part 1 Part 2

113 Edvard Grieg and Holberg
From Holberg’s Time: Suite in the Olden Style Baroque era styling; in G Praeludium (prelude) allegro vivace Sarabande, a slow dance in triple meter, andante Gavotte, allegretto, cheerful, major key, duple meter Air, andante religioso, in G minor, lyricisem, emotional expression reflecting Romanticism of Grieg’s own time Rigaudon, allegro con brio, G major, duple meter (with a trio in the middle for good measure!) 1885 – Originally for piano, arrangement for strings more popular Commissioned for the 200th anniversary of Ludvig Holberg’s birth (1684) Grieg taps into the common musical heritage and uses it to set a work in his own time. In so doing, he connects the glories of times past to the present and appeals to the collective sensibilities of the listeners. Many Romantic-era composers rediscovered the music of the past and incorporated it in spirit and sometimes, as is the case with Holberg Suite, in technique and style as well. 113

114 Isaac Albéniz and Suite española
Studied piano with sister until three Passed entrance exam for piano at Paris Conservatoire, but denied entrance due to age Or unruly behavior—the same reason??? Studied at Leipzig Conservatory at 16 Ran out of money in two months; had to leave King Alfonso XII of Spain pays to send him to study at Brussels Conservatory USAD says he graduated with “first prize” in 1879 ???

115 Isaac Albéniz Had hopes to elevate status of zarzuela form
Spanish comic operas Met with harsh criticism by conservatives Moved to Paris; influenced by Vincent d’Indy and Paul Dukas Used musical elements to evoke national landscapes rather than direct musical quotes The Suite española No. 1; suite with eight movements, each linked to a town or region

116 Suite española No. 1 1. Granada (Serenata) 2. Cataluna (Corranda)
3. Sevilla (Sevillanas) 4. Cadiz (Saeta) 5. Asturias (Leyenda) 6. Aragon (Fantasia) 7. Castilla (Seguidillas) 8. Cuba (Capricho) Distractions/bureaucratic stuff delayed for 20 years

117 Richard Wagner and Die Meistersinger or “Who‘s your Daddy?“
His mom wasn’t a daughter of a prince (Constantin) , but his mistress His dad probably wasn’t his dad Wagnerian Operas are famous; could you really get used to Geyerian Operas instead??? First professional gig in Wurzburg Became director of traveling theatre Following his future wife, Minna Planer 1843 – Dresden Composes Tannhauser and Lohengrin

118 Richard Wagner Collects books; likes to read Moliere, Gibbon, Greek mythology Proposes a German national theatre as a means of democratic reform—rejected by the King not a very democratic King, was he? 1848 – denounced money as evil; predicted downfall of the aristocracy sounds like sour grapes; he was almost always broke, and always needed money for his musical projects associated with Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin Who hung out with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Sheltered from arrest by Liszt; flees to Switzerland

119 Wagner Wrote essays on reform from safety of Zurich Gesamtkunstwerk
Opera should be King! art can “express spirit of humanity only when liberated from sphere of capitalist speculation and profit-making” Gesamtkunstwerk Total work of art; reminiscent of ancient Greek drama Dance, music, poetry, visual art—all in one! Must be pureblood Hitler loved Wagner’s music But I don’t think Hitler liked Buggs Bunny

120 Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg
Opera in three acts First performed in Munich in 1868 Wagner wrote storyline and libretto His only comic opera Four and a half hours long Wagner did not believe in half-way measures Unlike other Wagner operas, it is not built on a folk tale or mythological story historical drama; 16th century Nuremburg Meistersingers – Master Singers Keepers and purveyors of German musical and poetry tradition Main character, Hans Sachs, base on famous Meistersinger Leitmotiv – musical idea (like Berlioz’ Idée fixe)

121 Prelude to Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg
Preludes introduce themes that will be important throughout the story Wagner weaves leitmotivs into the musical fabric USAD excerpt introduces five leitmotivs 3 associated with the Meistersingers 2 associated with romance between Eva & Walther

122 The Meistersinger Guild
Proud, self-confident, ready to do it’s duty C major, medium/moderate tempo Full orchestra, esp. brass Homophony at first; then a little independence Very metric (strong beat) Musicians and poets on Mission from God Here’s a good clip of the full prelude:

123 Wooing music (Walther’s romancing of Eva)
Thinner texture Articulations more connected Quieter dynamics Flute, oboe, clarinet Playful melody, darts in and out of the beat Still in C major, but with elusive tonic Women are so hard to pin down Downward contour

124 March of the Meistersingers
Quick moving, monophonic idea in the strings Based on actual MS song from 16th century Strong and prideful; contest theme Lower brass Built on pitches of C major triad Ascending contour Homophonic texture

125 Another Meistersinger song (the “guild theme”)
More lyrical (smooth and connected) Still in C major, but tune revolves more around dominant pitch of G ( 5th above tonic) Contour “wavy” but trends upward Traversing an octave along the way Change in timbre; strings (instead of brass) sustain the leitmotiv Musicians and poets on an intimate mission Speaking to us instead of at us (less bombastic than 1st)

126 Another love theme Key of mediant-related E major (up a 3rd from tonic) Significant; consequences of this love will have transformative influence upon entire drama Presented by the strings Lyrical, downward contour More seriously evolved love; less playful

127 Chopin Born near Warsaw, Poland
Well-connected middle-class family Father taught at the Lyceum Housed in the Saxon Palace, then Kazimierowski palace Lived in apartments in both palaces If that’s middle-class, I’m in big trouble . . . Mixed with the intelligentsia and aristocracy Again—middle class? Musical prodigy—mostly self-taught/Jozef Elsner Published composer by age seven Shows preference for performance in intimate settings

128 More Chopin “More than any other composer before him, Chopin wrote his piano music specifically for the instrument itself” Recognized limitation of range in one hand Exploited the unlimited range between two hands Encouraged to write Polish nationalistic music Instead of fighting for freedom directly “people” wanted a large-scale work, like an Opera The “IN” thing of the time, Opera Preferred to expressed his “Polishness” by composing mazurkas for piano, establishing a new genre

129 Mazurka Lively Polish folk dance From the Mazovia region of Poland
Where Chopin grew up Rhythmic pattern is two eighth notes followed by two quarter notes in a triple meter Accent on “weak” beats (2 and 3) Often played in tempo rubato Vary the tempo for expressive purposes In tandem with the counterintuitive meter, adds an unpredictable/spontaneous spirit to the dance Also wrote other dances, like the polonaise Which means “Polish” or “Polish-like”

130 Chopin Fell in love with George Sand
Pen name of novelist Aurore Dupin A prolific and iconoclastic author of novels, stories, plays, essays, and memoirs, she represented the epitome of French romantic idealism To protest the unequal treatment accorded to women, George usually wore men's suits: shirt, pants, jacket, tie, top hat Not only did George wear men's clothes, she also smoked cigars and had a rowdy sense of humor George and Frédéric’s love affair started platonic, became intimate, and ultimately became more of a mother-son type of relationship (?!?!?!?!) Died of tuberculosis (consumption back then) in 1849

131 Mazurka in G Minor, Opus 67, No. 2
Published posthumously Austere in its embellishment, yet elegant and powerful Simple ornamentation Tricky rhythms, meter, emphasis Mazurka is a dance in three with emphasis on the 2nd beat “hop step” lands on beat two

132 Additional Resources

133 Links Bambi meets Godzilla All About Beethoven – specifically, Beethoven’s 6th symphony An even better (to me) description of Beethoven’s 6th symphony Even more good stuff on Beethoven’s 6th—more musical details of 4th movement Good view of orchestra as they play 6th symphony, 4th movement Fingal’s Cave Overture (The Hebrides) by Felix Mendelssohn Jim Richardson, photographer for National Geographic – Fingal’s Cave Now for something completely different: King Singers – Overture to Barber of Seville

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