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Elements of Music Literacy Todd Decker. Section I.

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1 Elements of Music Literacy Todd Decker

2 Section I

3 Music Sound organized in time Many kinds of sounds Composers/organizers –19 th century –Hero/artist –Harness forces of nature; turn them to his will –CONTROL! Solo performer—virtuoso

4 THE ELEMENTS OF SOUND or, catch the wave, dude Frequency vs wavelength (pitch) –how fast a wave oscillates; rate Amplitude/wave height (loudness/dynamics) –how loud—how much air is moved Waveform (Tone Color or Timbre) –fundamentals and overtones Envelope (Articulation) –Initiate (or attack), sustain, release Duration –How long a pitch lasts

5 U.S. Navy F/A-18 breaking the sound barrierF/A-18

6 Sound Waves y0lY0http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9GBf8 y0lY0

7 Elements of Sound in the Romantic Era Technological advances improvements in instrument manufacture standardization in tuning systems Orchestration –Mix of instruments (see Berlioz) Size of orchestras increase –from 40 to more than 100 –Mega-concerts

8 Frequency/Range Range of instruments increase significantly –Mozart Piano: five octaves –Beethoven Piano: six octaves –Modern Piano: seven and a half octaves Instrument families or “choirs” –Developed to play a combined range of more than four octaves –Saxophone, oboe/bassoon, and clarinet “families” were invented or perfected in the Romantic era

9 Frequency/Range What’s your pitch? –Fastball, curveball, slider, knuckleball If the catcher doesn’t know what’s coming, LOOK OUT! –One player’s change-up is another player’s fastball system of equal temperament or tuning –Allowing touring musicians to play with local musicians and have everyone on the same page, so to speak –Now, if we could just get umpires to have equal tempered strike zones...

10 Amplitude/Dynamics Technology alters dynamic control, allowing for more contrast in Loud and Soft parts –Musicians can do more –Enabling composers to do more ff – Fortissimo f – Forte mf – mezzo-forte mp – mezzo-piano p – piano pp – pianissimo

11 Timbre New instruments were invented: –saxophone, tuba, the valve trumpet, the rotary valve horn, the Wagner tuba, the modern piano, and even the accordion

12 Sonata for Arpeggione by Franz Schubert Schubert was nick-named “Schwammerl” (tubby) by his friends –with friends like that, who needs enemies? –Did not have a piano of his own –Did not have a place of his own, so he stayed with friends (after spending most of the night out drinking in cafés) –It all worked out; “Tubby” liked to put on a good show Schubertiaden—evenings sponsored by Schubert’s friends in which nothing but his music was performed Arpeggione -- six-stringed instrument tuned like a guitar, but bowed like a cello

13 Articulation Can a piano imitate an orchestra? Can music sound evil? Good? Macabre? Can you play like she sings? –Cantabile (violins “singing” like in Solveig’s Song) Expression marks: ive-markings-performance-termshttp://www.halfstepup.com/articles/express ive-markings-performance-terms Music expresses feelings—specific feelings

14 Duration Metronome –Johann Maelzel’s company built first mass- market metronome in 1816 –Produces a steady beat Tempo—rate of the beat –60 beats per minute vs 120 beats per minute vs.. –Specific m. m.—metronome markings for use in standardization It’s still up to the performer and/or conductor

15 Temporal Organization in Music

16 Duration – the length of time a sound lasts Rhythm – a series of durations Beat – a steady series of durations, usually of the same length Tempo – the speed of the beat Meter – grouping of beats usually into 2 (duple), 3 (triple), or 4 (quadruple) Measure – one unit of the prevailing metrical grouping Syncopation –emphasis on a beat that conflicts with the established grouping; –emphasis in between beats Subdivision – division of beat duration into two (simple time) or three (compound time) equal parts Anacrusis – any duration(s) that come(s) before the first beat of a measure Time (Meter) signature – indicates how many beats are in a grouping (measure) for a given piece and what type of duration serves as the beat

17 Temporal Organization in Music simple time signatures (meters) –each beat is divided into two equal components –the note that gets one beat has to be an undotted note –the top number is not divisible by 3 except when it is 3 –the number of beats is the same in every measure 3/4 time –3 beats to a measure –1/4 (quarter) note gets a beat 2/4 time –2 beats to a measure –1/4 (quarter) note gets a beat 4/4 time is so standard or typical that it is normally left off the staff—if it’s not there, it is assumed to exist –Like the 2 that isn’t there with the square root (radical) sign

18 Temporal Organization in Music compound time signatures (meters) –the top number is evenly divisible by 3, unless the top number actually is 3 –the beat is a dotted quarter note or three eighth notes –each beat is subdivided into three components 6/8 time is very typical –1/8 note gets a beat, 6 per measure –ONE two three FOUR five six/etc. (used in mariachi music) 12/8 time (found in 12-bar blues and doo-wop music) –Four beats in a measure (crazy, I know...) –Dotted quarter note receives the beat (do the math...) »Quadruple compound »Subdivisions

19 The Keyboard, Half Steps Whole Steps flats sharpsnaturals accidentals intervals half steps or semitones half step + half step = whole step

20 Scales – arrangement of pitches patterns of intervals –whole steps and half steps diatonic – of the tonic chromatic (colored) – from outside the tonic major: w-w-h-w-w-w-h (2½, 3½)

21 Minor Scales Natural minor (in folk music, the Aeolian scale) w-h-w-w-h-w-w (1 ½, 2 ½, 2) A-minor:

22 Scale Degree Hierarchy Scale degree 1: tonic Scale degree 7: leading tone (when half step) Scale degree 6: submediant Scale degree 5: dominant Scale degree 4: subdominant Scale degree 3: mediant Scale degree 2: supertonic Scale degree 1: tonic

23 Harmonic and Melodic Minor harmonic minor –augmented second between scale degrees 6 & 7 –creates a true leading tone for scale degree 7 –can sound awkward; so, sometimes composers go further and raise the 6 th degree by a half step as well, creating... melodic minor –raised sixth and seventh scale degrees on the way up –alterations are removed on the way back down

24 HARMONIC MINORNATURAL MINOR MELODIC MINOR

25 Key Signatures serve as a sign of the altered notes needed to conform to the scale of the key E major scale on a keyboard (left), E major scale on a staff without key signature (center), and E scale on a staff with key signature (right).

26 Relative and Parallel Keys Major and minor scales that contain the same pitches are said to be relative like –B-flat major & G minor –C-natural minor and E-flat major –relative keys have the same pitches, but different tonics Major and minor scales that orient around the same tonic pitch are called parallel scales –Same tonic, but because of the difference in pattern between major and minor, they contain different pitches

27 Relative major and minor Relative major and minor. C-natural minor (left) and E-flat major (right). 1 ½, 2 ½, 2 2 ½, 3 ½

28 Other Key Relationships Before the Romantic era, composers limited key changes within pieces to relative, parallel, and other “closely related” keys –keys with one flat or sharp more or less than tonic G major and F major are closely related to C major G major has one more sharp F major has one more flat Romantic era composers explored more distant key relationships like mediant-related keys –Keys whose tonic pitches are a major or minor third away D major and F major D major and B major D major and F-sharp major

29 Other Scales medieval and Renaissance approx Dorian (raised 6 th scale degree) Phrygian (like nat. minor with lowered 2 nd degree) Lydian (like major with a raised 4 th degree) Mixolydian (like major with a lowered 7 th degree) folk/traditional music that romantic composers would make reference to (in a musical way) later

30 Other Scales chromatic –all twelve pitches within the octave –all half steps whole-tone –six pitches –all whole steps pentatonic –Five tones (pitches) –formed by removing the half step pairings

31 Intervals

32 Intervals & Harmony see Table 1-1, page 14, USAD Music Guide major triad – error in guide; fifth should read third –major third + minor third – Perfect minor triad –minor third + major third – Perfect diminished triad –minor third + minor third augmented triad –major third + major third

33 Figure 1-7, page 14 Root chords, third chords, fifth chords, seventh chords—lots of stuff we could spend the entire semester on. Any chord built using notes from outside the great diatonic scale is a chromatic harmony. Ex: secondary dominant, page 15. G-major, dominant chord is D major. So... If D-major was the tonic, A-major would be the dominant. So, A-major is secondary dominant of V in G major. Using this is temporarily tonicizing the chord, and creates tension. It’s like dating your 2 nd cousin—this creates tension in the family; more on tension in a moment—aren’t you relieved?

34 Tension and Release in Music Think of watching someone as they are in the process of losing their balance and it looks like they may fall and get hurt in the process. The more it looks like they are going to fall, the more you feel tense; when they regain their balance, that tense feeling you had goes away, and you feel relieved—hence, your tension is released! –Youtube or video example here!

35 Tension and Release in Music Dissonance –notes that clash –seconds, sevenths, or any augmented or diminished intervals Consonance –notes that sound “good” together –unisons, thirds, fifths, sixths, and octaves Fourths can go either way depending upon context Harmonic progression –Movement from stability to instability and back again

36 Tension and Release in Music authentic cadence –When dominant 7 th chord resolves to the tonic –cadence – “to fall” –“falling” from tension (7 th chord) to stability (tonic chord) – I feel so much better now! Think of a good movie, or good novel, etc. You get all revved up because of the tension, and you feel really good when the tension is released and you are no longer on the edge of your seat half cadence – appears as a V (dominant) chord at the end of a phrase

37 Elements of Music Articulation Duration Dynamics Form Harmony Melody/Line Meter Notation/Terminology Scales Texture Timbre Tonality/Pitch Centricity

38 Elements of Music in Context: Mazurka, Op.67, No.2 Frédéric Chopin Page 17. Play piece and watch the notes go by while learning/reading about boxed sections

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43 Section II

44 Section II – Program Music Introduction: Historical Context Rise of the Individual Rejection of “absolute” systems –Political orders, religions, royal authority –Individual worth—what a concept! Now I gotta go find myself Realize your destiny Each individual must find their path to fulfillment Luke Skywalker; Darth Vader; Destiny; Redemption; Science & Technology vs. MysticismLuke Skywalker; Darth Vader; Destiny

45 The Pendulum Swings Dark ages, enlightenment, science, romance –We’re all on a roller-coaster ride of ups and downs, ins and outs, science and mysticism The very advances brought on by science (food production, transportation of goods, waste treatment, disease control, access to clean water, etc.) made more leisure time –Time to contemplate, explore, and create

46 Urbanization, Nature, and Beyond Workers move to cities; large workplaces; individual “cogs” in a large machine driving capitalism –Longing for countryside/fascination with nature Picnics; camping trips; city parks; country homes; fresh air; sunshine; peaceful surroundings Nature the real-deal; truth; enlightenment; spirit of life –Move away from artifice of society; journey back to nature; reconnect with your “self” Explore the supernatural –Mysticism, the macabre, reality-altering substances (i.e., drugs) –Ancestral tales, myths, customs

47 Role of Artist in Society Rise of the artist as individual “a composer or performer’s individual feelings, interpretation, and expression were considered paramount... hoping to contribute something to the infinite and the unknowable, somehow gifting their times as well as posterity with a glimpse of the eternal” By the mid nineteenth century, there was a widespread feeling that instrumental music had reached some sort of closure classical forms of instrumental music(binary, ternary, sonata, rondo) seemed restrictive and impinged upon artists’ freedom to express themselves

48 Unity Across the Arts looked to extra-musical sources for inspiration –Poetry, theatre, literature, painting, dance, and the expression of nature or the supernatural became a new inspiration and formal guide for many composers –sometimes direct (storm, footsteps, bouncing head) –sometimes indirect (imaginative suggestion)

49 Absolute vs Program music E.T. A. Hoffmann and Arthur Schopenhaurer (and many others) on the absolute side –music of the highest sort is “pure” instrumental music; transcendental qualities are dimmed by association with text, poetry, story lines. etc. Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert (and many others) on the Romantic (programmatic) side –Renewal of music [is] through its inner connection with poetry

50 Franz Liszt (1811–86) good looks, magnetism, power, colossal technique, unprecedented sonority –“I have heard no performer whose musical perceptions so extend to the very tips of his fingers.” Felix Mendelssohn composer, conductor, critic, littérateur, Don Juan, abbé, teacher, symbol –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bY M84n-2Sashttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bY M84n-2Sas –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6m R4RwrfUg0&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6m R4RwrfUg0&feature=related

51 Franz Liszt born in Raiding, Hungary playing piano by age 7, composing at 8 influenced by Berlioz, Paganini, Chopin –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9wTlGN_bmzE&feature =relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9wTlGN_bmzE&feature =related his programs were very calculated –Until 1839, followed the conventional format for concerts sharing time with other artists or orchestra –realized it should be all about himself! called his solo appearances soliloquies later called recitals—which is what we call solo performances today! –long hair, profile performance, hands high, showmanship, gloves, affairs (the women swooned when they heard him play),

52 Franz Liszt – the grand old man always expected to be treated as an equal with royalty –no back-door entrances for him! Young composers from all over Europe brought him their music –Grieg, Smetana, Borodin, Rimsky- Korsakov, Balkirev, MacDowell, even Brahms although Liszt and Brahms had a big falling out over the direction music was going in—Brahms won the battle, Liszt won the war

53 Ludwig van Beethoven Born in Bonn played violin & piano mom died when teen; dad goes on a bender moves to Vienna in 1792 –studies with Haydn –destined to be the next Mozart Kind of like Kobe or Lebron destined to be the next Jordan 1801, at age 31, going deaf; almost completely deaf by 1814—age 44

54 Ludwig van Beethoven and His Sixth Symphony (Pastoral) (music with scenes to get you in the mood)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiCJjD5bXXQ 1808 – composed 6 th Symphony (middle period) –Middle period: large-scale pieces, extended forms, moved into Romanticism –anticipates the genre of tone poems past emotions evoked by scenes of nature I. Awakening of Cheerful Feelings upon Arrival in the Country II. Scene at a Brook III. Happy Gathering of Country Folk IV. Thunderstorm; Storm V. Shepherd’s Song; cheerful and thankful feelings after the storm

55 Pastoral—4 th movement in F minor (Allegro) movements 3, 4, and 5 all play without a break between –4 th is sometimes referred to as the intro. to 5 th –5 th is in parallel key of F major (Allegretto) view link while reading analysis on pages 26 –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- ZVdVuskkKUhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- ZVdVuskkKU

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57 Felix Mendelssohn ( ) pianist, musicologist, organist, conductor, composer wealthy, conservative family –born in Hamburg, lived in Berlin –anti-Semitic surroundings –loved sister (Fanny), who was a pianist- composer, too took the Grand Tour from –Influenced by what he saw, wrote many descriptive pieces: Italian Symphony, Scottish Symphony, etc. chasing-a-truck/http://movieclips.com/yXM8-breaking-away-movie- chasing-a-truck/

58 Fingal’s Cave while on the Grand Tour visited the Hebrides off the coast of Scotland Fingal’s cave on island of Staffa Refuge of Finn McCool, a mythical Irish warrior-leader two contrasting themes –1 st : low strings and bassoons (the cave) main motive is six notes long—repeated softly as an echo from within the cave –2 nd : violins (rolling, crashing waves of the sea) Rises and falls in pitch and dynamics—just like the waves ure=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zyZ5cHUaiBI&feat ure=related

59 Bedřich Smetana, Nationalism, and Die Moldau (Vltava) born in 1824 in Prague, Bohemia (now, Czech Republic – violinist, pianist, composer – all at a young age –forced to leave homeland after abortive 1848 uprising (Austria had moved in); moved to Sweden –came back in 1862 when political climate improved Má Vlast (My Country) – six symphonic poems (like Liszt), each depicting a person or place of historical significance to Bohemia –Vyšehrad – The High Citadel –Vltava – The River Moldau (“Die Moldau” in German) –Šárka – legendary female warrior –Z Českych Luhůa Hájů – From Bohemia’s Meadows and Forests –Tabor – a Hussite stronghold –Bláník – a mountain in southern Bohemia; Hussite analogue of Valhalla

60 Vltava – Die Moldau 1874 Moldau fed by two streams (warm & cold) –represented by flutes, clarinets (inverted melody) upper strings (violins, violas) & oboes enter as main Vltava theme the two stream motives are combined in the low strings (cellos, basses) to form the river Moldau passes hunting party (French horns) passes wedding (cue polka music) –strings, clarinets, bassoons at first; full orchestra later; then dies out as river moves on Night falls –Bassoons and soft strings; flutes as water nymphs St. John rapids –Brass section; dissonance; lively scales in strings River flows into Prague; Vltava theme comes back BIG; river goes on

61 Jean Sibelius (1865 – 1957) Finnish nationalist composer –played violin, piano, taught himself composition left law school to study music full time 1890’s nationalist movement as protest against Russian domination (this, after centuries of Swedish domination) Bourgeois elite speak Swedish; peasants speak Finnish –although upper-class and Swedish-speaker, Sibelius interested in Finnish mythology (as well as Finnish girls)

62 Jean Sibelius (1865 – 1957) studies in Berlin, then Vienna inundates himself with Finnish culture –Finnish literature, poetry, folk music –epic poetry (trochaic tetrameter) DUM da DUM da did not directly quote folk melodies; sought to capture the underlying spirit and character composed the Lemminkainen Suite –four-movement symphonic poem based on the Finnish national epic Kalevala Epic? How about 22,795 verses, divided into fifty songs?! originally conceived as a mythological opera, like Wagner’s Ring later changed to an orchestral piece in four movements also can be considered a collection of symphonic poems

63 The Lemminkäinen Suite, or Four Legends from the Kalevala Lemminkäinen and the Maidens of the Island: The Swan of Tuonela: was 3 rd, changed to 2 nd Lemminkäinen in Tuonela: was 2 nd, now 3 rd Lemminkäinen's Homeward Journey:

64 The Lemminkäinen Suite, or Four Legends from the Kalevala The Swan of Tuonela: –The tone poem is scored for a small orchestra of oboe, cor anglais, bass clarinet, bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trombones, timpani, bass drum, harp, and strings (no flutes or trumpets) –Swan swims in the Black water Tuoni River (it is Hell, after all) –English horn (cor anglais) as the Swan 5 th lower than oboe, more nasal timbre switching back and forth with solo cello; conversation-style (antiphonal texture) muted strings accompany the lead melody –timbres are subdued, dark, warm, rich –Decker note: muted strings & muted brass in various places throughout (USAD Guides does not mention this) –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUAmi6WIfuU&feat ure=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUAmi6WIfuU&feat ure=related

65 Program Music—The Supernatural as Inspiration Paul Dukas ( ) –Paris Conservatoire at 16; keen sense of orchestration; interested in a range of extra- musical subjects: History, philosophy, politics, literature The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (L’Apprenti sorcier) –A symphonic scherzo (sprightly & humorous) based on Der Zauberlehrling (by Goethe) which was based on a Lucian dialogue Lucian was an Assyrian writer from the 2 nd Century A.D.

66 The Sorcerer’s Apprentice RiI&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jSTWy25h RiI&feature=related MmI&feature=relmfuhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_mXhdPq MmI&feature=relmfu

67 Camille Saint-Saëns (1835 – 1921) composer, virtuoso pianist, organist, and writer first formal piano concert at age 10 –played Mozart & Beethoven from memory –Gounod described him as “the French Beethoven” 1848 – Paris Conservatoire (age 13) –also studied French lit, religion, Latin, Greek, math, astronomy, archaeology, and philosophy As a very young boy, Camille Saint-Saëns was fascinated by all kinds of sounds. He loved to listen to clocks chiming, doors creaking, and especially to the sound of a large kettle boiling. When he was only 2 ½ years old, he began playing his great-aunt’s piano. He loved the sound of each note, letting it die away before playing another. His great-aunt gave him his first piano lessons and by age five, he was playing “serious” music by great composers.

68 Danse macabre (1874) Symphonic poem (tone poem; same diff.) Death (as skeleton) plays violin in graveyard –let’s dance to death! –bubonic plague (Black Death of 14 th century) ever dance around a maypole to Ring around the Rosy? popular kids song back in the “olden” days Originally based on poem by Henri Cazalis –Reworked so that musical imagery reflects the text first Frenchman to compose a work in this genre

69 Dance macabre (Dance of Death) by Henri Cazalis Zig, zig, zig, Death in cadence, Striking with his heel a tomb, Death at midnight plays a dance-tune, Zig, zig, zig, on his violin. The winter wind blows and the night is dark; Moans are heard in the linden-trees. Through the gloom, white skeletons pass, Running and leaping in their shrouds. Zig, zig, zig, each one is frisking. The bones of the dancers are heard to crack- But hist! of a sudden they quit the round, They push forward, they fly; the cock has crowed.

70 Danse macabre solo violin, xylophone (represents skeletons) violin E-string tuned down a half-step to E-flat –Scordatura – mis-tuning –Diminished fifth (between A and E-flat) allows player to use open strings for a brighter sound devil’s interval in G-minor; G Phrygian scale (like natural minor, but 2 nd degree of A-flat) –flute introduces this idea

71 Danse macabre Melodic minor scales ascend with raised 6 th & 7 th degrees and descend lowered back down –descending melodic minor contains same pitches as natural minor –Note use of E-nat, F-sharp, F-nat, and E-flat Much of the drama of the piece is created through interplay of these melodic ideas and the scales they come from

72 Danse macabre -- Form tolling of the bells (12 for midnight) tritone idea –cellos and basses, then solo violin 1 st melody played by flutes solo violin introduces 2 nd idea (melody) next section (for 80 seconds) alternates (in various forms) between the two ideas Decker note: The broad waltz theme in the Danse macabre may be recognized as a variation on the Dies irae, the ancient liturgical chant for the dead Return of devil’s interval Decker note: I hear the strings playing colegno here –USAD guide does not mention this imitative passage (at 2:10); overlapping themes –2 nd “b” theme, reworked in “frenzied distorted fashion” –solo violin returns with more lyrical version of tune –“a” idea (flutes) almost completely absent –the two main themes combine and are played at same time –at dawn, all of the demons go back to their graves

73 Danse Macabre Sequence of things happening in Danse with instrument indicated: Clock strikes midnight (harp) Death tunes his violin (violin) The dance begins, one skeleton appears (flute) More skeletons are dancing The xylophone makes the sound of dry bones (xylophone) The wind blows through the dark trees (string instruments) The skeletons laugh as they dance (violins) Mysterious moans come from the trees (string instruments) The dance reaches its loudest and fastest point (all) A rooster crows (oboe) The dance ends, all the skeletons return to their graves Some people think the last two notes of the piece represent the last two coffin lids quietly slamming shut for another year

74 Hector Berlioz and Symphonie Fantastique Unlike most composers, he had no instruction on piano and did not use the keyboard to help compose at age 13 –Played flute, guitar age 17 entered medical school in Paris –Paris is a great place to get side-tracked! –switched to music at the Conservatoire in – saw Hamlet performed; was struck by the “veracity of dramatic expression and freedom from formal constraints” –became OBSESSED with Harriet Smithson, who played Ophelia his Ophelia, or Juliet, or Desdemona –spent two years CONSUMED with his desire to be with Harriet, who was at a high point in her career, while Berlioz was a nobody; that soon changed, as her career went down as his went up –“the idealized relationship of which Berlioz dreamed proved to be far different from the real thing, as Harriet Smithson was not a perfect amalgamation of stylized theatrical heroines.” fantastiquehttp://www.keepingscore.org/interactive/berlioz-symphony- fantastique

75 Symphonie Fantastique is an embodiment of the composer’s overwhelming obsession, love, and frustration, borne from this short-lived and disenchanting romance is also an excellent example of the composer’s talent for orchestration even though this was his first symphony Beethoven’s 3 rd and 5 th inspired Berlioz –freedom of expression & power of instruments –wrote Treatise on Instrumentation (Orchestration)

76 Symphonie Fantastique An Episode in an Artist’s Life five movements: –Dreams, passions – an allegro with a slow introduction –A Ball – a waltz –Scene in the Fields – a slow movement –March to the Scaffold – a march –Dream of the Witches’ Sabbath – a finale

77 Symphonie Fantastique idée fixe (obsession) –recurring theme associated with the “beloved image” –Manipulated & developed as the artist’s experiences alter his obsession

78 Idée fixe

79 Symphonie Fantastique written in “cut time” or 2/2 time –Most typical meter for a march; footsteps –sometimes written in 2/4 or 6/8 (duple meter) like Danse macabre, 4 th movement uses two themes in alternation to tell story –serious theme 25 seconds into movement –Very specific dynamic indications; three sequential repetitions in the 2 nd, 4 th, and 6 th measures; melody has downward contour—hinting at where our hero is ending up... or down!

80 2 nd theme, about 90 seconds into movement –Bombastic Bitter irony to its spirited lilt –Once again, avoids strong emphasis on the first beat of some measures –Accent on off beat of measure one –Final arrival on an off beat Serves to keep the music off-balance Almost a feeling of stumbling to his doom Feeling grows greater as theme moves forward; syncopations are more insistent

81 Robert Schumann father was a bookseller, publisher, lexicographer, novelist gifted singer; composing at 7; studied piano –later on, also flute, cello –first public performance (on piano) at 11 wrote songs (lieder) – words were important to his music 1828 – entered law school, never went to class Studied piano with Friedrich Wieck, living at his house in Leipzig –became transfixed with music of Schubert

82 Robert Schumann influenced by literary works of Jean Paul Richter and E.T.A. Hoffmann –concepts like Doppelganger, split-self –Jean Paul wrote, “Sound shines like the dawn, and the sun rises in the form of sound; sound seeks to rise in music, and color is light.” He also said that it is music alone “which can open the ultimate gates to the Infinite.” He also said, “So life fades and withers behind us, and of our sacred and vanished past, only one things remains immortal—music.”

83 Robert Schumann invented a society known as the Davidsbund –the band of David; gave pen names to members –Schumann had two names: Florestan, reflecting the exuberant side of his nature, and also the virtuoso performer Eusebius, the reflective side, also a cleric/writer/scholar –Friedrich Wieck was Meister Raro –Clara was Cilia or later, Chiara –Schumann would have loved to play D&D or WOW all of the Davidites were leagued together to combat the Philistines, those unimaginative hacks who immersed themselves in safe music

84 Robert Alexander Schumann performing is out; messed up fingers –either with his contraption (chiroplast) or because of mercury in syphilis medications music critic/editor/publisher lengthy court battle to win Clara from father –it took years; lots of bad press, bad will, etc. it worked out; they had eight kids –five survived childhood—times were tough –Robert and Clara really loved each other, but Clara had to bring home the money because Robert had some very real (and sad) mental issues early in 1852 he went through an entire week during which he said that angels were dictating music to him while devils in the form of hyenas were threatening him with Hell –Clara was the first hugely successful female virtuoso

85 Schumann’s Music made the other romanticists look boring his 1 st published composition appeared in 1831 –the Abegg Variations—he constructed the theme on the letters of a girls name before marrying Clara, Robert loved Ernestine von Fricken –Carnaval, or “Dainty scenes on four notes”, is derived from the name of her hometown, Asch –the German word for carnival is fasching –the whole thing is quite cryptic:

86 Robert A. Schumann’s Carnaval A cycle of 21 short pieces, each with a descriptive title representing a masquerading character in a Carnival celebration –Clara (pre-marriage), Chopin, Wieck, Paganini, Mendelssohn, and others, including, of course, his alter-egos, doppelgangers, split-self, E. and F.

87 Eusebius (introvert, cleric) -- #5 of 21 Key of E-flat major, 32 measures long, each line of this musical poem is four measures long –a, a, b, a, b, a, b, a; climax coming with second “b, a” section adagio (pensive and sensitive), starts slow, gets slower, melody begins with septuplets in six of the first eight measures (in 2/4 time!) –imagine dividing a pizza into four slices, with two slices on each plate (or measure); now, each set of two slices has to be divided between seven people –later on, the quarter note beat is divided into five parts followed by division into three parts just thinking about trying to do this makes me uncomfortable! this creates discomfort because of syncopation and also because people are generally fraction phobic –at the same time, it also has an ethereal, or dreamlike quality to it... it floats maybe because you’ve given up all hope of understanding the meter, and have resorted to dreams

88 Florestan (extrovert, virtuoso) #6 Key of G minor; 56 measures long Fiery, flamboyant, volatile, manic – passionato –alternates between fast and slow (adagio) –3/4 time Tempestuous –nine distinct moments of tempo change –piece is going faster at end, and leaves you hanging Moves between frenetic outpourings and occasional moments of light playfulness –Papillons (butterflies) – quoting Op. 2 piano work Enjoy knowing where the tonic is, but don’t visit too often

89 Edvard Grieg (1843 – 1907) Norwegian; mother concert pianist; Edvard started lessons at 6; at 15, composing –1857 entered Leipzig Conservatory as pianist which he found pedantic* Graduated, but went back home to Bergen –performed Beethoven, Schumann, and his own compositions Copenhagen—cultural hub of Norwegian and Danish society –studied under Niels Hage –met Nina Hagerup: vocalist, 1 st cousin, future wife

90 Edvard Grieg raised in Danish culture and traditions 1864 – engaged to Nina -- married in 1867 –Mother’s brother’s daughter –In the summer of 1869, Grieg's daughter Alexandra became ill (cerebrospinal meningitis) and died, at the age of 13 months; she was their only child visited friends in Osterøy –introducing him to traditional songs of Norwegian peasants 1865 – met Norwegian nationalist composer Rikard Nordraak –composer of the Norwegian national anthem –this influenced Grieg to write Romantic Norwegian Nationalistic music

91 Edvard Grieg 1874, Grieg in demand Writes incidental music for Peer Gynt –a play written by Henrik Ibsen (an author we studied about 10 or 12 years ago in ACADEC) –took a lot more time than Grieg thought Peer Gynt is a LONG story –Short gist of story: Peer Gynt has several misadventures, tries (and is successful) in seducing numerous women, including daughter of a troll king (never piss off a troll), and is finally held accountable for his life and bad decisions. Solveig (a character who waits the whole play for Peer to come to his senses and come back to her) can redeem him if it is not too late –Long version:

92 Solveig’s Song Grieg arranged the Peer Gynt into two orchestral suites –The second suite (1892) is in four movements; Solveig’s Song is the 4 th movement, played by solo violin Decker note: almost every recording and example I can find is of multiple violins playing—not solo FRM&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ii2Adi2i FRM&feature=related

93 Grieg on his music In an 1874 letter to his friend Frants Beyer, Grieg expressed his unhappiness with what is now considered one of his most popular compositions from Peer Gynt, In the Hall of the Mountain King: –“I have also written something for the scene in the hall of the mountain King - something that I literally can't bear listening to because it absolutely reeks of cow-pies, exaggerated Norwegian nationalism, and trollish self- satisfaction! But I have a hunch that the irony will be discernible.” –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRpzxKsSEZghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRpzxKsSEZg –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhKe-Z- NhBs&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhKe-Z- NhBs&feature=related –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zf2aIVKp1OY& feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zf2aIVKp1OY& feature=related

94 Solveig’s Song The winter may pass and the spring disappear (A minor) –the spring disappear, The summer too will vanish and then the year –and then the year. But this I know for certain: you’ll come back again –you’ll come back again, And even as I promised, you’ll find me waiting then –you’ll find me waiting then. Vocalise – neutral syllables (A major) God help you when wandering your way all alone (A minor) –your way all alone, God grant to you his strength as you kneel at his throne –you kneel at his throne. And if you now are waiting in heaven for me –in heaven for me, Oh there we’ll meet again love and never parted be –and never parted be. Vocalise – (A major)

95 Solveig’s Song final scene of fourth act (of five) in Peer Gynt Legato; monophonic texture “framed” by slow, pulsing intro; strings in A minor; harp; flutes Texture becomes accompanimental for singer voice floats; simple, folk-like faith, optimism modulate (change key) to parallel major –which would be what... ? strings switch to quick rhythmic figure Note of hopefulness; cadence that evokes image of heaven and peaceful fulfillment –vocalise – expressing music through neutral syllables –feelings so powerful that only music, not words, is capable of expressing them closes in minor key; hopeful for future, but right now, life sucks

96 Solveig’s Song Scales –natural minor creates earthy, folk melody atmosphere; mode of people’s music; set’s genuine and somber tone –main portion of song moves freely between three forms of the scale, allowing fro fuller range of expression –lighter mood created by modulation to A major Minor mode – andante – walking (m.m. 72) –real and emotional journeys Major mode – allegretto tranquillamente (120) –more spirited mood; hopeful for the future

97 Solveig’s Song Articulation –Tranquillamente – tranquilly, peacefully Meter –Andante – 4/4; simple quadruple plodding, trudging –Allegretto or vocalise – 3/4; or triple simple time Lilting, dancing –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BSTNAyop q00&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BSTNAyop q00&feature=related Does not include the end “framing” part of the strings, but by that time, who the heck cares— Mirusia is great!

98 Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky one of the “Mighty Handful“ –or “Russian Five” composers: Mussorgsky, Balakirev, Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin –Late 19 th century Nationalistic composers propensity for capturing the feeling of a moment instead of adhering to strict stylistic rules –sounds like just about every other Romantic composer –Rimsky-Korsakov (among others) liked to re- orchestrate M’s works after he died

99 Pictures at an Exhibition written during Mussorgsky’s mature period piano suite based on memorial exhibition of works by Viktor Hartmann –It’s also been orchestrated by “over a dozen” composers, most notably by Maurice Ravel 10 movements, each depicting a work: –Watercolors, stage designs, & architectural sketches –The Gnome, The Old Castle, Tuileries, Bydlo (Polish Farm Cart), Unhatched Chicks, Samuel Goldnberg and Shmuyle, Marketplace at Limoges, Catacombs, Bab-yaga (The Hut on Fowl’s Legs), and The Great Gate of Kiev –Each movement connected by the promenade theme

100 Unhatched Chicks – 5 th movement inspired by a watercolor costume design, intended for Trilby – a ballet in 2 acts, 3 scenes, with choreography and libretto by Marius Petipa and music by Yuli Gerber –first performed at the Bolshoi Ballet in 1871 –plot based on short story by Charles Nodier titled Trilby, or the Elf of the Argyle.” “Canary-chicks, enclosed in eggs as in suits of armor. Instead of head-dress, canary heads put on like helmets down to the neck.” –children in costumes depicting birds, butterflies, and chicks still in their eggs –unsteady dance of newborn chicks and short, soft chirps and peeps of baby birds Piano version with Promenade intro.

101 Unhatched Chicks – 5 th movement Form: scherzo & trio –Popularized by Beethoven –Descendent of minuet & trio of classical era Minuet is a stylized (elegant) dance; “scherzo” is a joke! Actually, it’s a “scherzino” or “little joke” Compound ternary –Three-part piece; one part is a form all by itself Scherzino, trio, restatement of the scherzino –“da capo” – “the head” or “the top” »No repeats 2 nd time through Coda or “tail” at the end, to bring the 2 nd scherzino to an appropriate close

102 Unhatched Scherzino in F major -- In two parts –2 nd starts off as repeat of first; expansion of ideas; sequential repetitions –Ends in dominant harmony of C major F – G – A – B – C -- a fifth away from Tonic, remember? –AA’ -- binary with repeat Trio – thinner or contrasting texture – In two parts –AB binary form –Remember the weave of thread in your clothing? Offbeat “chirping” –Syncopated rhythm

103 Unhatched Timbre Timbre – Tone color –Vivo leggiero – lively and delicately Provoking thoughts of chicks scampering around the floor –Una corda Piano hammer shifts over to strike only one string instead of three Lessens the resonance and decreases the amplitude –Resonance = duration of sound wave throughout the room –Amplitude = volume In order to better hear the articulation High range, thick chords, grace notes – all add color

104 Franz Liszt and Faust Symphony Three Character Sketches after Goethe: –Faust, Gretchen, Mephistopheles Original Elizabethan tale by Christopher Marlowe –Not the Marlowe who goes up the Congo! Sells soul to the Devil for youth and power and ends up in Hell –Which means he won’t end up in the Hall Bonds, Clemons, McGuire et. al. In Goethe’s version, Faust achieves redemption through the love of a woman, Gretchen, he had wronged Berlioz shows Goethe play to Liszt who then writes Faust Symphony

105 Faust Symphony Musical portrayals of the three main characters Faust movement is longest –Almost 30 minutes out of 75 total –Twelve-tone composition Ahead of it’s time! –Many sided personality of Faust: Passion, love, doubt, pride Gretchen – primary theme name??? –What is the name of the Princess Leia theme? –Steadfast and stable –Faust “love motive” makes an appearance

106 More Faust Mephistopheles –Devil incapable of creation; so, no theme –instead of own theme, parodies and distorts the other themes If you can’t have your own theme, make fun of other themes! In what other pieces does the Devil distort themes? In what other pieces are themes parodied or distorted? Michael Jackson’s Beat It Weird Al’s Eat It

107 Section III

108 Section III – Nationalism in Music Composers deeply influenced by nationalism: –Wagner, Liszt, Verdi, Elgar, Dvorak, etc., etc., etc. US characters that embody our nation: –Paul Bunyan, John Henry, Uncle Sam How many kids of today know these names? Topographical features –Grand Canyon; Rhine; Rome; Alps; sea Stories, food, rituals, traditions, historical events –9/11 anyone? Music can tap into collective psyche and enhance feelings of national pride and unity

109 Folk Music Imbued with language, speech, rhythms, and/or characteristic dance movements of a people; can tell or evoke stories, legends, or beliefs –Composers use folk melodies or characteristic rhythms, patterns, scales, or melodies to draw listeners into a piece of music –Especially if suppressed for a long time, feelings want to be expressed Boiling pots with lids, lots of lids

110 Composer as Hero/Patriot Richard Wagner - Germany –Looked to unify the German people Giuseppe Verdi - Italy –Captured spirit and everyday concerns of the common man—elevating these to exalted heights Viva Vittorio Emanuele Re D’Italia Edvard Grieg - Norway Jean Sibelius - Finland (and his Finlandia) Edward Elgar - England –Pomp and Circumstance Richard Strauss

111 Richard Strauss and Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks Father was a superb horn player, professor, conductor Richard raised on Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert—”discovers” Brahms and Liszt later Made conducting debut in 1884 (20 years-old) –Under Hans von Bulow; took over for him in 1885 at just 21 years of age Continues German music tradition with tone poem: Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks –In the Manner of an Old Rogue– In Rondo Form—Set for Full Orchestra –Tone poem;

112 Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks 14 th century anti-authoritarianism hero/rogue –Living life by his own rules Pastoral intro (what other piece hints at pastures?) Till’s theme – French horn, then passed around; rides into marketplace; laughs (clarinet); clergymen (viola soli) that Till impersonates; flirts with girls (violin solo); serious academics (bassoons); back to Till’s horse ride— interrupted by grave march (timpani and low brass) Till captured—Till’s theme vs march; on trial; convicted of heresy; sentenced to death by tuba; marched to the gallows and hanged; high-pitched scream courtesy of clarinet Epilogue; quiet rumination of Till’s theme until impudent spirit reasserts itself (after death!) to finish the piece Part 1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7aNgaw7yV-k Part 2http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IybIVpvmpLw

113 Edvard Grieg and Holberg From Holberg’s Time: Suite in the Olden Style –Baroque era styling; in G –Praeludium (prelude) allegro vivace –Sarabande, a slow dance in triple meter, andante –Gavotte, allegretto, cheerful, major key, duple meter –Air, andante religioso, in G minor, lyricisem, emotional expression reflecting Romanticism of Grieg’s own time –Rigaudon, allegro con brio, G major, duple meter (with a trio in the middle for good measure!) –1885 – Originally for piano, arrangement for strings more popular –Commissioned for the 200 th anniversary of Ludvig Holberg’s birth (1684)

114 Isaac Albéniz and Suite española Studied piano with sister until three Passed entrance exam for piano at Paris Conservatoire, but denied entrance due to age –Or unruly behavior—the same reason??? Studied at Leipzig Conservatory at 16 –Ran out of money in two months; had to leave King Alfonso XII of Spain pays to send him to study at Brussels Conservatory USAD says he graduated with “first prize” in 1879 –???

115 Isaac Albéniz Had hopes to elevate status of zarzuela form –Spanish comic operas –Met with harsh criticism by conservatives Moved to Paris; influenced by Vincent d’Indy and Paul Dukas Used musical elements to evoke national landscapes rather than direct musical quotes The Suite española No. 1; suite with eight movements, each linked to a town or region

116 Suite española No Granada (Serenata) 2. Cataluna (Corranda) 3. Sevilla (Sevillanas) 4. Cadiz (Saeta) 5. Asturias (Leyenda) dhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z1jQ3o718ls&feature=relate d tedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qImpg9RXhcM&feature=rela ted 6. Aragon (Fantasia) 7. Castilla (Seguidillas) 8. Cuba (Capricho) –Distractions/bureaucratic stuff delayed for 20 years

117 Richard Wagner and Die Meistersinger or “Who‘s your Daddy?“ His mom wasn’t a daughter of a prince (Constantin), but his mistress His dad probably wasn’t his dad –Wagnerian Operas are famous; could you really get used to Geyerian Operas instead??? First professional gig in Wurzburg Became director of traveling theatre –Following his future wife, Minna Planer 1843 – Dresden –Composes Tannhauser and Lohengrin

118 Richard Wagner Collects books; likes to read Moliere, Gibbon, Greek mythology Proposes a German national theatre as a means of democratic reform—rejected by the King –not a very democratic King, was he? 1848 – denounced money as evil; predicted downfall of the aristocracy –sounds like sour grapes; he was almost always broke, and always needed money for his musical projects –associated with Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin Who hung out with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Sheltered from arrest by Liszt; flees to Switzerland

119 Wagner Wrote essays on reform from safety of Zurich –Opera should be King! –art can “express spirit of humanity only when liberated from sphere of capitalist speculation and profit-making” Gesamtkunstwerk –Total work of art; reminiscent of ancient Greek drama –Dance, music, poetry, visual art—all in one! Must be pureblood –Hitler loved Wagner’s music –But I don’t think Hitler liked Buggs Bunny

120 Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg Opera in three acts –First performed in Munich in 1868 –Wagner wrote storyline and libretto –His only comic opera –Four and a half hours long Wagner did not believe in half-way measures Unlike other Wagner operas, it is not built on a folk tale or mythological story historical drama; 16 th century Nuremburg Meistersingers – Master Singers –Keepers and purveyors of German musical and poetry tradition –Main character, Hans Sachs, base on famous Meistersinger –Leitmotiv – musical idea (like Berlioz’ Idée fixe)

121 Prelude to Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg Preludes introduce themes that will be important throughout the story –Wagner weaves leitmotivs into the musical fabric USAD excerpt introduces five leitmotivs –3 associated with the Meistersingers –2 associated with romance between Eva & Walther

122 The Meistersinger Guild –Proud, self-confident, ready to do it’s duty –C major, medium/moderate tempo –Full orchestra, esp. brass –Homophony at first; then a little independence –Very metric (strong beat) –Musicians and poets on Mission from God Here’s a good clip of the full prelude: ature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pNdLpJILRzs&fe ature=related

123 Wooing music (Walther’s romancing of Eva) –Thinner texture –Articulations more connected –Quieter dynamics –Flute, oboe, clarinet –Playful melody, darts in and out of the beat –Still in C major, but with elusive tonic Women are so hard to pin down –Downward contour

124 March of the Meistersingers –Quick moving, monophonic idea in the strings –Based on actual MS song from 16 th century –Strong and prideful; contest theme –Lower brass –Built on pitches of C major triad –Ascending contour –Homophonic texture

125 Another Meistersinger song (the “guild theme”) –More lyrical (smooth and connected) –Still in C major, but tune revolves more around dominant pitch of G ( 5 th above tonic) –Contour “wavy” but trends upward Traversing an octave along the way –Change in timbre; strings (instead of brass) sustain the leitmotiv Musicians and poets on an intimate mission Speaking to us instead of at us (less bombastic than 1 st )

126 Another love theme –Key of mediant-related E major (up a 3 rd from tonic) Significant; consequences of this love will have transformative influence upon entire drama –Presented by the strings –Lyrical, downward contour –More seriously evolved love; less playful

127 Chopin Born near Warsaw, Poland –Well-connected middle-class family –Father taught at the Lyceum Housed in the Saxon Palace, then Kazimierowski palace –Lived in apartments in both palaces If that’s middle-class, I’m in big trouble... –Mixed with the intelligentsia and aristocracy Again—middle class? Musical prodigy—mostly self-taught/Jozef Elsner –Published composer by age seven –Shows preference for performance in intimate settings

128 More Chopin “More than any other composer before him, Chopin wrote his piano music specifically for the instrument itself” –Recognized limitation of range in one hand –Exploited the unlimited range between two hands Encouraged to write Polish nationalistic music –Instead of fighting for freedom directly –“people” wanted a large-scale work, like an Opera The “IN” thing of the time, Opera –Preferred to expressed his “Polishness” by composing mazurkas for piano, establishing a new genre

129 Mazurka Lively Polish folk dance –From the Mazovia region of Poland Where Chopin grew up –Rhythmic pattern is two eighth notes followed by two quarter notes in a triple meter Accent on “weak” beats (2 and 3) –Often played in tempo rubato Vary the tempo for expressive purposes In tandem with the counterintuitive meter, adds an unpredictable/spontaneous spirit to the dance –Also wrote other dances, like the polonaise Which means “Polish” or “Polish-like”

130 Chopin Fell in love with George Sand –Pen name of novelist Aurore Dupin –A prolific and iconoclastic author of novels, stories, plays, essays, and memoirs, she represented the epitome of French romantic idealism –To protest the unequal treatment accorded to women, George usually wore men's suits: shirt, pants, jacket, tie, top hat Not only did George wear men's clothes, she also smoked cigars and had a rowdy sense of humor –George and Frédéric’s love affair started platonic, became intimate, and ultimately became more of a mother-son type of relationship (?!?!?!?!) Died of tuberculosis (consumption back then) in 1849

131 Mazurka in G Minor, Opus 67, No. 2 Published posthumously Austere in its embellishment, yet elegant and powerful –Simple ornamentation –Tricky rhythms, meter, emphasis Mazurka is a dance in three with emphasis on the 2 nd beat “hop step” lands on beat two

132 Additional Resources

133 Links Bambi meets Godzilla All About Beethoven – specifically, Beethoven’s 6 th symphony An even better (to me) description of Beethoven’s 6 th symphony Even more good stuff on Beethoven’s 6 th —more musical details of 4 th movement Good view of orchestra as they play 6 th symphony, 4 th movement Fingal’s Cave Overture (The Hebrides) by Felix Mendelssohn Jim Richardson, photographer for National Geographic – Fingal’s Cave html Now for something completely different: King Singers – Overture to Barber of Seville


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