Presentation on theme: "Cold War and After History since Vietnam. Margaret Thatcher British prime minister Free trade and less government regulation of business Close relationship."— Presentation transcript:
Margaret Thatcher British prime minister Free trade and less government regulation of business Close relationship with United States and U.S. foreign policy Assertion of United Kingdom’s military power
Mikhail Gorbachev Glasnost and perestroika: openness and economic reform Fall of the Berlin Wall Last president of Soviet Union
Deng Xiaoping Reformed Communist China’s economy to a market economy leading to rapid economic growth Continued communist control of government
Indira Gandhi Closer relationship between India and the Soviet Union during the Cold War Developed nuclear program
Regional setting for the Indian independence movement Indian sub-continent British India – British controlled since 1763 India Pakistan (formerly West Pakistan) Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon)
Indian Independence movement Leadership of Mohandas Gandhi Role of civil disobedience and passive resistance Political division along Hindu-Muslim lines – Pakistan/India Republic of India – World’s largest democratic nation – Federal system, giving many powers to the states
Indian democracy Jawaharlal Nehru, a close associate of Gandhi, supported western-style industrialization 1950 Constitution sought to prohibit caste discrimination Ethnic and religious differences caused problems in the development of India as a democratic nation New economic development has helped to ease financial problems of the nation
Independence movement in Africa Right to self-determination (U.N. charter) Peaceful and violent revolutions after World War II Pride in African cultures and heritage Resentment of imperial rule and economic exploitation Loss of colonies by Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal; influence of superpower rivalry during the Cold War
Independence movements and subsequent development efforts West Africa: Peaceful transition Algeria: War of Independence from France Kenya (Britain): Violent struggle under leadership of Jomo Kenyatta South Africa: Black South Africans’ struggle against apartheid led by Nelson Mandela, who became the first black president of the Republic of South Africa
Jomo Kenyatta After the British granted independence to Kenya in 1963, this man became the first prime minister and worked hard to unite the various ethnic and language groups inside the country. Once Kenya was a republic, he was the first president.
Nelson Mandela This leader of the ANC at first supported non violent methods of achieving equality in South Africa but later turned to more violent methods. He was arrested and spent 27 years in prison. Once South Africa held free elections, he was elected the first black president.
Desmond Tutu Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, this Anglican Archbishop supported economic sanctions against his own country and other nonviolent means to challenge the system of racial segregation in South Africa.
Mandates in the Middle East Established by the League of Nations Granted independence after World War II Resulted in Middle East conflicts created by religious differences
French and British mandates in the Middle East Syria-French Lebanon-French Jordon (originally Transjordan)- British Palestine (a part became independent as the State of Israel)-British
Israel & the Middle East Zionist Movement – Theodor Herzl 1897 Balfour Declaration – GB support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine Holocaust Realities – Global sympathy – Displaced persons – Immigration UN Resolution – Palestine divided – Arabs reject plan – Israel declares independence 5/14/48 David Ben-Gurion
The Arab – Israeli Wars The Struggle for Existence 1948 vs. Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt & Iraq – Israelis win – Palestinian refugee camps – Egypt seizes Gaza & Jordan seizes West Bank 1967 vs. Egypt = Six Day War – Egypt plans attacks with Soviet supplied weaponry – Israel strikes 1st – Israelis gain Jerusalem, West Bank, Golan Hts. & Sinai 1973 vs. Egypt = Yom Kippur War – Borders remain Whose land is it? What should be done to maintain peace?
Golda Meir Prime Minister of Israel After initial setbacks, led Israel to victory in Yom Kippur War Sought support of United States
Golda Meir This Russian-Jew emigrated to the United States and later to Israel where she served as ambassador to the Soviet Union, minister of labor, foreign minister, and finally prime minister of Israel.
Arab – Israeli Conflict ’72 Munich Olympics – Black September Terrorist Group Captures 11 Israeli Athletes Murders all 11 PLO – Yasir Arafat – Palestinian State – Terror Intifada: ’87 - today – Civil Disobedience + Uprisings – Pressure Israel to recognize Palestinian rights
Camp David Accords This 1979 agreement was the first signed document between Israel and an Arab nation and officially ended hostilities between Egypt and Israel.
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Isaeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in 1978
Arab – Israeli Peace Attempts ’79 Camp David Accords – Anwar Sadat + Menachem Begin – Israeli recognition – Sinai back to Egypt – Palestinian Rights – ’81 Sadat assassinated ’93 Oslo Accords – Yitzak Rabin + Yasir Arafat – Palestinian self-rule in Gaza + West Bank – Rabin assassinated ‘95
Yasir Arafat This person was awarded a joint Nobel Peace prize for his work at negotiating a peace with Israel in 1993. Unfortunately, another intifada began in 2000 and went for over a year. As head of the PLO, he eventually became the head of a semi-independent area called the Palestinian Authority.
Yitzak Rabin This Israeli was awarded a joint Nobel Peace prize for his work at negotiating a peace with the Palestinians in 1993. He was assassinated by a Jewish student who did not support his peace policies.
Gamal Abdul Nasser President of Egypt Nationalized Suez Canal Established relationship with Soviet Union Built Aswan High Dam
Cold War Crisis Points Suez Crisis ’56 –N–Nasser nationalizes canal –E–Egypt-Israeli War –G–GB + F seize canal –G–GB + F + I v. E + USSR? –N–No US support Canal returned –C–Crisis Averted
Saddam Hussein This Sunni leader took control of the Iraqi government in 1979 and launched an attack on Iran in 1980 and invaded Kuwait in 1990. Captured by coalition forces in December, 2003, he was tried and executed in 2006.
Persian Gulf War This conflict occurred when the leader of Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. The United States led an international force that destroyed most of Iraq’s armed forces but failed to spark an internal uprising to depose the leader.
Judaism Monotheism Ten Commandments of moral and religious conduct Torah: Written records and beliefs of the Jews
Christianity Monotheism Jesus as Son of God Life after death New Testament: Life and teachings of Jesus Establishment of Christian doctrines by early church councils
Islam Monotheism Muhammad, the prophet Qur’an (Koran) Five Pillars of Islam Mecca and Medina
Buddhism Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path to Enlightenment Spread of Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia, resulting from Asoka’s missionaries and their writings
Hinduism Many forms of one God Reincarnation: Rebirth based upon karma Karma: Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences
Geographic distribution of world’s major religions Judaism: Concentrated in Israel and North America Christianity: Concentrated in Europe and North and South America Islam: Concentrated in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia Hinduism: Concentrated in India Buddhism: Concentrated in East and Southeast Asia
Migrations of refugees and others Refugees as an issue in international conflicts Migrations of “guest workers” to European cities
Ethnic and religious conflicts Middle East Northern Ireland Balkans Horn of Africa South Asia
Impact of new Technologies Widespread but unequal access to computers and instantaneous communications Genetic engineering and bioethics
Contrasts between developed and developing nations Geographic locations of major developed and developing countries Economic conditions Social conditions (literacy, access to health care) Population size and rate of growth
Environmental Challenges Pollution Loss of habitat Global climate change Economic development Rapid population growth
Social Challenges Poverty Poor health Illiteracy Famine Migration
Relationship between economic and political freedom Free market economies produce rising standards of living and an expanding middle class, which produces growing demands for political freedoms and individual rights. Recent examples include Taiwan and South Korea
Economic Interdependence Role of rapid transportation, communication, and computer networks Rise and influence of multinational corporations Changing role of international boundaries Regional integration, e.g., European Union Trade agreements, e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization (WTO) International organizations, e.g., United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Examples of international terrorism Munich Olympics – Jewish Olympians killed by PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) Terrorist attacks in the United States (e.g., 9/11/2001) motivated by extremism (Osama bin Laden) Car bombings Suicide bombers Airline hijackers
Governmental responses to terrorist activities Surveillance Review of privacy rights Security at ports and airports