Presentation on theme: "Renaissance Europe August 12, 2013. “Rebirth” Renaissance is French for “rebirth.” – Word first used in 16 th century to refer to revival of interest."— Presentation transcript:
“Rebirth” Renaissance is French for “rebirth.” – Word first used in 16 th century to refer to revival of interest in classic Greek and Roman poetry, prose and art. – Broader consciousness that made people feel very distinct from the Middle Ages, and very influenced by the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome.
Why Italy? 1.City-States 2.Roman and Greek heritage 3.Wealthy merchant class
Economic Changes Italian city-states, Venice and Genoa, became a sea route for knights traveling to the Holy Lands. Transport of goods – Cotton, wool, wines in exchange for luxury goods from Middle East Crusades go on from late 11 th to 13 th century
Florence Inland city Big breakthrough—Pope gives the city’s bankers and merchants the right to collect taxes. – Offices all over Europe Profitable wool/cloth industry all over the world Economic stability—currency and banks
Social Structure Social structure changes to reflect economic changes. Urban nobility arises—rural based nobility move to cities and marry into prominent (merchant) families.
The Hierarchy 1.“Fat People”– popolo grasso. Wealthy merchants and manufacturers. 5% of population. Owned farmland outside the cities. 2.Middle group—mediocri. Smaller merchants and master artisans. 3.“Little People”—popolo minuto. Laborers and artisans. 4.Slaves and servants
Social Structure (cont.) Social mobility was possible. – How? Urban patriarchs dominated cities through patronage. Patronage of the arts was a show of wealth and power.
Family Life Wealthy had more children. Marriages were arranged on terms of money and political/family status. City-states were patriarchies. – Inheritances were for males – Dowries – What was the status of women like in Italy during the Renaissance?
Political Organization Italian cities had expanded to become city- states. – Dominated the politics and economics of surrounding countyside. – Lacked central control – Were independent states – Became rivals
Republics—associations of free men who wanted independence from local nobles. Principalities—ruled by signori (hereditary despots) with absolute power. None were democratic.
Intellectual Changes Economic + Social + Political Changes= Change in Culture and Intellect. Humanism—interest in capabilities and accomplishments of individuals.
Humanist roots—medieval scholars changed education to give more attention to the Latin classics. – Rhetoric—a part of the medieval curriculum that was to make one a good writer and speaker. – Why the Latin classics?
Early humanists believed in scholasticism, or reconciling beliefs of Christianity with the logical reasoning of Greek philosophy. By 14 th century, writing had become more secular. – Would go directly to the source and draw conclusions, sometimes contradicting Church authorities. – But they were still religious!
Petrarch 14 th century writer Called the “Father of Humanism” Lawyer/cleric turned writer Standardized the Florentine vernacular Famous for his short sonnets Believed the best moral models were the earliest Christians and ancient Romans, not the Church leaders.
Printing Press Invented by a German printer, Johann Gutenburg. First Gutenburg Bible printed in 1454. Writings could be widely available. By 1500, 10 million+ books were in circulation in Europe.
Humanistic Education Males attended schools separated by age/accomplishment for first time. Studied: Latin, Greek, rhetoric, ancient writings (epics, history, dialogues, philosophy) – Profound influence on education – Humanities
The Renaissance Man Social duties, etiquette, and well-rounded backgrounds became valued. – Baldassare Castiglione’s The Courtier – “Let the man we are seeking be very bold, stern, and always among the first where the enemy are to be seen; and in every other place gentle, modest, reserved, above all things avoiding ostentation and impudent self-praise…. I would have him more than passably accomplished in letters, at least in those studies that are called the humanities, and conversant not only with the Latin language but with Greek, for the sake of the many different things that have been admirably written therein. Let him be well versed in the poets, and not less in the orators and historians, and also proficient in writing verse and prose.”
The Prince Most influential of all Renaissance humanist writings Niccolo Machiavelli, 1513 Believed that human beings were selfish evil Analyzed ruling methods Believed that self-interested rulers are more likely to be successful