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The Persian Gulf War I (1991)

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1 The Persian Gulf War I (1991)
War On Terrorism including: 9-11 Afghanistan Operation Iraqi Freedom The Axis of Evil Communism/Terrorism parallels?? (A Power Point compiled by Mr. Sachtleben and Mr. Chittock, Olentangy Liberty High School and Olentangy Liberty Middle School respectively) Note—Student research assignments are in red font starting with slide 49 !!!

2 American Fighting Forces

3 Questions to Keep In Mind
Is 9/11/01 the first time we dealt with Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda? Is Operation Infinite Justice (2002-present) the first time we dealt with the Taliban and Afghanistan? Is Operation “Iraqi Freedom” (2002-present) the first time we dealt with Saddam Hussein and Iraq?? Remember--Every Action has a Reaction and Every Event has impacts

4 Rise of a Dictator Saddam Hussein
Takes control of the Iraqi government from his Uncle in July, 1979 Used military action at will: Executed hundreds of Iraqi politicians and military officers He would torture/execute thousands of citizens who disagreed with him. Used weapons of mass destruction (poison gas) and killed over 5000 Kurds (Iraqi citizens) in northern Iraq (1979) Invaded Iran and a bloody trench-war ensued ( ) He used weapons of mass destruction (poison gas again) against Iran

5 --Hussein was the leader of the “non-religious” political party known as the Baathists. The north is mostly Kurds, the center is mostly Sunni Muslim (whom the Baathists favor and visa versa), the south mostly Shia Muslims. All three often disagree/battle with one another! --Hussein received economic and military aid from President Carter, Reagan and Vice President George Herbert Walker Bush. Why?? --Hussein said he would act as a ***“balance of power” and “buffer zone”*** to the growing power of Iran’s extremist Shia Muslim govt. led by the Ayatollah Khomeini throughout the 1980’s. --He also said he would serve as a buffer zone against communist Soviet Union to the north of the middle east.

6 Let’s Talk Iran…the number two country of “the Axis of Evil” (as identified by President George W. Bush II in his State of the Union Speech 1/02) Khomeini left Paris France where he was ***“in exile”*** and became leader of Iran when the leader of Iran whom the U.S. supported (known as the Shah) was ***“deposed!”*** His supporters took 150 American embassy workers hostages in 1979 from the U.S. embassy in Teheran, Iran. Who the leader was of the Iranian students who kidnapped these U.S. govt. workers in 1979??? Surprise, surprise!! Khomeini established the first extremist Islamic/Cleric government in recent history. Are hostages taken in the middle east today?? Jimmy Carter’s inability to get the hostages released for 444 days and a couple of failed military rescues led in large part to Carter’s loss of the 1980 presidential elections to Reagan and his vice president George Herbert Walker Bush.

7 President Carter President Reagan Ayotollah Khomeini

8 Iran under Khomeini cont.
--Khomeini and his extremist Shia Muslim govt. believed the ***“imperialist”*** U.S. and ***“Zionist”*** Israel are conspirators to take over the world. He calls the U.S. the “Great Satan.” --Our govt. likewise does not like him in any fashion !! --We feared ***“the domino effect”*** regarding a militant extremist Islamic take-over of many Middle Eastern governments. What does this mean? --Iraq attacks Iran and over 2 million killed in war from --Both countries are greatly weakened; Hussein uses chemical weapons against Iran. The U.S. condemned this along with the U.N., and Hussein loses U.S. support as a result. --Iran often used thousands of young madrass trained Iranian boys to run at the Iraqi enemy, allowing themselves to be killed until the Iraqi soldiers ran out of bullets and could then be killed in hand to hand combat by thousands of surviving Iranian boys ++some see this “brainwashing” to martyr your life in battle through these religious madrass schools as a technique used to this very day to raise and train homicide/suicide bombers

9 Let’s Talk Afghanistan…
4. Meanwhile, ***“The war on communism”*** is taking place with the Soviet Union trying to take over Afghanistan from and gain an “oil foothold” into the Middle East A. We fear the U.S.S.R. would aggressively or diplomatically take over the middle east and choke the supply of oil to the U.S. What would happen to the U.S. economy if this happened?? B. We supported the Taliban and northern alliance forces in Afghanistan because they were fighting against our “arch enemy,” the communist Soviet Union. Any enemy of communism was a friend of ours!! C. After the U.S.S.R. is defeated, the Taliban win against the n. alliance and Kurds and take over Afghanistan. The Taliban support Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda providing training and refuge for Bin Laden and Al Qaeda.

10 Soviet tanks move across the country of Afghanistan
Osama Bin Laden

11 Back to Iraq…Saddam Hussein Moves to Recover From His Losses after war with Iran
Iran-Iraq war ends in 1989 Leaves Iraq in a tremendous amount of debt: $80 billion War is often beneficial to the economy of a winning nation. Why is this war not good for the Iraqi economy? Answer: not a diversified economy, totally dependent on oil to make money Saddam threatens to use force to bring Iraq out of debt Blames OPEC for falling oil prices in $13.60 for a barrel of oil

12 --Kuwait is south of Iraq --Has a population of 2 million compared to Iraq’s 18 million (1990) --Kuwait possesses huge oil reserves and valuable gulf coastline of 120 miles in length

13 Iraqi tank as it rolls down streets of Kuwait City
Invasion of Kuwait “I need $30 billion” … “and if they don’t give it to me, I’m going to take it from them.” -- Saddam Hussein He blames the Kuwait government for pumping too much oil for the rest of the world. What will this do to oil prices and profits for Iraq? Ans—________ He accuses Kuwait for slant drilling and stealing Iraqi oil. At dawn of August 2, 1990, Iraq invades Kuwait. Soon 100,000 Iraqi troops were in Kuwait. Iraqi tank as it rolls down streets of Kuwait City

14 Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf
The United States Response: Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm “If the Iraqis are dumb enough to attack, they are going to pay a terrible price.” Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf Iraqi response: “The number of Americans killed will exceed tens of thousands if a ground battle occurs with Iraqi forces…” (Baghdad radio) Gen. Colin L. Powell Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney

15 Operation Desert Shield
The United States, led by George Herbert Walker Bush I , builds a coalition of over 500,000 troops in response to the invasion of Kuwait – He had the United Nations and Congressional support including most Middle Eastern Muslim nations.

16 President Bush’s Plan of Action
Immediate, unconditional, and complete withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Restoration of Kuwait’s legitimate government. Commitment to the security and stability of the Persian Gulf. Protection of the lives of American citizens abroad.

17 Operation Desert Storm
Military action begins on Jan. 16, 1991 in the dead of the night All action was in the form of air raids on Iraqi targets (by Jan 20, coalition pilots had flown over 4000 missions). A total of 141, 921 tons of bombs had been used when the war ended. Iraq’s response was to use Scud missiles – the U.S. responded by using Patriot missiles in order to shoot them down. The world feared Hussein would send poison gas (WMD) on these scud missles Most of these scud missile attacks were targeted on Israel. Why?? Iraq also flooded the Persian Gulf with crude oil

18 Ground Fight—Coalition forces expect poison gas (WMD’s)
Began Jan. 29, 1991 By Feb. 27, Kuwait had been successfully liberated 65,000 Iraqi troops had become prisoners Largest death toll among the Americans was during a Scud missile attack (28 died) 100,000 Iraqi soldiers died 148 Americans died in action, 121 in “non-combat” deaths, and 458 wounded

19 The Aftermath of Gulf War I
U.S. parachuted food and clothing into refugee camps 500 oil wells/rigs were set on fire – fires were battled by entrepreneur Red Adair and his oil well fire company Total cost to rebuild Kuwait was $50 billion Unfortunately, many U.S. troops returned home suffering from mysterious “Gulf War Syndrome.” Perhaps a result of chemical weapons used during the conflict??

20 The Aftermath of Gulf War I continued...
We could have gone into Iraq and removed Hussein but Bush I, advised by Dick Cheney and Colin Powell decided not to for a number of reasons including: --The U.N. resolution did not call for Hussein’s overthrow, only his removal from Kuwait --Would have prolonged the war from America’s perspective cause great chaos/civil war/instability in Iraq, costing many more lives, both American, Iraq military, and Iraq civilians. --Bush Sr. (and Bush Jr. in the 2000 campaign) did not believe in ***“nation building”*** ( overthrow a govt. and establish a pro-American govt. in its place). --Iraq would not be able to serve as a ***“buffer zone”*** against the extremist Shia government of Iran

21 The Aftermath of Gulf War I continued…
The United States was unable to recover from its economic recession, and democratic challenger William Jefferson Clinton wins the 1992 election with the campaign slogan/strategy; “It’s the economy stupid.” The United Nations: Orders Iraq to destroy its biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction. Sets up regular inspections to make sure all weapons of mass destruction are destroyed and never rebuilt Orders that an **economic embargo*** be placed on Iraq if it would ever refuse to comply U.S. troops were treated as heroes back home.

22 The Aftermath of Gulf War I continued…
Saddam Hussein was still in command of Iraq with an estimated 300, ,000 men in his military. He would often fire on U.S. airplanes in the northern “no-fly zone” and defy many U.N. resolutions calling for his cooperation In 1998 the U.N. inspector looking for WMDs was kicked out which lead to President Clinton bombing Iraqi military targets due to Saddam’s non-compliance with the U.N. agreement to not develop WMD’s and allow U.N. inspection for WMD’s.

23 Gulf War II: Operation Iraqi Freedom
9/11/01 takes place In 1/02, Bush identifies an “Axis of Evil.” These are the major nations that support terrorism. This Axis is comprised of Iraq, Iran, and North Korea Afghanistan’s Taliban govt. (an extremist Sunni Muslim govt. made up of the Pashtun ethnic tribe, the largest in the world with many relatives living next door in Pakistan) is overthrown in “Operation Enduring Freedom” by the U.S. for refusing to turn over Bin Laden in 2002 Hussein continues to refuse U.N. inspectors to search for weapons of mass destruction Hussein refuses to either confirm or deny that he has weapons of mass destruction American and British intelligence shows Hussein has and is rapidly developing weapons of mass destruction

24 Gulf War II: Operation Iraqi Freedom cont.
Most U.S. Senators agree and vote to authorized the use of force on 11/11/02 George W. Bush II orders Operation Iraqi Freedom (Gulf War II) to begin on 3/19/03 Advisors this time around include Dick Cheney (V.P.) and Colin Powell (Sec. of State), both of whom advised Bush I during Gulf War I 50 nations supported the U.S. attempt to locate/destroy the weapons of mass destruction and remove Hussein from power. Reasons are to keep WMD’s from being developed, human rights violations of his own people, and support/collaboration with terrorist organizations. 3/20/03 Operation “Shock and Awe” begins. Heavy aerial bombing. On 5/1/03 Bush announces “Mission Accomplished” Hussein is eventually captured in 2004

25 Accomplishments since the overthrow
Elections were held in 2005 and a legislative body was elected 58% of eligible voters do vote!! Women are voting and have increased rights Most Sunni Muslims do not vote in the elections This legislative body drafted a constitution and was approved by the citizens in another election. Bush with Afghanistan president Karazi (left) and Iraq’s Prime Minister Malaki (a Shia Muslim) (right) (source Malaki photo= /)

26 Accomplishments since the overthrow
Lybia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Philippines, and of course Afghanistan and Iraq are cooperating in the war against terrorism 140 million dollars in terrorists assets have been frozen U.S. has paid/built ***infrastructure like schools, roads, hospitals, water, agriculture, etc. health care went from 16 million dollars in Hussein’s 2002 budget to 950 million dollars!! Daily average hours of electricity went from 4-8 prewar to 10.9 hrs as of 5/07 (Brookings institute source) 15.2 billion dollars pledged to rebuild Iraq (not including U.S. accd. To Brookings Institute)

27 The “Rumsfeld Doctrine:” Running the War in Iraq
Sec. of Defense Donald Rumsfeld’s Doctrine states small number of fast moving, lightly armored U.S. troops with much strategic air strikes Worked well in Afghanistan where borders did not need many troops to defend due to rough terrain Disbanded the ½ million Iraqi army after much White House debate due to fear they would revolt against U.S. military and put Hussein or his Baath political party back in power Used 140,000 U.S. troops in initial invasion rather than 400,000 desired by General Tommie Franks and Sec. of State Colin Powell.

28 Disagreement with Bush’s use of the “Rumsfeld Policy” (including John McCain)
Critics claim there has been no plan to “win the peace” after initial military victories and overthrow of Hussein At least 500,000 U.S. troops should have been used Like Bush Sr. fight against Iraq in 1991. This is called by some the “Powell Doctrine” (the former General and Secretary of State who disagreed with the “Rumsfeld Doctrine” and lost the debate re: how many U. S. troops to send into Iraq back in 2003) These troops could have “disarmed” Iraqi citizens They could have kept supplies from coming in from Syria/Iran They could have protected the Iraqi army’s weapons from being stolen immediately after the war, weapons that have since ended up with the many militias and insurgency groups fighting against U.S. and Iraqi govt. troops

29 Disagreement with Bush’s use of the “Rumsfeld Policy”
Many critics feel the ½ million Iraqi army under Hussein should have been kept in 2003 and not disbanded They could have cooperated with U.S. troops just like some Afghan warlords and Afghan northern alliance troops did in 2002 in Afghanistan Could have helped U.S. troops do all the above because they are native Iraqi citizens vs. “foreign invaders” as some/many see the U.S. troops!? Most feel Bush should have been speaking/educating the American public much more often during this “war on terror” like his 10/05 speech that follows Bush Jr. should have listened to Bush Sr. reasons for not attacking Iraq back in 1991 Many U.S. soldiers and Iraqi citizens would be killed/injured with resulting chaos and instability and harsh living conditions Iran would rise to take control of the middle east without Iraq serving its traditional “Balance of Power” role. The strong viewpoint of then Sec. of Defense Dick Cheney!

30 Disagreement with Bush’s policy and running of the war as of 8/06!
Senator John Kerry would change his mind in 2004 (compared to his earlier vote as a Senator in 2002) and argue that Iraq was the “wrong war, wrong place, wrong time.” Many Senators have come to believe that the Iraq Invasion distracted the U.S. from focusing on the real war on terrorism against Bin Laden Hillary Clinton is one such senator They believe the invasion has led to increased recruitment of terrorists throughout the world They believe the U.S. has lost respect and credibility by saying there were WMD’S in Iraq and “none” have been found They believe we lost site of bin Laden and Afghanistan, the real enemy of the U.S. and have been totally sidetracked by the war in Iraq More and more U.S. citizens are agreeing in 2006 public opinion polls Clinton’s picture--Jason DeCrow, Associated Press ( June 4, 2007)

31 Insurgency since the 1/05 elections
Insurgents and Terrorists—continue killing U.S. troops but mostly Iraqi citizens. Started big time with the bombing of the Shi’a mosque at Samarra in 2/06 which has led to near (?) civil war between Sunni and Shi’a. This has included brutal beheadings shown on the internet to strike terror into all who see A main goal by insurrgents and terrorists alike is to keep Iraq from uniting democratically and to get Iraq to break into a civil war. Many different groups are fighting to gain political control (Sunni, Shi’a, different tribal groups, different political groups, some terrorist groups, gangs of crinimals) Perhaps Syria, Iran, and U.S. trying to exert outside pressure on the new Iraqi govt.

32 Bombing of Samarra Mosque 2/22/06

33 Statistics (estimates) of violence: source The Brookings Institute
How has the Brookings Institute statistics changed recently (8/08) compared to these statistics from ???? Some students will be researching this to see the differences!!! (frames 33-36) Violence has been on the increase in Iraq!! Americans killed 2089 American soldiers killed in Iraq as of 8/30/05 2586 American soldiers killed in Iraq as of 8/18/06 3659 American soldiers killed in Iraq as of 8/05/07 27,104 American soldiers wounded in Iraq as of 8/06/07 (source In Afghanistan 422 American soldiers killed (source # wounded, I could not find!!??

34 Statistics (estimates) of violence: source The Brookings Institute
Iraq civilians killed 59,000 Iraq civilians as of 12/06. (not including March-April 2003 combat operations) Estimated 30,000 more from 11/06-7/07 Car bombs 1700 Car bombs as of 9/06 (they have quit keeping count since then due to not receiving accurate data since 9/06). Iraqi Police 2500 Iraqi Police killed as of 10/06. They are supportive of the Iraqi elected Shi ia govt. and the U.S. efforts The Insurgency (3/07) 20-30,000 Iraqi insurgents fighting for various groups other than the Iraq govt. or U.S. coalition forces Sunni insurgents perhaps as high as 70,000 Al Queda members = 1000 approx. Other foreign fighters =

35 Statistics (estimates) of violence: source The Brookings Institute
Increase in insurgency attacks From 60 a day in 2/05 to 159 a day 5/07 20,000 insurgents as of 7/06 foreigners involved with insurgents as of 7/06 6700 IED’s exploded 2006 roughly 5000 IED’S “found and cleared” (7/06) No updated statistic as of 8/07 regarding this most deadly of indicators??? Refugees and asylum seekers 1.1 million “displaced persons” living in Iraq as of 7/07 2.4 million Iraqi citizens living abroad as of 4/07 (mostly Syria then Jordan) 890,000 refugees and asylum seekers as of 2005 Has increased to 1,800,000 as of

36 Statistics (estimates) of violence: source The Brookings Institute
Kidnappings 12/03-4/05 about 5000 Iraqis kidnapped Average lately about Iraqis kidnapped a day (8/07) Average ransom price $ 30,000 (7/07) 200 foreign citizens kidnapped, 54 killed the others released (8/07) Infrastructure: Water and sewage (prewar vs. 3/06) 3 million less have water available ½ million less have sewage available Education 27% increase in m.s./h.s. enrollment from 02-05

37 Bush’s responds to critics: Why the U. S. must “stay the course
Bush’s responds to critics: Why the U.S. must “stay the course.”10/05 speech. The Militant Threat And The Importance Of Winning The War On Terror The Terrorists Serve A Clear And Focused Ideology. The ideology known as Islamic radicalism, militant Jihadism, or Islamo-fascism - different from the religion of Islam - exploits Islam to serve a violent political vision that calls for the murder of all those who do not share it. The followers of Islamic radicalism are bound together by their shared ideology, not by any centralized command structure. Although they fight on scattered battlefields, these terrorists share a similar ideology and vision for the world openly stated in videos, audiotapes, letters, declarations, and websites. First, These Extremists Are Determined To End American And Western Influence In The Middle East. Second, The Militant Network Wants to Use The Vacuum Created By Retreat To Expand Its Power. Third, From Their New Base, These Militants Will Seek To Establish A Radical Islamic Empire. To Accomplish Their Extremist Agenda, The Militants Thrive On The Suffering And Frustrations Of Others.

38 Bush’s responds to critics: Why the U. S. must “stay the course
Bush’s responds to critics: Why the U.S. must “stay the course.”10/05 speech. In Pursuit Of Their Goals, Islamic Radicals Are Empowered By Helpers And Enablers. They are sheltered and supported by authoritarian regimes - allies of convenience like Syria and Iran – This Extremism Cannot Be Given Concessions, Bribed, Or Appeased. We Must Never Accept Anything Less Than Victory. Islamic Radicalism Is Another In A Line Of Bankrupt Ideologies: The Islamic Radical Threat Of This Century Greatly Resembles The Bankrupt Ideology Of The Last. The murderous ideology of the Islamic radicals is the great challenge of our century. Yet, in many ways, this fight resembles the struggle against communism in the last century. (Note—Mr. Chittock and his students explored this in detail back in 2002, check out the War on terrorism/communism link on left side of my home page to Chittocks World) Like Communism, Islamic Radicalism Is Led By An Elitist Self-Appointed Vanguard That Presumes To Speak For The Muslim Masses. Islamic Radicals Purposely Target Innocent Individuals For A Political Vision.

39 Bush’s responds to critics: Why the U. S. must “stay the course
Bush’s responds to critics: Why the U.S. must “stay the course.”10/05 speech. Islamic Radicals Pursue Totalitarian Aims. Islamic Radicalism Is Dismissive Of Free Peoples. And Like Communism, Islamic Radicalism Contains Inherent Contradictions That Doom It To Failure. The Strategy To Win The President Outlined The Strategy To Win The War On Terror. Defeating a broad and adaptive network requires patience, constant pressure, and strong partners. Working with these partners, the U.S. is disrupting militant conspiracies, destroying their ability to make war, and giving millions a hopeful alternative to resentment and violence. First, We Are Preventing Terrorist Attacks Before They Occur. Second, We Are Denying Weapons Of Mass Destruction To Outlaw Regimes And Their Terrorist Allies. Third, We Are Determined To Deny Radical Groups The Support And Sanctuary Of Outlaw Regimes. State sponsors like Syria and Iran have a long history of collaboration with terrorists - and they deserve no patience from the victims of terror. The United States makes no distinction between those who commit acts of terror and those who support and harbor terrorists, because they are equally guilty of murder.

40 Bush’s responds to critics: Why the U. S. must “stay the course
Bush’s responds to critics: Why the U.S. must “stay the course.”10/05 speech. Fourth, We Are Fighting To Deny The Militants Control Of Any Nation. Fifth, We Are Denying The Militants Future Recruits By Advancing Democracy And Hope Across The Broader Middle East. If the region is left to grow in bitterness and misery, while radicals stir the resentments of millions, then that part of the world will be a source of endless conflict and mounting danger. However, the extremists will be marginalized and their violence ended if the peoples of that region are permitted to choose their own destiny and advance by their own energy and participation as free men and women. America is making this stand in practical ways. We are encouraging our friends in the Middle East, including Egypt and Saudi Arabia, to take the path of reform to strengthen their own societies in the fight against terror by respecting the rights of people. We are standing with dissidents and exiles against oppressive regimes, because we know that the dissidents of today will be the democratic leaders of tomorrow. We are making our case through public diplomacy - stating clearly and confidently our belief in self-determination, religious freedom, and equal rights for women. By standing for the hope and freedom of others, we will make our own freedom more secure.

41 Key events from 8/06-8/07 1. Israel vs. Hezbollah (democratically elected “terrorist group in Lebanon to north of Israel) involved in large war July-Sept. 06 2. Hamas vs. Palestinian Authority “civil war” in Gaza Strip. Both past or present terrorist groups, both present day political parties that were democratically elected by Palestinian peoples to run the West Bank and Gaza Strip 3. Role of madrassa schools and whether or not they train future terrorists and/or homicide bombers 4. Aljeezera and Palestinian children’s t.v. (,2933,293284,00.html). Press coverage by/from Arab/Palestinian viewpoints. Why do these first 4 key events not deal directly with Iraq/Afghanistan???

42 Nahul, The Killer Bee. Children’s T. V
Nahul, The Killer Bee?? Children’s T.V. Character on Palestinian Hamas television encouraging kids to be martyrs and homicide/suicide bombers. Source and

43 Key events from 8/06-8/07 cont.
5. House and Senate Congressional elections in Nov. 06 Democrats win control of House and Senate. What does this mean for Republican Bush??? 6. Iraq Study Group report 12/06. What are the top three recommendations in your opinion and why?? ( pages deal with the recommendations 7. Bombing the Shiite Samarra Mosque again, (both times extremely important--2/22/06 and 6/13/07) 8. The U.S. Troop Surge 5/07-9/07 9. Timeline for with drawl (drawdown) of U.S. troops Continual votes by congress to force a timeline for and White House refusal and vetoes by President Bush

44 Key events from 8/06-8/07 cont.
10. Afghanistan--Increased violence this year where we thought stability had returned since 2003 and Taliban removal. 11. Pakistan and President Musharraf deal with tribal leaders to not use Pakistan military against terrorists and supporters but allow tribal leaders to quell Al Queda with their own militias and family relations/diplomacy! Red mosque battle between Pakistan govt. troops and terrorist madrassa school students in Islamabad, Pakistan (7/3/ ) 12. U.S. generals speaking about leaving behind a stable govt. in Iraq, and not necessarily a democracy (CNN “situation room” 8/22/07) 13. Bush drawing parallels between Iraq today and Korea and Viet Nam in 50’s and 60-70’s (8/22/07 speech)

45 Key events 8/07-8/08 1. Iraq Troop surge a real big success!!!
Violence greatly reduced in Iraq U.S. military and Iraq govt. made cooperation deal with tribal-clan leaders to help fight against Iraqi insurgents rather than fight against the U.S. and Iraq govt. Some U.S. troops can now be sent home or to Afghanistan. 2. Afghanistan Violence continues to increase Bin laden still free More troops will probably be sent


47 Key events 8/07-8/08 cont. 3. Pakistan and President Musharraf
deal with tribal leaders to not use Pakistan military against terrorists and supporters but allow tribal leaders to quell Al Queda with their own militias and family relations/diplomacy! It never worked, violence continually increased Prime Minister Musharraf resigns today!!! (8/18/08) Who will be the new leader of this country with a serious terrorist problem and nuclear weapons?? Leading Prime Minister candidate Benazir Bhutto was assassinated 12/07. She was expected to defeat Musharraf in the election many think perhaps by Musharraf’s military?? She had served as Prime Minister then 93-96 Her father had served as Prime Minister and then was deposed/assassinated in 1977

48 from Adam Barker, Press Assistant to U. S
from Adam Barker, Press Assistant to U.S. Senator John McCain, Washington, D.C.

49 Key events 8/07-8/08 cont. 4. Presidential campaign 07-11/08
Both McCain and Obama have different views toward Iraq and Afghanistan. How do they differ???? You watch the news nightly to determine how they differ, and…….to decide who is most qualified to lead the continued (?) U.S. presence in Iraq and/or Afghanistan Some students will be doing research re: the viewpoints held by both candidates on one key issue!!!! Then those students will have to take a stand with the candidate with whom they agree!!

50 Key events from 8/07-8/08 cont.
5. Iran Has claimed to test missiles capable of hitting Israel (remember her president has stated 5 different times he wants to see Israel wiped off the face of the earth!!) World is trying to get her to stop her development of nuclear power (and many suspect, nuclear weapons) Israel destroyed a nuclear development site in Syria believed to be built by Iran and developing nuclear weapons??? Iran has threatened to retaliate against Israel if Israel attacks and to also shut down oil shipments in the straight of Hormuz. Israel says all options are on the table in stopping Iran

51 Key events from 8/07-8/08 cont.
6. Russia Early in August 2008, she attacked the nation of Georgia on her southern border Reminds many of Russia attack of Afghanistan and fears of a return to the cold war/war on communism Russian supplies much of Europe’s oil/natural gas and many are concerned Europe will not stand/protest to Russia for fear of Russia cutting off oil/natural gas supply to Europe How might Russia respond in the following months?? U.S. wants Russia support in pressuring Iran to stop development of nuclear power. OOORRR might Russia now sell Iran some nuclear weapons if U.S. and N.A.T.O. complain too much about Russia???? Research to find out what the “so-called experts” predict will happen

52 Key events from 8/07-8/08 cont.
7. What key events would you include for the developments that I have chosen to leave out of this ppt??? Some students will be researching/documenting at least one “biggie” that I have left out??

53 8/2008-8/2009 Updates all countries
Note this point until almost the very end has been done by A+ All American students in Chittock’s/Baker’s Accelerated Curriculum Class, at least for the school year!!! Slide are by students!!!

54 Iraqi Surge 08-09!!! Done by A+ All American student S.S. class of 15!!!!

55 Troop Withdrawal The Prime Minister of Iraq, Nouri al-Maliki wants Iraq to be independent with no American troops who were trying to stabilize their country politically and economically. President Bush finally agreed with him on December 2008 in the new Status of Forces agreement. By June 30, 2009, American troops left Iraqi cities and went to major bases in Iraq. Sources: (U.S. soldiers in Iraq)

56 Troop Withdrawal cont. Al-Maliki has appointed searches throughout Iraq’s towns and neighborhoods to make sure that there are no American troops left. He also had people keep an eye on the U.S. troops at there bases. Iraq’s government celebrated this day as the freedom of their cities from foreign troops. Al-Maliki called this day “a great victory.” and established it as a national holiday. (Prime Minister: Nouri Al-Maliki) Sources:

57 Troops Withdrawal cont.
The United States has not planned to be totally out of Iraq until August 30, Some troops will be kept there to train Iraqi troops. The U.S. troop size has still decreased from 142,000 in February to 130,000 in July 2009. Due to national elections in January, Al-Maliki wants his supporters to believe that Iraq is now independent and ready to re-elect and stabilize it’s government. This way, he might be elected again. Source:

58 Troops Withdrawal cont.
He believes that although Iraqi troops aren’t as skillful as American troops, they will improve because American troops are training them. Many Iraqis are scared that the removal of U.S. troops from towns and neighborhoods may cause disaster because many of the Shia and Sunni Muslims have high level positions in the government, including police and army. The Shia and Sunni Muslims have also increased their rate of bombing and murdering each other due to ancient disagreement. (Iraqi Soldiers) Source:

59 Troops Withdrawal cont.
Americans and Iraqis hope that the withdrawal of U.S. troops may somehow settle down the disagreements between the Shiites and the Sunnis. They know that in order to rebuild their country, the Sunni and the Shia Muslims have to solve their ancient problems. In order to stabilize its country, Iraqi citizens need to settle their disagreements without violence and work as one nation, together. (Sunnis) Sources:

60 U.S. forms Allies with Tribal Leaders
Most tribal leaders were once allies with al-Qaeda, which is a Muslim terrorist group. They were with them for aid, due to American troops limiting their power. When al-Qaeda tried to kill Sunni leaders, most tribes broke up with them. There are 150 tribes in Iraq and they all try to protect their tribe from harm. Many of them are joining with the U.S. to fight al-Qaeda. Source:

61 U.S. forms Allies with Tribal Leaders cont.
Tribal leaders formed allies with U.S. for military aid to kill the al-Qaeda group. One of these tribal groups are called the Sheiks. The violence of tribes against U.S. troops lowered because many of them didn’t want al-Qaeda influencing their tribe any more and wanted to kill them by joining with the U.S. (Al-Qaeda leader-Osama bin Laden) Source:

62 U.S. forms Allies with Tribal Leaders cont.
U.S. was reaching out to small groups and tribes instead of the central government because tribes are mostly about splitting up and ruling. This way, United States will have more people with them, then they would have if they joined with the Iraqi government. Many tribal leaders helped form a more powerful military by encouraging other citizens to join the army. Sunni children were also inspired and signed up. Source:

63 U.S. forms Allies with Tribal Leaders cont.
United States has to be careful with the alliances with the tribes because although the tribes are allies with U.S. now, they might split up later. A tribe is loyal to only others in the tribe. Once they think that the U.S. is not helping, they will go to someone else for help. Nobody can direct them. U.S. is not, however, making allies with everyone who turned down al-Qaeda. They are making sure that they are only allies with helpful tribes. Source:

64 Increased Violence After U.S. Troop Withdrawal
U.S. troops moved to major bases away from the cities and handed over full control to the Iraqi government. The troops were there just in case something bad happened. Violence has grown between the Sunnis and the Shiites over government positions. The government is mostly Shiite dominated and the Sunnis also want some power. Sources:

65 Increased Violence After U.S. Troop Withdrawal cont.
On August 19, 2009, about two months after the troop withdrawal, the Sunnis set off car bombs in Baghdad, which killed about 100 people and wounded about 500 Iraqi citizens. The bombs were targeted on ministers and other government officials who were Shiites. This act has shown citizens that the fight between the two groups will not be settled any time soon. (Car bombs in Iraq) Sources:

66 Increased Violence After U.S. Troop Withdrawal cont.
U.S. officials told Al-Maliki to be more alert as the government takes over the country and the safety of the citizens. The U.S. also had to focus on the Arabs and the Kurds in the North, due to disagreements. The increase in violence made citizens worry if the American troops have evacuated too fast and if the U.S. troops will take back military control again. However, the U.S. troops can only take control if they are asked to by the Iraqi government. Sources:

67 Increased Violence After U.S. Troop Withdrawal cont.
Experts believe that no matter what happens, the Iraqi government won’t ask the U.S. troops for help, due to the fact that it took them a lot of effort to get them out. Even though the departure of the U.S. troops made the country more unstable, many people don’t miss the American troops. The citizens who once were pleased to see the Americans, wanted them to leave now. Sources:

68 Increased Violence After U.S. Troop Withdrawal cont.
Some people, however, who never wanted U.S. troops are now doubting the Iraqi government and military. The good news is that the violence has definitely reduced in Iraq since a couple years ago. Everyone hopes it will stay that way. This is a tough time for Iraqi citizens, due to the sudden change of military control. Sources:

69 Coverage by Baker Boy J.S. class of 15, A+ All American student!!!
Afghanistan 08-09 Coverage by Baker Boy J.S. class of 15, A+ All American student!!!

70 By, Jack Stoltman Period four
Afghanistan By, Jack Stoltman Period four

71 Afghanistan-Obama Redeployment and Strategy Against Taliban
The Taliban is a radical extremist Islam group of insurgents that deal drugs for money and cause terror in Afghanistan and Pakistan Al-Qaeda is another radical terrorist group that is based widely across the middle east The U.S. and its allies are working to combat these groups in Afghanistan Taliban fighters in Afghanistan U.S. Troops in Afghanistan

72 Afghanistan-Obama Redeployment and Strategy Against Taliban
Obama is planning to double the U.S. troops in Afghanistan from 32,000 at the end of December 2008 to 68,000 by the end of December 2009 By mid-summer ,000 U.S. troops will be in Afghanistan along with 32,000 non-U.S. NATO troops Title: More Troops Headed to Afghanistan Author: Karen DeYoung Source: Washington Post

73 Afghanistan-Obama Redeployment and Strategy Against Taliban
Obama’s new strategy is to “disrupt, dismantle and defeat” al-Qaeda and the Taliban. The new strategy implies to be militarily agile, matching the insurgence hit-and-run tactics, and killing their leaders It also means the deliberate use of disproportionate force, even at the cost of massive civilian casualties The idea behind the strategy is to make life so intolerably harsh the local population will abandon the insurgents Title: Obama’s New Af-Pak Strategy Author: Patrick Seale Source: Washington Report on Middle East Affairs; Jul2009, Vol. 28 Issue 5, p22-23, 2p, 1 color

74 Afghanistan- Washington's Fallback-Buying off the Taliban
During the war in Afghanistan 782 U.S. troops have died fighting in Afghanistan Washington is paying $4 billion a month to fight this war.

75 Afghanistan- Washington's Fallback-Buying off the Taliban
There are between 10,000 to 15,000 Taliban fighters They are paid about $10 a day 5% percent of the fighters are “hardcore” they are in it because it is what they believe in 70% are in it only for the money 25% falls somewhere in-between

76 Afghanistan- Washington's Fallback-Buying off the Taliban
The war in Afghanistan is costing Washington $4 billion a month and soldiers are dying when Washington could simply buy off the Taliban for only $9 million a month That is less than the price of a single AH-64 Apache helicopter

77 Afghanistan Election-Hamid Karzai
Karzai is running for a re-election he was president from 2004 to 2009 He wants to expand on his governments achievements on social and economic issues His campaign has highlighted recent developments in infrastructure He wants to expand on the protection of human rights particularly women’s rights He has defended the presence of international troops in Afghanistan htttp:// stm?a

78 Afghanistan Election-Abdullah Abdullah
Abdullah is representing the United National Front oppositon alliance He has pledged to fight corruption and insurgent groups with the help of international troops He says he is open to negotiation with the Taliban Abdullah is promising a political transformation which will change Afghanistan's government into a parliamentary one He says his new parliamentary form of government will ensure broader participation of the Afghan citizens htttp:// stm?a

79 Afghanistan Election-Ashraf Ghani
Ghani delivers a constant message: “I want to give the people of Afghanistan a clear choice between a just order that I want to preside over, versus the corrupt entourage the president has turned Afghanistan into.” The key threats Ghani will focus on are Al-Qaeda, the insurgency, narcotics, poor governance and corruption htttp:// stm?a [Ashraf Ghani, Afghanistans Unlikely Politician]-[Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty 2009]

80 Afghanistan-Taliban Drug Trafficking
Over 90% of the world’s opium supply comes from Afghanistan The Pentagon estimates that Taliban makes $60 million to $80 million a year from drug trafficking The Taliban came back really fast when they got drug money Title : U.S. to target Afghan drug trafficking Source : USA today Author : Jim Michaels

81 Afghanistan-Taliban Drug Trafficking
The U.S. NATO forces are using different strategies to combat the Taliban drug trafficking The strategies target drug networks supporting the Taliban The operations are conducted alongside the Afghan forces Title : U.S. to target Afghan drug trafficking Source : USA today Author : Jim Michaels

82 Afghanistan-Taliban Drug Trafficking
It does not involve eradication of the poppy crop The key is to target the trafficking and not the farmers Washington is considering expanding their anti-drug efforts further Title : U.S. to target Afghan drug trafficking Source : USA today Author : Jim Michaels

83 By A+ All American student R.R. class of 15!!!!
Israel and Iran By A+ All American student R.R. class of 15!!!!

84 Iran wants “nuclear power”
Ahmadidenjad says that he wants to have nuclear facilities in his country to “supply power” to his cities. President Obama doesn't think that Ahmadidenjad only wants nuclear power because of Ahmadidenjad’s remarks and attacks toward Israel. President Obama is also taking into consideration that Iran is trying to buy AA missiles from Russia. Some reporters think Iran Is trying to buy these because they are building nuclear weapons and they need AA missiles to take out our bombers if we attack. Iran’s President says he wants nuclear power and asks why he has to ask if he can have it! 1: We are at the breaking point right before war! 2: He’s trying to buy anti-aircraft missiles from the Russians! 3: He has made multiple rude and threatening remarks at Israel! 4: He has built rockets to combine with war heads that can reach us and almost all of Europe! After all that he wonders why he has to ask us to build Nuclear Facilities! This man is insane!

85 Negotiations between prime minister Netanyahu and the Russian President
On September 11, 2009, Mr. Netanyahu left his office in Jerusalem. The press believes that he secretly flew to Moscow to convince the Russians not to sell their s-300 AA missile system to Iran. It is still unclear whether or not the mission was a success. The facts about Mr. Netanyahu’s mysterious disappearance are unavailable, but he is rumored to have visited a military installation.

86 Israelis building houses on the west bank
Israelis are building houses on the West Bank and the Palestinians refuse to talk peace until they stop construction there. Palestinians have been very demanding about Israel not building houses on the West Bank. Some reporters suspect that the Palestinians will strike the West Bank and attempt to take it back. That is why they don’t want Israelis to settle there.

87 Negotiations between President Obama and the Palestinians
March 20th 2009 President Obama sent Iran a video offering a new beginning of diplomatic engagement. An Aide to Iran’s President responded to the Obama administration stating that the U.S. “should realise its previous mistakes and make an effort to amend them”.

88 Nuclear facilities in Iran
Nuclear facilities in Iran are protected by 60ft thick walls. It would take several Bunker Buster Bombs striking in the exact same spot to break through the shell protecting Iran’s nuclear facilities. If Iran gets Russia’s new s-300 AA missile system, it will be virtually impossible to take out the nuclear facilities without a nuclear strike. It is highly doubtful that Israel will abandon their policy not to strike first with nukes.

89 Prisoner negotiations
The Palestinians are trying to make ridiculous soldier negotiations. They want 1000 prisoners released for 1 Israeli soldier. To most Israeli officials, this is ridiculous, but apparently President Obama doesn't think Israel is “committed” to help the peace process.

90 Iran’s new long range missiles
Recently Iran developed long-range rockets. Iran showed that these rockets can easily reach Europe. This demonstration has almost completely trampled the chances of Iran getting nuclear power.


92 Netanyahu Calls for Immediate Sanctions on Iran
Netanyahu told the U.S. that now is the time to issue sanctions against Iran to stop their development of nuclear weapons. In a chilling statement, Netanyahu said “If not now, then when?” after proof of Iran’s clandestine missile development became evident.

93 Israel Not Surprised By Iran's New Nuclear Plant
Israel states “We are not surprised by this new development because we have been saying all along that Iran was developing nuclear power for military purposes.” The facts now prove that Israel’s assumptions were correct. Obama states he wants to handle this matter diplomatically.

94 Gravest threat facing the West
British officials think the development of nuclear weapons is a greater threat to the world than al-Qaeda. It appears that Iran is only one or two years away from developing a nuclear warhead.

95 Netanyahu compares Iran to Nazis
Netanyahu is begging the world to stop Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons. Ahmadinejad denies that the holocaust ever occurred. Comparing the Nazi’s and Iran’s nuclear push, Netanyahu stated “Perhaps some of you think this man only threatens Israel, but you are wrong, dead wrong; he threatens the world.”




99 L.L. A+ All-American Student Class of 15
Pakistan L.L. A+ All-American Student Class of 15

100 Benazir Bhutto assassination
In December last year , Benazir Bhutto was assassinated creating more problems to the already to the government and people who are already in turmoil After being declared dead at 6:16 Pm many angry people and protesters joined the others to carry her coffin down to her home town, while all over Pakistan protesters burned tires in act of rage toward those who killed her

101 Benazir Bhutto assassination 2
Benazir Bhutto was a deeply persuasive character in the Muslim government and was also the first woman to lead it. Not many people are sure who killed her but Al-Qaeda did claim responsibility, but still there is no proof that they did After her death president Bush made a small speech saying that we would honor her memory “by continuing the democratic process for which she so bravely gave her life”

102 Benazir Bhutto

103 Benazir Bhutto assassination 3
Many people were feared that the following days after her death would bring violence from the people who did not like her death, but not only from, also by the militants who want to take advantage of this situation Her husband at this point now has taken control of the political party she once ruled and ran for the position of President of Pakistan and won

104 Benazir Bhutto assassination 4
Most of the votes that Zardari received were from sympathy, from his dead wife For now Zardari does not have much support from smaller political parties so he wishes to gain that so he will have a liking from most of the people in Pakistan He plans to do many of the things for the good of the country that Musharaff did not such as finally work toward the failing economy of the country

105 Political/Economical/Diplomatic efforts since Musharaff has left office 1
After long and tiresome fight to remove President Musharaff from office was finally over and many things were expected to happen Many of those things that people wanted to happen were help to the economy, some real action against Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and Militants And why did they want that stuff to happen… because Musharaff didn’t even try to do that stuff!

106 Political/Economical/Diplomatic efforts since Musharaff has left office 2
Many people were pleased that the Military(Musharaff’s friends), did not follow Musharaff after he was no longer president Now that Musharaff is out of office many people in the government were arguing about how to reinstate the judges that musharaff dismissed But mainly the thing that most people were worried about was what was happening to Musharaff

107 President Musharaff

108 Political/Economical/Diplomatic efforts since Musharaff has left office 3
Although while they were arguing what to do, the things they wanted to change that they couldn’t with him there(economy and such), were not being helped One of the things that was a great need to do was to make Pakistan’s relations with Afghanistan and India less hostile Then the next thing they had to do from there was decide who the nest president was going to be along with what would happen to their increased powers

109 Political/Economical/Diplomatic efforts since Musharaff has left office 4
What they decided to was to decrease the powers of the president along with starting a election for a new one Nut now that Musharaff is no longer the president the can be no excuse for failure within the government of solving the major problems of the country of Pakistan such as: find ways to stop the spread of extremism, stop the financial crisis which is feeding the extremism, and what to do to reenergize the economy of this country

110 Efforts against the Taliban
A group of well know militants know as the Taliban Pakistan or otherwise know as the Pakistan Taliban cause great turbulence and cause many suicide bombings Many of the actions that the Taliban have done to try to “protect” their country have led it into almost a civil war and have almost completely destroying it, along with destroying the whole country’s economy

111 Efforts against the Taliban 2
One of the thing that America was well known to do was fire missiles in through drones into the areas that we believed had Taliban and other targets that we though were suspicious The major problem with this is sometimes the missiles that we would fire would injure innocent civilians making us seem evil in the eyes of some people making more people join the Taliban

112 Combating the Taliban Us drone missile drone being checked for test run A unsure soldier getting ready for combat

113 Efforts against the Taliban 3
Another major problem that helps to feed the Taliban is the failing economy in the whole country of Pakistan The reason that this is one of the things that we need to combat is that people in those people who live there need money some way and their easiest option is joining the Taliban for a small pay but enough for their family to survive National Geographic Magazine September 2007

114 Efforts against the Taliban 4
Right now we are also shifting our focus on where we should be fighting to Pakistan because the Al-Qaeda are also shifting their focus to Pakistan The reason the Al-Qaeda are moving their main efforts here is because in Pakistan they see a army which is demoralized, terrified citizens, and a great time to destabilize the government

115 Why this power point Mr. Chittock!!!???
Geez, this is an ancient history up to 1750 class, why are you covering all this stuff T.G.O. ?? 2. What does this have to do with our first unit of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel, Islam, and the Middle East?? Hey, guess what!!!??? Some of you will be explaining in detail (to me and the rest of the class) the many reasons why we are starting the course with this power point!!!

116 One of many Ohio soldiers killed since 8/05 in Iraq
One of many Ohio soldiers killed since 8/05 in Iraq. Delaware soldier and hero Justin Hoffman. Marine Sgt. Justin F. Hoffman 27, of Delaware, Ohio; assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 25th Marine Regiment, 4th Marine Division, Marine Forces Reserve, Columbus, Ohio; attached to Regimental Combat Team 2, 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force (Forward); killed Aug. 3 when his amphibious assault vehicle was attacked by an improvised explosive device while he was conducting combat operations south of Haditha, Iraq. Also killed were Marine Lance Cpl. Timothy M. Bell Jr., Lance Cpl. Eric J. Bernholtz, Lance Cpl. Nicholas William B. Bloem, Sgt. Bradley J. Harper, Cpl. David Kenneth J. Kreuter and Cpl. David S. Stewart.

117 Who Do You Know??? Who do you know who is serving our military in Iraq or Afghanistan (or perhaps state side in the reserves)??? If you have a family member or friend who is serving our country right now, contact them and find out “their story!” Do you have a family member who has served our great nation in the past? Contact them and find our “their story” if they are willing to share it Write up a detailed account of “their story,” as told to you directly by themselves!!!

118 Works Cited Faith Freedom International. 20 March, <…neisa/images/khomeini.gif> Foster, Leila Merrell. The Story of The Persian Gulf War. Chicago: Children’s Press, 1991. Kent, Zachary. The Persian Gulf War, “The Mother of All Battles.” New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, 1994. Lordley & Dame, Inc. 20 March, <…/speakers/CarterJimmy.jpg.>

119 Works Cited cont. Honor the fallen. 29 August 2005.
May August 2005. August 2005. 80px-Saddamstatue.jpg

120 http://upload. wikimedia

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