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The Scientific Revolution: Science and Other Models Magic, Science and Religion Fall 2012.

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1 The Scientific Revolution: Science and Other Models Magic, Science and Religion Fall 2012

2 Was there a “Scientific Revolution”? Term coined 1939 by Alexander Koyre (French) First occurred in book title in 1954 (A. R. Hall) Was there a field of “science” to change ? (“natural philosophy”) “Revolution” meant periodically recurring cycle, until 18 th century “Heroic” view – Voltaire, 18 th century “Scientist” not used until late 19 th /early 20 th century –proposed by Wm. Whewell, 1833/40 Yet 17 th century figures claimed major changes

3 Themes Rejection of Aristotelian thought, teleology Move from geocentric to heliocentric planetary system Observation and induction (reasoning from data to theory, detail to general idea) Mechanization/nature as machine (clock) Mathematization – use of math for theorizing

4 Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543)

5 Aristotelian/Ptolemaic (Ptolemy) Universe

6 Copernican Model

7 Copernicus (1473-1543) De Revolutionibus (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), published 1543 Mathematician, astronomer, physician, Catholic cleric, governor, classical scholar, translator, artist, translator, diplomat, jurist Born in Poland, father a wealthy copper trader De Revolutionibus – final printing supervised by Lutheran theologian, Andreas Osiander Little controversy until several years later

8 Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

9 Galileo and Heliocentrism Made improvements to telescope Supported heliocentrism, met opposition Clerics examined before Inquisition, cleared Roman Catholic Church condemned heliocentrism as “false and contrary to scripture” Question of who was allowed to interpret scripture Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, 1632 (including Simplicio, defender of geocentrism) – led to trial, “suspect of heresy,” recanting, house arrest

10 Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (St. Robert, S.J.) Called Galileo to Rome, 1616

11 Pope Urban VIII Despite early friendship, called Galileo to Rome in 1633 to recant

12 Galileo and Telescope First instruments in The Netherlands, 1608, developed by spectacle makers Galileo greatly improved design the next year Allowed him to see moons of Jupiter Observed and analyzed sunspots (opposed Aristotelian view of heavens) Einstein and Stephen Hawking see Galileo as central to birth of modern science

13 Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

14 Bacon Father was Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal for Queen Elizabeth Disinterested in Aristotle, anti-scholastic When father died, took up law practice Won a seat in Parliament in 1584 (at 23) 1607-1618, public offices 1605, Advancement of Learning 1620, Novum Organum (The New Organon) 1621, named Viscount St. Albans; accused of accepting bribes

15 Bacon’s Approach to Knowledge Opposed to Aristotelian “norms,” including teleology Practical application and utility were his justifications of knowledge (traditionally, “truth with certainty”), knowledge as power Human dominion over nature via science Not alchemy, magic or fantastic speculation Rather, via empirical investigation Inductive reasoning – from sense perception of particulars to generalizations Importance of observation, experiment, theory

16 Francis Bacon, Novum Organum, (1620), Aphorism XIX “There are and can be only two ways of searching into and discovering the truth. The one flies from the senses and particulars to the most general axioms, and from these principles – to the truth of what it takes for settled and immovable – proceeds to judgment and to the discovery of the middle axioms. And this way is now in fashion. The other derives axioms from the senses and particulars, rising by a gradual and unbroken ascent, so that it arrives at the most general axiom last of all.. This is the true way, but as yet untried.”

17 Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Laws of Planetary Motion, 1609-1629 German mathematic, astronomer, astrologer Laws of motion contributed to Newton’s laws of gravitation Work on refracting telescope helped legitimize discoveries of Galileo Studied theology, used religious arguments Practiced astrology

18 Robert Boyle (1627-1691)

19 Boyle Natural philosopher, chemist, physicist Natural world as clock-work (nature as machine) Work has roots in alchemical tradition, believed transmutation of metals possible Advances in many areas of physics and chemistry Seen as one of founders of modern chemistry

20 Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

21 Newton’s Work English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, theologian, alchemist Principia Mathematica (The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), 1687 Laws of motion, gravitation Built first reflecting telescope Independently, with Leibnitz, developed differential and integral calculus

22 Contemporary Views Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) – “normal science,” anomalies, paradigm change Carolyn Merchant, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology and the Scientific Revolution (1980) – parts of scientific revolution responsible for ecological problems

23 Other Models: Grand Theory Approach (P. Pelto)

24 “Traditional Reasoning” (Deductive) General axioms/Grand theory – about how everything works Middle Range Theory – if you find any data set, will it behave the same? Low Order Propositions – explanation for data Modes of Observation – find ways to observe carefully The Real World of Things and Events – data, senses, particulars; real, observable world

25 What is left out? YOU and your perspective You have a point of view

26 Grand Theory Theorists: Karl Marx - scientific materialism, capitalism Sigmund Freud - psycho-social human development, sex & aggression, psychoanalysis Start with theory, apply to everything Movies (books?) have hidden general axioms -- ideology in story form

27 “Pardes” Model Rabbi Akiva Interpretation Theory

28 PaRDeS – “paradise” S SOD – occult, hidden (mystical) D DRUSH – homily: behave like this, moral imperative R REMEZ – symbolic, allegorical P PSHT – simple meaning, literal

29 Genesis 1:1 “Bereishit bara Elohim et hashamayim ve’et ha’aretz.” Bereishit: “In the [a] beginning...” Middle 3 letters: rosh, “head” Et – particle introduces direct object Rabbi Akiva: “et” hints at specific earthly or spiritual entities

30 Mystical Interpretation Why does Bible start with second letter of alphabet? Second creation? There was previous “God said, Let there be...” God speaks and creates (I create as I speak): word magic Mystical tradition: Bible filled with puns Kabbalah: “to be receptive” of alternative interpretation Pardes – shifts of consciousness

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