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BY VOLTAIRE Candide. Chapter 1 How Candide was brought up in a fine castle, and how he was expelled from it Candide – Lived in Westphalia, castle of Lord.

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Presentation on theme: "BY VOLTAIRE Candide. Chapter 1 How Candide was brought up in a fine castle, and how he was expelled from it Candide – Lived in Westphalia, castle of Lord."— Presentation transcript:

1 BY VOLTAIRE Candide

2 Chapter 1 How Candide was brought up in a fine castle, and how he was expelled from it Candide – Lived in Westphalia, castle of Lord the Baron of Thunder-ten-tronckh -Good manners, upright heart, easy frankness – why named “Candide” -Son of my Lord the Baron’s sister, she did not marry Candide’s father  Got behind the screen with Cunegonde, kissed her, then the Baron saw and kicked Candide out of the castle.

3 Chapter 1 Cont Baron – One of the most powerful lords in Westphalia My Lady the Baroness – weighted 350 pounds Miss Cunegonde – 17-yr-old daughter of Lady of Baroness Dr. Pangloss – oracle of the castle, greatest philosopher of the province, teacher of metaphysico-theologo- cosmolonigology  proved that there could not be a effect without a cause  things cannot be otherwise than they are  nose is made to carry glasses  legs are designed to wear stockings, etc.

4 Chapter 2 What became of Candide among the Bulgarians Candide waledked to neighboring village – Walber- ghoff-trarbk-dikdorff  had no money, hungry, tired  2 men invited him to dinner  asked Candide if he loved the King of Bulgarians  Candide said he never saw him, they told him he was the bulwark, the hero of the Bulgarians

5 Chapter 2 Cont.  Candide was made to perform exercises, was beaten,  One day he walked outside, they put him in a dungeon & asked if he wanted to be whipped or shot in the forehead. Went through the whipping 2 times & then asked them to shoot him.  The King of Bulgarians pardoned him.  Surgeon cured him in 3 weeks

6 Chapter 3 How Candide made his escape from Bulgarians King of Bulgarians battled King of the Abares  30,000 killed  Candide went to another village to Holland.  Asked if he believed the Anti-Christ was alive  Candide did not know, but wanted bread, was treated badly  Anabaptist named James took Candide home, gave him food, cleaned up, gave him 2 florins for a present  Next day while out for a walk, he met a beggar (Dr. Pangloss)

7 Chapter 4 How Candide met Dr. Pangloss & What happened to them  Candide gave Pangloss the 2 florins that were from Anabaptist James, carried him to Anabaptist’s stable to give him bread  Pangloss told him that Cunegonde is dead, killed by Bulgarian soldiers  Also Castle had been destroyed, Lady the Baroness was dead  Pangloss was dying of pox  Candide went to Anabaptist James, who paid to have Pangloss cured  Pangloss lost an eye and an ear  Pangloss became bookkeeper for Anabaptist James  After 2 months, the 3 went to Lisbon on a ship for business  Ship was attacked by a storm, they could see the harbor or Lisbon

8 Chapter 5 Tempest, shipwreck, earthquake and what became of Pangloss, Candide & Anabaptist James  On the ship, furious sailor struck Anabaptist James, sailor went overboard, James tried to save the sailor, but instead James fell into the sea and died because the sailor wouldn’t save him  Pangloss stopped Candide from throwing himself into the sea. He demonstrated to Candide that the road to Lisbon had been made on purpose for this Anabaptist to be drowned  The only survivors were Candide, Pangloss and the sailor who had drowned Anabaptist James  Candide and Pangloss made it to Lisbon floating on a plank, the sailor swam  When they got there, there was horrible earthquake

9 Chapter 5 Cont.  The sailor took money from the dying, got drunk, etc.  Pangloss told him that it was not right and that he was choosing his time badly, but the sailor said he was wrong.  Candide was hurt and Pangloss helped him, they then helped those injured  Pangloss told them that “all this must necessarily be for the best”  Man who belonged to the inquisition told Pangloss that he didn’t believe in original sin; for if all is for the best, then there has been neither fall nor punishment”

10 Chapter 6 How a fine inquisition was celebrated to prevent earthquakes and how Candide was whipped  After the earthquake had destroyed ¾ of Lisbon, the University of Coimbra decided to give the people an inquisition to prevent earthquakes – they would burn some people to death with a slow fire and ceremony  They took a Biscayan, convicted of having married his god- mother, 2 Portuguese who stripped the lard when eating a pullet, Dr. Pangloss, who spoke too freely, and Candide

11 Chapter 6 Cont.  They put them in gowns with paper crowns on their heads, marched them in procession. There was a pathetic speech and fine music on an organ.  Candide was whipped on the back while they were singing, the rest were burnt.  Pangloss was hanged  Candide said to himself, “If this is the best of possible worlds, what then are the rest?”  An old woman told him to follow her

12 Chapter 7 How an old woman took care of Candide  Old woman took him to an old house and took care of him  After he recovered a few days later, she took him to a house in the country to a guilded closet  She returned with a woman with a veil and told Candide to take the veil off  It was Miss Cunegonde

13 Chapter 8 The history of Cunegonde  Cunegonde told Candide about how the Bulgarians had murdered her father and brother and cut her mother to pieces  The Bulgarian soldier then abused her and cut her with his hanger  Then the Bulgarian captain came in and killed the Bulgarian soldier who was hurting her  The captain carried her as a prisoner of war for 3 months til he lost all of his money  He sold her to a Jew named Don Issachar  The grand inquisitor saw her and wanted her, but Issachar would not agree  The inquisitor threatened Issachar and they agreed to have her belong to both of them  Cunegonde was at the inquisition and saw when Pangloss was hanged and Candide was whipped  Then she had the old woman bring Candide to the house and came to see him

14 Chapter 9 What happened to Cunegonde, Candide, the grand inquisitor and the Jew  On Sunday, while they were having supper, Issachar, the Jew, came in  Issachar was going to kill Candide, but the old woman had given Candide a sword so he killed Issachar  Cunegonde thought that if Pangloss were still alive, he would give them advice about what to do in this situation  The Inquisitor came in while the old woman was giving advice  Candide reasoned that he had to kill the Inquisitor or he and Cunegonde would be roasted alive  Candide killed the Inquisitor  The old woman said there were 3 Andalusian horses in the stable, they should go to Cadiz immediately

15 Chapter 10 In what distress Candide, Cunegonde & old woman arrived in Cadiz  Someone robbed Cunegonde all of her diamonds & pistols  The old woman thought it was a cavalier who stayed at the same inn in Badajos  Pangloss had said that the goods of this world are common to all men and that every one has an equal right to them  The old woman said they should sell one of the horses, she would ride with Cunegonde and then they could reach Cadiz

16 Chapter 10 Cont.  When they got to Cadiz, they were assembling troops and since Candide had served among the Bulgarians, he was made a captain  On the voyage, Candide argued on Pangloss’ philosophy Candide said that they were going to another world and “that everything is for the best. He said that all would be well there, the new world is the  best of all possible worlds”  Cunegonde had little hope, but the old woman told her that her life had been far worse than Cunegonde’s.

17 Chapter 11 The history of the old woman  The old woman told of when she had been a young and beautiful princess, daughter of a king  She was to marry a prince, when his former mistress poisoned him and he died  Her mother took her away when at sea, soldiers abused them and took them as slaves to Morocco  When they got to Morocco, there were 50 civil wars, battled over the women  She saw many killed including her mother  She pulled herself out of a pile of dead people  A man with her own speech was there too

18 Chapter 12 The sequel of the old woman’s adventures  Happy to hear someone with her own country’s language, he helped her to a house and cared for her, told her that he was a singer in the chapel of her Highness, the Princess of Palestrina (the old woman’s mother). He had cared for the old woman til she was 6 years old  He told her he would take her to Italy, but instead took her to Algiers and sold her there to the Dey.  The plague was there, famine and war, everyone dying  Then she was sold to a merchant, sold at Tripoli, sold at Alexandria, at Smyrna, at Constantinople, sold to Aga  Killed many Russians  Plague made them want to kill and eat the women, but Iman preached that they could just cut

19 Chapter 12 Cont.  the backs of the women to eat instead of killing them  The women were all ready to die  The Russians didn’t care about the condition the women were in  The French surgeon cured the women  She then went to Moscow, a Boyard made her his gardener and whipped her every day  She finally escaped, being a servant most recently to Don Issachar, the Jew  That was how she got to Cunegonde  Old woman told her to ask each passenger to tell her his story

20 Chapter 13 How Candide was obliged to part from the fair Cunegonde & the old woman  They got each passenger to tell his story on the way to Buenos-Ayres  Cunegonde, Candide and the old woman met the governor  The governor thought Cunegonde to be the prettiest woman he had ever seen  Asked if he was Candide’s wife, Candide asked the governor to marry them  The governor asked Cunegonde to marry him, gave her 15 min. to decide, she consulted with the old woman  She told her that she had nothing since all of her jewelry had been stolen, if she married the governor, she would be the wife of the greatest lord in South America and could also made the fortune of Captain Candide

21 Chapter 13 Cont.  While they were talking, the vessel entering the port was the one where the cavalier was on who had stolen all of Cunegonde’s jewelry while they were in Cadiz  A report was spread that an Alcald was going to land in pursuit of the murderer of the grand inquisitor. The old woman told Cunegonde that she could not run away, she had nothing to fear and the governor was in love with her  The old woman told Candide to fly or in an hour he would be burnt alive.

22 Chapter 14 How Candide and Cacambo were received by the clerics of Paraguay  Candide followed the old woman’s advice and on horses brought a valet with him from Cadiz named Cacambo to Paraguay  Cacambo told Candide that they needed to run and he had to leave Cunegonde  He would show Candide how to get to Paraguay to fight for the clerics  Cacambo knew Paraguay and told Candide that it was an admirable government, the rulers are masters of everything and the people have nothing  He told him that he would be the happiest of mortals there, a captain who understands the Bulgarian exercise would serve well there

23 Chapter 14 Cont.  When they reached the first barrier, Candide & Cacambo were disarmed and their horses were seized, soldiers surrounded them, the sergeant told them to wait and that the lord ruler does not permit any Spaniard (Cacambo) to speak  Cacambo told them that Candide was a German and the commandant immediately said they could speak to him  They were given back their guns and horses and were given food to eat  They were overjoyed to find out that the Cleric was from Westphalia just like Candide – it was Cunegonde’s brother, the Baron’s son  They were happy and astonished to see each other and Candide told him that his sister, Cunegonde, was alive and at the house of the governor of Buenos-Ayres. He told him that he had come to fight against the Cleric.

24 Chapter 15 How Candide killed the brother of his dear Cunegonde  The baron’s son (the commandant) told Candide of the day when he had seen his mother and father killed and couldn’t find his sister (Cunegonde) afterwards  He had been flung into a cart with his mother, father, 2 maids and 3 lads to that were murdered to be buried in a chapel which belonged to the clerics.  When a cleric sprinkled salt holy water on the dead people, some got in the baron’s eye and the cleric saw his eye balls move and felt his heart beat  The cleric took the baron to heal and then the baron became a colonel  The baron was glad to hear that Cunegonde was alive

25 Chapter 15 Cont.  Candide told the baron that he wished to marry Cunegonde  The baron was angry to hear this  Candide told him about how he had helped her from the Jew and the inquisitor and that Cunegonde was willing to marry him  Master Pangloss had always told Candide that all men are equal  The cleric baron hit Candide on the face  Candide then killed the cleric baron with his sword, that was the third man he had killed  Cacambo took the dress that the cleric Baron had worn and put it on Candide, had him ride his horse to look like he was a cleric and got out of there

26 Chapter 16 What passed between our two travelers and two girls, two monkeys and the savages called Oreillons  Candide and Cacambo got out before anyone found out about the death of the cleric baron  After they traveled for awhile, Cacambo tried to get Candide to eat but he wouldn’t because he was too upset about having killed the Baron’s son  They heard cries and saw 2 girls running naked chased by 2 large monkeys  Candide killed the 2 monkeys and thought he had saved the girls from danger  He thought he made up for killing the Baron’s son by saving the 2 girls  Then Candide saw that the girls were devastated that their monkeys were dead  Cacambo was afraid that the girls would play a spiteful tick on them

27 Chapter 16 Cont.  When they woke up in the morning, they could not move. They had been bound by cords made of the tree bark and were surrounded by 50 Oreillons with arrows and clubs. They were boiling water in a cauldron and were going to eat these men who they thought were clerics  Cacambo went to speak to the Oreillons because he understood the jargon of these people  He told them that they were not clerics, Candide was just dressed like a cleric because he had killed one (the Baron’s son)  Cancambo also told the Oreillon people to take the gown to the first pass of government and find out whether or not Candide had killed a cleric officer  Cancambo said that if he was lying, the Oreillon people could eat them  The Oreillon people sent 2 deputies out to check and they returned saying that Candide was not a cleric after all and the people treated him well

28 Chapter 17 The arrival of Candide and his man at the Country of Eldorado  Cacambo said to Candide that this part of the world is no better than the other  Cacambo wanted to return to Europe  Candide said that they couldn’t. He could not go back to his own country because the Bulgarians & Arabians would get him, to return to Portugal he would be burned alive, and he couldn’t leave Cunegonde in this part of the world  Even though they didn’t know how to get there, they decided to go to Cayenne. On the way there, their horses died of fatigue and they ate up all of their supplies

29 Chapter 17 Cont.  There was an empty canoe so they filled it with cocoa and got in to drift down the river  Their canoe was broken in pieces when it hit rocks, they found a beautiful land, there was gold, rubies and emeralds everywhere  They spoke Peruvian language and Cacambo interpreted for Candide  The country was unknown to the rest of the world and so different nature. They thought it to be the country where everything really is for the best.

30 Chapter 18 What they saw in the country of Eldorado - In Eldorado, they went to the home of an old man who told them that the kingdom was the ancient country of the Incas, who left it to conquer one part of the world, but instead they were all destroyed by the Spaniards  The princes made it a law that anyone who lived there could never leave the kingdom  The kingdom is surrounded by rocks  Candide asked Cacambo to ask if there was any religion in the country and what it was  The old man was upset at the question and told him that they had one God they worshipped, but they never prayed because they had nothing to pray for. They had everything they needed and just gave thanks to their God.  Candide thought that this place was very different than Westphalia. Pangloss had never seen Eldorado but if he would have, he would realize it was better in this land that the castle of Thunder-ten-tronckh and that everyone should travel

31 Chapter 18 Cont.  The old man got 6 sheep ready and sent them off to the king’s palace  They were treated very well and found out the custom to greeting the king was to embrace the King and kiss him on both cheeks  They were shown around the city, they had no prisons there  Then they went back to the palace for dinner and entertainment and stayed for a month before they decided to leave. Candide wanted to get to Cunegonde.  The King told them they were foolish to leave. The mountains surrounded the kingdom so the king ordered the constructors to make a machine to get them to the other side of the mountains. They asked for some of the stones and dirt of the kingdom to take with them along with 20 sheep, precious stones, diamonds  They thought they now had enough to pay for Cunegonde from the governor of Buenos-Ayres to let her go

32 Chapter 19 What happened to them at Surinam and how Candide became acquainted with Martin  The journey started out good, Candide carved the name of Cunegonde in every tree he came to  They then started to lose the sheep because of fatigue until they only had 2 sheep left  Candide said to Cacambo that the riches of the world are perishable, but he would be happy to see Cunegonde again. They thought they were at the end of their troubles and at the beginning of their happiness  When they got to the city, there was a Negro with his left leg and right hand gone  He was a slave and worked in the sugarhouses. Custom was that if one finger got caught in the mill, they cut off their hand and if the tried to run away, they cut off one of their legs  The dogs, monkeys and parrots were better off than the slaves  They entered Surinam sad, thinking about the cruelty and that it was ridiculous to think that everything is right, when it really is wrong

33 Chapter 19 Cont  They went to see if there was a ship in the harbor going to Buenos-Ayres  The Spanish commander agreed to meet them at the inn with their 2 sheep  Candide told the Spaniard his adventures and about Cunegonde. Candide learned that Cunegonde was the governor’s favorite mistress and Candide was sad  Candide asked Cacambo to go to the governor and pay him for Cunegonde, Candide would go to Venice and wait there for him and Cunegonde  He made arrangements to go to Venice and the master of the vessel and made him pay and pay, then the sheep were put on the vessel and were stolen with the riches  Candide finally got on a French ship. He remembered the old woman telling him that there was not a single person on the ship that had not experienced some terrible misfortune.  He thought of Pangloss on every adventure and that “if everything is ordered for the best, it must be at Eldorado, but nowhere else on earth”  He hired Martin, a poor scholar, who would amuse him during the voyage

34 Chapter 19 Cont.  The Spanish commander agreed to meet them at the inn with their 2 sheep  Candide told the Spaniard his adventures and about Cunegonde. Candide learned that Cunegonde was the governor’s favorite mistress and Candide was sad  Candide asked Cacambo to go to the governor and pay him for Cunegonde, Candide would go to Venice and wait there for him and Cunegonde  He made arrangements to go to Venice and the master of the vessel and made him pay and pay, then the sheep were put on the vessel and were stolen with the riches  Candide finally got on a French ship. He remembered the old woman telling him that there was not a single person on the ship that had not experienced some terrible misfortune.  He thought of Pangloss on every adventure and that “if everything is ordered for the best, it must be at Eldorado, but nowhere else on earth”  He hired Martin, a poor scholar, who would amuse him during the voyage

35 Chapter 20 What happened to Candide and Martin at Sea  Together Candide and Martin went on a ship to Bordeaux  He asked Martin about his opinion on physical and moral evil  Martin told him that the clerics had accused him of being Socinian, but he was a Manichean even though there are no Manicheans left in the world  Martin said that the world is bad  Candide said that there is good in the world  They heard a cannon and saw 2 vessels engaged in battle  Candide then saw saw one of his red sheep in the water and they joyfully recovered it  The immense riches that had been stolen from Candide were now buried in the sea and Candide thought that they were punished for stealing from him  Candide thought that since he had found the sheep, he would recover Cunegonde also

36 Chapter 21 Candide and Martin draw near to the Coast of France and continue to discuss  Martin and Candide discuss people of France, Holland and what the people are like there, some good and some bad  Candide says he doesn’t care to see France, he just wants Cunegonde and will wait for her in Venice  Martin says that in France strangers are welcome if they have a good deal of money and Martin will stay with Candide  They disputed about mankind – the good and the bad and then arrived at Bordeaux

37 Chapter 22 What happened in France to Candide and Martin  They went to Paris where Candide got sick and was taken care of well because he was not poor  As Candide got sicker, the town clerk came and billed him for a funeral but Martin was going to throw the clerk out of the window for being troublesome  Candide and Martin were taken to the playhouse theatre

38 Chapter 23 Candide and Martin go to the English Coast and what they saw there  Candide and Martin are on a Dutch ship arriving at Portsmouth  There were many people on shore looking at a man kneeling with his eyes bandaged on the deck of a ship of war, 4 soldiers shot him in the head  The man shot was the admiral of the ship and was killed because he did not kill enough men himself. He was found guilty of not being near enough to the French admiral he attacked. In this country every now and then an admiral is killed to make the rest fight better.  Candide was shocked and would not set foot on shore, he wanted to go directly to Venice  When they got to Venice, Candide knew he would see Cunegonde.  “Everything is right, everything goes well; everything is the best that it can possibly be.”

39 Chapter 24 Concerning Paquetta and Girofflee  In Venice, Candide searched for Cacambo but could not find him  He thought she was dead, he told Martin that he was right – all is illusion and misery here  Martin advised Candide to forget about Cunegonde and Cacambo  When they saw a young girl with a young guard who were happy, Candide believed they were happy and Martin said they were not.  They invited them to dinner and the girl told Candide that she was Paquetta

40 Chapter 24 Cont.  Paquetta knew of all the disasters that had happened to the family of my Lady the Baroness and Cunegonde. The Baron had kicked Paquetta out of the castle after Candide had been kicked out  She told them of her horrible life after leaving the castle and Martin told Candide that he was right – she had been very unhappy  Girofflee, the guard, told of being forced to be a guard by his parents when he was 15 years old  After hearing his story, Martin told Candide he had won the bet, neither of them was happy  Candide wants to find Cunegonde again and Martin says that he hopes that Cunegonde will make Candide happy one day, but he questions that happening.  Candide wants to visit Seignior Pococurante

41 Chapter 25 The visit to Seignior Pococurante, the noble Venetian  Candide and Martin went in a gondola to have dinner and visit the beautiful palace of Pococurante  Pococurante was tired of everything that he had and very negative  Candide just wants to be happy to see Cunegonde again and Martin said that “it is always best to hope”  Cacambo was still not found and Candide was in grief  Paquetta and Girofflee did not come to thank him, but Candide didn’t notice

42 Chapter 26 Of Candide and Martin Supping with six strangers, and who they were  Candide and Martin were going to eat when Cacambo came to him and told Candide that Cunegonde was in Constantinople. They would go to her after supper. Cacambo was a slave  Candide was full of joy and grief, sat down to supper with Martin and 6 strangers  Cacambo told Candide that the ship was ready and all the guests stared at each other. Candide and Martin thought this was a masquerade of the carnival but the 6 strangers were all dethroned kings  The 6 asked Candide if he was a king and he said no and that he had no desire to be one  Candide wanted to go to Constantinople to find Cunegonde

43 Chapter 27 Candide’s voyage to Constatntinople  Cacambo got Martin and Candide on the ship to Constantinople  Candide said again that all things are for the best, he was going to see Conegonde  Candide asked Cacambo if Cunegonde was still beauty and if she loved Candide  Cacambo tells that Cunegonde washes dishes on the banks of the Propontis, she is a slave. He tells him that she has lost all of her beauty and is now ugly  Candide says that it is his duty to still love her, he has diamonds that he can purchase Cunegonde

44 Chapter 27 Cont.  2 slaves rowing the boat resembled Pangloss and the Baron  When Candide said the names of Pangloss and the Baron, the slaves were petrified. They really were Pangloss and the Baron  Candide would pay the Levant captain for Pangloss and the Baron  But first he wanted to get to Cunegonde, he wanted to know how they both were still alive  Candide paid ransom for Baron and Pangloss and then went to find Cunegonde

45 Chapter 28 What happened to Candide, Cunegonde, Pangloss, Martin  Candide asked the Baron to pardon him for trying to kill him with his sword  The Baron told about after he was cured, he was taken by Spaniards and put in prison in Buenos-Ayres, he wanted to return to Europe  Candide asked Pangloss how he could be alive when he saw him hanged  Pangloss said that it had been raining and it was a violent storm. The cord had been wet and he had been able to breath

46 Chapter 28 Cont.  After they hung him a surgeon bought his body and took him to his home and he began to cut him to dissect him when he was alive. When he screamed the surgeon was scared and ran away  Then he was healed and went to Constantinople  He was sent to the galleys and met the Baron there  Candide asked Pangloss if going through all of the bad things he still thought that things in the world were all for the best? Pangloss said yes, it was still his opinion

47 Chapter 29 How Candide found Cunegonde and the old woman again  They found Cunegonde and the old woman and Candide ransomed them both  Cunegonde did not know she had become ugly  The Baron still did not want Candide and Cunegonde to be married

48 Chapter 30 Conclusion  Candide did not want to marry Cunegonde  Pangloss proved that the Baron had no right over Cunegonde, his sister  Candide had been cheated by the Jews and all he had left was his small farm  Candide had been cheated by the Jews  The old woman was sick  Cacambo worked in the garden and was worn out from labor  Martin thought that all was equally bad throughout  Candide, Martin and Pangloss disputed about metaphysics and ethics  There was a catastrophe at Constantinople where many of their friends were killed

49 Chapter 30 Cont.  The Turk said to Candide that the 3 greatest evils were tiresomeness, vice and want  Pangloss said that people are supposed to work  Cunegonde became an excellent pastry cook, Paquetta embroidered, the old woman took care of the linen  Girofflee became a carpenter and a very honest man  Pangloss still said “All the events in this best of possible worlds are admirably connected. If a single link in the great chain were omitted, the harmony of the entire universe would be destroyed.”  Pangloss said that if everything had not happened to Candide before, they would not be there today


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