Presentation on theme: "Ch 32 1975 - 1991. Superpowers sponsored wars and revolutions If one rival power assisted a nation with arms and financial aid, then the other assisted."— Presentation transcript:
Superpowers sponsored wars and revolutions If one rival power assisted a nation with arms and financial aid, then the other assisted the insurgents with the same. What were proxy wars? Where did these conflicts take place? Identify region for each. Cuba, Brazil, Iran, Afghanistan, Chile, Argentina, Nicaragua, Falkland Islands Conflicts where rival super powers financed and armed competing sides
Latin America 1970’s What event may have sparked leftist revolutions throughout Latin America in the 1970’s? How will the U.S. react to socialist revolutions in Latin America in the 1970’s? The success of the Cuban communist government and the failure of the U.S. to overthrow it. Support right-wing, conservative leaders as allies. Areas of conflict and U.S. involvement Grenada
“The Brazilian Solution” democratically elected government was overthrown by a military coup New government was a dictatorship: ruled without a constitution outlawed all other political parties exiled former presidents and opposition leaders death squads tortured and executed citizens - violent oppression promoted industrialization through import substitution, or government promotion of industrialization
The “Brazilian Solution” Refers to the rise of dictatorships in Latin America, first in Brazil in the 1960‘s and then in the1970‘s and 1980‘s elsewhere in Latin America. Democratically elected governments were overthrown by a military coup and a dictatorship was established in order to prevent communism. The new conservative governments used a combination of dictatorship, violent repression and government promotion of industrialization. What was it a solution to? What prompted this trend? the spread of communism in the region The spread of communism to Cuba and the failure of the U.S. to bring it down in the failed Bay of Pigs invasion. After this event, the U.S. turned to building allies in other Latin America to prevent the spread of communism from happening elsewhere in the region.
Chile 1970’s and 1980’s reforms of new president, Salvador Allende: led socialist reforms redistribute wealth from _______ and __________ to the ______ nationalized Chile’s heavy industry and mines, including copper mines owned by Americans Inflation, mass consumer protests and declining foreign trade leads to military coup by General Augusto Pinochet, supported by the U.S. - right-wing, conservative President Allende and others die in uprising, others tortured, imprisoned without trial Allende’s social reforms cancelled, reduce state involvement in the economy and encourages foreign investment Pinochet will rule Chile from elites poor middle class
Nicaraguan Revolution of 1979 Dictator Anastasio Somoza is overthrown by Sandinista rebels - leftists - supported by Cuba, wanted to : place Nicaragua under a command economy like Cuba’s and Soviet Union’s nationalize private properties owned by Nicaraguan elites and U.S. Cities Results: Sandinistas called for free elections in 1990 and didn’t win = new leader Violeta Chamorro Nicaraguan Revolution of 1979 Sandinistas vs. Contras funded by: Cuba U.S. Castro Reagan
El Salvador Farabundo Marti (National Liberal Front) FMLN rebels vs. El Salvadoran army Farabundo Martin of FMLN = Leftist rebels What side will the U.S. support? Salvadorian Army
Back to Brazil, Argentina and Chile What’s the trend in Latin America during this era? 1982 Argentina nationalism Falkland Island War against Britain. Who wins? Britain A return to democratic governments in Latin America. During this period military rule was replaced by civilian rule.
Neoliberalism What is it? The term refers to the economic reforms of the 1990’s introduced in Latin America and other regions during this time which reduced the economic role of the state. Reforms included a return to free-market capitalism, reduced government protection of industries and also reduced welfare programs and the number of government jobs. Nationalized industries like airlines and public utilities were sold to foreign corporations. In other words, they were privatized. Why did this become an economic trend in the 1990’s The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989 and in the Soviet Union in 1991 made socialism less appealing.
Iranian Revolution of 1979: Region? Leader BEFORE revolution: shah of Iran Muhammad Rez Pahlavi, a monarchy U.S. supported him and sent weapons to his Iranian army Iranian resented the autocracy of his family which had ruled Iran since the 19020’s. AFTER revolution: Ayatollah Khomeini. Shi’ite cleric. No more monarchy - instead... Islamic Republic of Iran the new government imposed religious control of public behavior monarchists and communists were barred from running in elections Western culture and clothing were prohibited women were expected to wear Islamic veil in public public morals were policed by the government Changes in Iran due to the Revolution of 1979? Could this be called a nationalist revolution? Why?
Afghanistan Region? Soviet Union sends in its army to help Afghanistan communist government fight insurgents (rebels) The U.S., Saudi Arabia and Pakistan aid and train the Afghan rebels Sounds like part of what bigger war? Soviet Union pulls out its troops in 1989 decentralized rule in Afghanistan - tribal wars Cold War
Japan - Region? Reasons for Japan’s economic success in the 1970’s and 1980’s? government assisted the industries with protectionist laws that set tariffs and regulated imports to diminish competition from foreign industries zaibatsu were broken up into small conglomerates known as keiretsu - Toyota Asian Tigers? Pacific Rim States: South Korea Taiwan Hong Kong Singapore Experienced rapid economic growth in the 1970’s that allowed all 4 to develop modern industrial and commercial economies. Very important: GDP = gross domestic product - a way of measuring the economic growth of a country Very important: What explains the economic growth of these new economies in Asia? Book gives you 6 reasons
China ‘s Region? 1976 Mao Zedong dies Den Xiaoping introduces economic reforms Would Mao have agreed with these reforms? Why? Would you call this change or continuity? In what category of SPRITE? relaxed state control of the economy allows firms to compete in a capitalist economy allows foreign investments in China - at first restricted to special economic zones now all over - McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, today Starbucks did not privatized land but contracted it out and farmers able to consume or sell what they produced - results: agricultural output tripled
China - same era - Continuity? Tiananmen Square 1989 ? In Beijing... western-educated students and professors demanded democratic reforms and an end to corruption and inflation. Government responded by sending in tanks. Many protestors were killed or jailed. What remained the same? China remained a single-party dictatorship with little to no freedoms of speech, assembly or press. Best evidence to support this... ?
Grand Ending to the chapter... End of the Cold War How did the Cold War end?
Mikhail Gorbachev New Soviet leader in 1985 Introduces political and economic reforms Why? Perestroika Glasnost restructuring of the Soviet economy and government openness - freedom to openly criticize the government which was controlled by the Communist Party Russia’s economy is not growing... as compared to... at this time?
Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe 1989 Poland - The Solidarity Party led by Lech Walesa Czechoslovakia - Vaclav Havel - “Velvet Revolution” most peaceful Romania - Nicholae Ceausescu - most violent Most symbolic moment - Fall of the Berlin Wall New independent countries: Baltic States? What does Gorbachev do in response to these uprisings calling for democratic reforms? How did his actions differ from previous Soviet leaders in 1956 and 1968? Nothing. Allows each demonstrators in each country to overthrow communist rule. In 1956 and 1968, Soviet leaders had sent in Soviet tanks and soldiers to stop the demonstrators and communist dictatorships continued in Eastern Europe. Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia
Fall of Communism and fall of the Soviet Union Gorbachev’s reforms angered some Russians - what groups? Boris Yeltsin becomes populous leader Gorbachev’s opponents stage a coup to overthrow him - Yeltsin stops it Gorbachev resigns December 25, 1991 Soviet Union replaced by Commonwealth of Independent States - Russian Federation New leader - Boris Yeltsin - later: Vladimir Putin communist hardliners who didn’t like Gorbachev’s reforms Russian reformers who felt the reforms had not gone far enough Nationalist groups who wanted independence from Soviet rule, includes Muslims in the south. Cold War is over.
Important stuff still left: Migration patterns First Persian Gulf War End of apartheid in South Africa Break up of Yugoslavia and civil war leading to ethnic cleansing by Serbian forces - Milosevic 2nd Gulf War - Saddam Hussein International organizations WTO and NGO’s