John Milton 1608-1674 Radical political and philosophical thinker-- advocated and supported: Companionate marriage and defended divorce The new science and astronomy Freedom of the press: Areopagitica Religious liberty and toleration Republicanism Puritan apologist and defender The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates Latin Secretary to Cromwell
John Milton 1608-1674 Poet “On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity” “L’Allegro” and “Il Penseroso” – celebrations of Mirth and Melancholy Comus -- mythological masque “Lycidas” – pastoral elegy Sonnets Paradise Lost Paradise Regained Samson Agonistes
A CLASS SOCIETY The Aristocracy Professionals Scientists Physicians Attorneys Clergy Literati Military Officers Merchants and Bankers Tradespeople Working Class Domestic Servants Hired labor Apprentices The Unemployed: debtors, beggars,thieves Peasants
ENLIGHTENMENT The Scientific Revolution Emphasis on experimentation and inductive reasoning Scientific Method New methods of observation: the microscope and the telescope 1662: Charles I chartered the Royal Society of London for the Improving of Natural Knowledge Natural Religion: Deism A clockwork universe with a watchmaker God A replica of Isaac Newton's telescope of 1672.
Deism Natural theology: Derives the existence of God from reason and personal experience rather than divine revelation or scripture Cultural influences: Reaction against sectarian violence in Europe Growing knowledge of diverse religious beliefs both classical and contemporary Textual study of Biblical scriptures Advances in scientific knowledge – Bible could not be seen as authoritative for matters of science Skepticism about miracles and books that report them “Watchmaker God” Unitarianism William Blake
Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727 Mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher Developed calculus contemporaneously but separately from Liebniz Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion Opticks: discovered that light was composed of particles Master of the Mint: moved English coinage to the gold standard Godfrey Kneller's Sir Isaac Newton at 46
Neo-Classicism Greek/Roman influence Classical modes or genres – epic, tragedy, comedy, pastoral, satire or ode Language appropriate to the mode Use of rhetorical figures Emphasis on Society: urbanity Politeness Decorum Wit – quickness of mind, inventiveness, imagery and metaphor Age of Reason Rationality Philosophy
Neo-Classical Conception of NATURE Universal and permanent elements in personal experience Subject to human control Gardens Source of peace and tranquillity
J. S. Muller after Samuel Wale, A General Prospect of Vaux Hall Gardens Shewing at one View the disposition of the whole Gardens (after 1751). NATURE and ARTIFICE
ARTIFICE The Augustan Age Art as an improvement upon nature Neo-classical ideals: balance, harmony, reason Poetry invokes visualization Landscape painting Rise of literary criticism Major poetic forms: Heroic couplets: rhymed iambic pentameter Epic and mock epic Poetic essay Occasional poems John Dryden 1631-1700
Brawling peasants at Tyburn Gate, London. The Warder Collection. MORNING city bustle Peddlar hawking tarts. The Warder Collection. Large movements of people from the country to the cities. Shift from agrarian to urban lifestyles.
Engraving and etching by William Hogarth. The Art Institute of Chicago. violinist ballad-monger toddler with rattle peeing boy oboist drumming child milkmaid paver dustman knife-grinder sow-gelder fish-monger screeching parrot barking dog howling cats churchbells cry of chimney sweep London Cries wailing infant
Gin Lane (1751). Etching and Engraving by William Hogarth. The New York Public Library. Poverty and Unemployment Displaced agrarian labor No social safety net Education only for the elite Child labor Cheap gin
The Diary: Witness to an Age Samuel Pepys (1633-1703) Member of Parliament and Secretary of the Admiralty: highly effective 1.3 million word Diary kept 1660-1669 in shorthand and code Eyewitness accounts of The Great Plague, the Second Dutch War and the Great Fire of London Londoner: government, business, the Royal Society, theatre, music, literary circles Portrait of Samuel Pepys by J. Hayls Oil on canvas, 1666
Prose Fiction: Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Master of plain prose and powerful narrative Reportial: highly realistic detail Robinson Crusoe Journal of the Plague Year Moll Flanders Roxana
Picaresque Novels Derives from Spanish picaro: a rogue A usually autobiographical chronicle of a rascal’s travels and adventures as s/he makes his/her way through the world more by wits than industry Episodic, loose structure Highly realistic: detailed description and uninhibited expression Satire of social classes
A London coffeehouse. The British Museum AFTERNOON Coffee and News Periodicals and Newpapers Addison and Steele The Spectator Periodical Essays Literary Criticism Character Sketches Political Discussion Philosophical Ideas
Samuel Johnson and James Boswell Samuel Johnson’s 1755 Dictionary of the English Language illustrated the words with quotations from the best English writers. James Boswell’s 1791 Life of Samuel Johnson immortalized the man and advanced the art of biography. Thomas Rawlinson, 1786
Commerce The Royal Exchange. Engraving by Bartolozzi. The British Library The Rise of the Middle Class Increased Literacy Leisure Time International Trade Empire Building
London ladies shopping for fabric. From Rudolph Ackermann's Repository of Arts (1800). Shopping Leisure time nurtured middle class women’s interest in fashion, society, the arts and even literature.
Vauxhall Gardens (1784). A drawing by Thomas Rowlandson. Victoria and Albert Royal Museum. Samuel Johnson James BoswellHester Thrale Oliver Goldsmith Duchess of Devonshire Mary “Perdita” Robinson Prince of Wales Society
Social Satire Alexander Pope Mock epic: “The Rape of the Lock” Literary Satire: “The Dunciad Jonathan Swift “A Modest Proposal” Gulliver’s Travels
Alexander Pope 1688-1744 Essay on Man: poetic and philosophical essay Rape of the Lock: mock epic The Dunciad: satire on his contemporary poets Translations of Homer’s The Iliad and The Odyssey Jonathan Swift 1667-1745 Anglo Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, poet and cleric Gulliver’s Travels “A Modest Proposal” Dean of St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin
Thomas Gainsborough, Heneage Lloyd and his sister, c.1750
Early Feminists A Serious Proposal to the Ladies, for the Advancement of Their True and Greatest Interest (1694) Some Reflections on Marriage (1700) Advocated equal education for women Questioned the value of marriage for women in a patriarchal society Wrote novels, journalism, philosophical and political treatises, letters A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) Advocated equal education, egalitarian marriage, and full citizenship for women Mary Astell 1666-1731 Mary Wollstonecraft 1759-1797
Literary Salons Intellectual and literary circles formed around women – bluestockings Brought together members of society and philosophers and artists Emphasis on conversation and wit
The Rise of the Novel Samuel Richardson’s Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740) Epistolary Realistic detail Morality tale Servant resisting seduction by her employer Henry Fielding’s Joseph Andrews (1742) and Tom Jones (1749) Picaresque protagonist “comic epic in prose” Parody of Richardson
Epistolary Novels Novels in which the narrative is told in letters by one or more of the characters Allows author to present feelings and reactions of characters, brings immediacy to the plot, allows multiple points of view Psychological realism Richardson’s Pamela and Clarissa Smollett’s Humphrey Clinker Jean-Baptiste Greuze, The Letter Writer
Novels of Sentiment Novels in which the characters, and thus the readers, have a heightened emotional response to events Experimental forms Connected to emerging Romantic movement Laurence Sterne (1713-1768): Tristam Shandy (1760-67) Domestic fiction Fanny Burney Maria Edgeworth Jane Austen Laurence Sterne by Sir Joshua Reynolds
Gothic Novels Novels characterized by magic, mystery and horror Exotic settings – medieval, Oriental, etc. Originated with Horace Walpole’s Castle of Otranto (1764) William Beckford: Vathek, An Arabian Tale (1786) Anne Radcliffe: 5 novels (1789- 97) including The Mysteries of Udolpho Widely popular genre throughout Europe and America: Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland (1798)
The Laughing Audience (1733). Etching and engraving by William Hogarth. The New York Public Library EVENING Entertainment Theatre Opera Symphony
Restoration and 18 th C. Theatre Theatres reopened with restoration of Charles II French influence: Actresses Heroic couplets Neoclassical modes: Social comedies Heroic tragedies Comedy of Manners Witty-- language driven Satirical of social mores Risque Marriage and money 18 th C. Comedy of Sentiment Ladies at the opera from Gallery of Fashion (1796).
England’s first professional female author: Aphra Behn 1640?-1689 Novelist Venice Preserv'd The History of the Nun Love Letters between a Nobleman and his sister (1684) The Fair Jilt (1688) Oroonoko (c.1688) The Unfortunate Happy Lady: A True History Playwright The Forced Marriage (1670) The Amorous Prince (1671) Abdelazar (1676) The Rover (1677-81) The Feign'd Curtezans (1679) The City Heiress (1682) The Lucky Chance (1686) The Lover's Watch (1686) The Emperor of the Moon (1687) Lycidus (1688) “All women together ought to let flowers fall upon the grave of Aphra Behn, for it was she who earned them the right to speak their minds.” Virginia Woolf
Painting of the interior of the Drury Lane Theater List of Women Dramatists.List of Women Dramatists. Susanna Centlivre 1669-1723 Mary Pix 1666-1709 Eliza Haywood 1693-1756 Charlotte Charke 1713-1760 Hannah More 1745-1833 Elizabeth Inchbald 1753-1821
A riot mob in Covent Garden (1763). The Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C
Night (1738). Etching and engraving by William Hogarth. Denizens of the NIGHT
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.