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Iran. Iran Mostly arid plateau around 4,000 ft. Mostly arid plateau around 4,000 ft. 67,000,000 population 67,000,000 population 31% under age 15 31%

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Presentation on theme: "Iran. Iran Mostly arid plateau around 4,000 ft. Mostly arid plateau around 4,000 ft. 67,000,000 population 67,000,000 population 31% under age 15 31%"— Presentation transcript:

1 Iran

2 Iran Mostly arid plateau around 4,000 ft. Mostly arid plateau around 4,000 ft. 67,000,000 population 67,000,000 population 31% under age 15 31% under age 15 66.4% urban 66.4% urban 2 nd largest oil exporter within OPEC 2 nd largest oil exporter within OPEC 51% Persian, 24% Azeri, 7% Kurd 51% Persian, 24% Azeri, 7% Kurd 89% Shia Muslim 89% Shia Muslim $7000 GDP per capita $7000 GDP per capita 16% Unemployment 16% Unemployment Life expectancy 69.3 Life expectancy 69.3 72% Literacy 72% Literacy 4.1% women in the Majlis 4.1% women in the Majlis No separation of powers among Supreme Leader, Guardian Council, Assembly of Religious Experts, and Expediency Council No separation of powers among Supreme Leader, Guardian Council, Assembly of Religious Experts, and Expediency Council Theocracy—rule by religion Theocracy—rule by religion Has some democratic elements—popular sovereignty, separation of powers, individual rights, elections Has some democratic elements—popular sovereignty, separation of powers, individual rights, elections RENTIER STATE—a country that obtains lucrative income (most of its revenue) by exporting a raw material like oil or leasing out a natural resource RENTIER STATE—a country that obtains lucrative income (most of its revenue) by exporting a raw material like oil or leasing out a natural resource

3 Problems Faced by Rentier States Resource could be depleted Resource could be depleted Lack of diversification in local economy—nothing else is developed Lack of diversification in local economy—nothing else is developed Dependence on world market causes price fluctuations/instability. Economy can fail due to price fluctuations. Dependence on world market causes price fluctuations/instability. Economy can fail due to price fluctuations. Income inequality is exacerbated Income inequality is exacerbated No incentive to modernize/industrialize No incentive to modernize/industrialize Increased opportunity for corrupt usage of income from rents Increased opportunity for corrupt usage of income from rents Lack of accountability to citizens since no tax system required— citizens have no voice/diminished civil society Lack of accountability to citizens since no tax system required— citizens have no voice/diminished civil society No foreign direct investment No foreign direct investment

4 Iranian History 1501-1925 1501-1722 Safavid Dynasty rules Iran, coverts most from zoroastrianism to Shi’ism, makes it state religion, introduces Majles. 1722 invasion ends reign 1501-1722 Safavid Dynasty rules Iran, coverts most from zoroastrianism to Shi’ism, makes it state religion, introduces Majles. 1722 invasion ends reign 1794-1925 Qajar Dynasty rules 1794-1925 Qajar Dynasty rules (1) 1st try to reconstruct theocracy (1) 1st try to reconstruct theocracy (2) 2nd try to achieve modernization (western style) (2) 2nd try to achieve modernization (western style) (a) economy (similar to ISI) (a) economy (similar to ISI) (b) reorganize the military (b) reorganize the military (c) reform the bureaucracy (c) reform the bureaucracy

5 1906 Constitutional Revolution under Qajars An experiment with democracy based on Belgian/British model (elections, separation of powers, elected legislature, popular sovereignty, Bill of Rights guaranteeing equality, freedom of expression) An experiment with democracy based on Belgian/British model (elections, separation of powers, elected legislature, popular sovereignty, Bill of Rights guaranteeing equality, freedom of expression) The revolution was an attempt to modernize Iran The revolution was an attempt to modernize Iran Prompted largely by changes sparked by modernization Prompted largely by changes sparked by modernization Result was a constitutional monarchy Result was a constitutional monarchy Only Shia could hold offices Only Shia could hold offices Reza Shah comes to power through the Coup d’etat of 1921—democracy had crumbled into squabbling, authoritarian state Reza Shah comes to power through the Coup d’etat of 1921—democracy had crumbled into squabbling, authoritarian state

6 Rule of Reza Shah/Pahlavi Rule Reza Shah’s objectives a. state led capitalism (German style) b. modernize and reform Iran c. restrict the power of the clergy and aristocracy d. build strong economy through cultural engineering (1) change dress style to western (2) promote secular values (3) make popular culture compatible with requirements and goals of development (3) make popular culture compatible with requirements and goals of development Reza Shah’s accomplishments a. eliminated hereditary privilege b. did away with titles and asked people to select family names b. did away with titles and asked people to select family names c. Took telegraph away from British control d. built roads & infrastructure e. built a railway from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf e. built a railway from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf f. establish secular, public schools and changed name to Iran g. reduce clerical authority h. 1935 abolished veil for women and encouraged both men and h. 1935 abolished veil for women and encouraged both men and women to adopt European dress women to adopt European dress i. RENTIER STATE—dependent on other states for its income, heavily supports state expenditures i. RENTIER STATE—dependent on other states for its income, heavily supports state expenditures j. Import substitution industrialization j. Import substitution industrialization

7 1940s-1960s History Reza Shah Pahlavi is forced to abdicate during WW II in favor of his son, Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Reza Shah Pahlavi is forced to abdicate during WW II in favor of his son, Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi 1956: PM Muhammad Mossadegh comes to power, nationalizes oil industry. Leads a party called the “National Front” 1956: PM Muhammad Mossadegh comes to power, nationalizes oil industry. Leads a party called the “National Front” US and British intelligence services overthrow Mossadegh and restore the Shah US and British intelligence services overthrow Mossadegh and restore the Shah

8 The White Revolution (1963) The Shah announced a program for reforms that were popularly endorsed: The Shah announced a program for reforms that were popularly endorsed: land redistribution land redistribution nationalization of the forests nationalization of the forests sale of shares in government owned factories to underwrite land reforms sale of shares in government owned factories to underwrite land reforms sharing of factory profits with workers sharing of factory profits with workers electoral reform electoral reform enfranchisement of women enfranchisement of women creation of a literacy corps creation of a literacy corps Revolution countered “RED” influences Revolution countered “RED” influences Majles became a rubber stamp Majles became a rubber stamp Iran became a corporatist state with patron- client relationships embedded Iran became a corporatist state with patron- client relationships embedded

9 The Islamic Revolution of 1979 Despite successes (real or perceived) of the White Revolution, rumblings of discontent could be heard in Iran as early as 1963 Despite successes (real or perceived) of the White Revolution, rumblings of discontent could be heard in Iran as early as 1963 Severe economic and social dislocations from White Revolution Severe economic and social dislocations from White Revolution Shah had ruled using imprisonment and death for insurgents Shah had ruled using imprisonment and death for insurgents Perceived as totalitarian, Carter pushed for openness=disaster Perceived as totalitarian, Carter pushed for openness=disaster Khomeini was charismatic opposition leader-- a real option Khomeini was charismatic opposition leader-- a real option Government corruption was severe Government corruption was severe Shia clergy provided an outlet for protest Shia clergy provided an outlet for protest Secularized too quickly Secularized too quickly Patron-clientelism did not include interest group input, so corporatism never developed Patron-clientelism did not include interest group input, so corporatism never developed In 1979 the Shah fell, leaving the country in January 1979. In 1979 the Shah fell, leaving the country in January 1979.

10 3 Oddities of 1979 Revolution The 1 st Revolution in which the dominant ideology, forms of organization, and leadership cadres were religious in form and aspiration The 1 st Revolution in which the dominant ideology, forms of organization, and leadership cadres were religious in form and aspiration This revolution was the first contemporary revolution in which a theocracy was established (modern revs were all AGAINST state and church) This revolution was the first contemporary revolution in which a theocracy was established (modern revs were all AGAINST state and church) Only modern social revolution in which the peasantry and rural guerillas played A MARGINAL ROLE Only modern social revolution in which the peasantry and rural guerillas played A MARGINAL ROLE It was a classic J-curve revolution: declining oil prices and 20% inflation dented economic growth led to DISCONTENT—EXPECTATIONS NOT MET It was a classic J-curve revolution: declining oil prices and 20% inflation dented economic growth led to DISCONTENT—EXPECTATIONS NOT MET

11 How the Revolution Happened The Revolutionary Coalition: The Revolutionary Coalition: Urban poor: especially former rural dwellers who experienced the cultural chasm between tradition and modernity Urban poor: especially former rural dwellers who experienced the cultural chasm between tradition and modernity Moderate middle classes that want political freedoms Moderate middle classes that want political freedoms Leftists Leftists Bazaar merchants (controlled broad networks—could bring commerce to a standstill) Bazaar merchants (controlled broad networks—could bring commerce to a standstill) The clergy: had solid communication networks, financial independence, credibility from decades of opposition to Shah The clergy: had solid communication networks, financial independence, credibility from decades of opposition to Shah ARMED FORCES WERE “NEUTRAL” ARMED FORCES WERE “NEUTRAL” 99% of people voted to endorse new Constitution written by “Assembly of Religious experts.” (75% voted) 99% of people voted to endorse new Constitution written by “Assembly of Religious experts.” (75% voted)

12 The Khomeini Government 1979-1988 Institution of the Islamic State 1) Khomeini accomplishments -centralize the role of the state -set up a Marxist economy -adopt absolute rule with religious authority—”Jurist’s Guardianship” -establish the Islamic Republic of Iran *the term coined by Khomeini to suggest factions (republic) but final authority by the caliph *Luck: Oil prices rebounded, providing money for social services, medical care, etc. *Luck: Iraq War unified Iranians 2) Institutions of Government created/revised a) Parliament a) Parliament b) President b) President c) Assembly of Experts c) Assembly of Experts d) Supreme Leader d) Supreme Leader e) Guardian Council e) Guardian Council f) Supreme National Security Council f) Supreme National Security Council g) Armed Forces g) Armed Forces h) Expediency Council h) Expediency Council i) Judiciary i) Judiciary 3) dissatisfaction with poor socio economic conditions and “tiredness” with making sacrifices were pervasive by 1989

13 1989 forward Khomeini was succeeded by the Ayatollah Khamenei Khomeini was succeeded by the Ayatollah Khamenei Power began to shift back to the Presidency Power began to shift back to the Presidency The President in 1989 was Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, who was a hard liner and closely allied with Ayatollah Khamenei The President in 1989 was Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, who was a hard liner and closely allied with Ayatollah Khamenei In the 1992 elections, the two held on to power In the 1992 elections, the two held on to power 1997 elections: a moderate, Mohammad Khatami won 1997 elections: a moderate, Mohammad Khatami won 2002: Declared a member of the “Axis of Evil” by President George W. Bush 2002: Declared a member of the “Axis of Evil” by President George W. Bush

14 The Iranian Executive “Supreme Leader” or faqih chosen by 86 member “Assembly of Religious Experts” a.k.a. “Chamber of Experts” “Supreme Leader” or faqih chosen by 86 member “Assembly of Religious Experts” a.k.a. “Chamber of Experts” Supposed to defend Islam, ensure laws acceptable Supposed to defend Islam, ensure laws acceptable Appoints/removes head of judiciary Appoints/removes head of judiciary Appoints/removes ½ (6 members) of Guardian Council (approves candidates) Appoints/removes ½ (6 members) of Guardian Council (approves candidates) Appoints head of military and may command armed forces Appoints head of military and may command armed forces Declares war and peace Declares war and peace Most famous: Ayatollah Khomeini Most famous: Ayatollah Khomeini Current: Current: More powerful than Iran’s President, may overrule or dismiss the President and eliminate Presidential candidates More powerful than Iran’s President, may overrule or dismiss the President and eliminate Presidential candidates

15 Iran’s President 1989: PM abolished 1989: PM abolished Needs absolute majority of votes, 4 year term—2 term maximum Needs absolute majority of votes, 4 year term—2 term maximum Must be “well known political personality”—Guardian Council has used this to ban women Must be “well known political personality”—Guardian Council has used this to ban women June 2005: Election--Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, hardline mayor of Tehran, defeats Rafsanjani June 2005: Election--Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, hardline mayor of Tehran, defeats Rafsanjani Devises the budget, supervises economic matters Devises the budget, supervises economic matters Proposes legislation to Majles Proposes legislation to Majles Executes policy Executes policy Signs treaties, laws, and agreements Signs treaties, laws, and agreements Chairs the National Security Council Chairs the National Security Council Selects vice-presidents and cabinet ministers Selects vice-presidents and cabinet ministers Approves provincial governors, town mayors, and ambassadors Approves provincial governors, town mayors, and ambassadors Abol-Hasan Bani-Sadr removed in 1981 for criticizing regime as dictatorship Abol-Hasan Bani-Sadr removed in 1981 for criticizing regime as dictatorship

16 Council of Guardians 12 member council 12 member council 6 clerics + 6 lay members (lawyers) 6 clerics + 6 lay members (lawyers) All men All men Has veto power with Supreme Leader over Parliamentary legislation—did so with Press Control law repeal Has veto power with Supreme Leader over Parliamentary legislation—did so with Press Control law repeal Determines who can run in local, Presidential, Parliamentary, and Religious Experts elections Determines who can run in local, Presidential, Parliamentary, and Religious Experts elections Work with Supreme Leader to exercise “jurist’s guardianship” Work with Supreme Leader to exercise “jurist’s guardianship”

17 Assembly of Religious Experts 86 members 86 members Elected popularly and directly but it’s all clerics. 1998 revisions do allow non-clerics but none elected yet Elected popularly and directly but it’s all clerics. 1998 revisions do allow non-clerics but none elected yet No females allowed No females allowed Candidates must pass religion test to qualify Candidates must pass religion test to qualify Chose Ali Khameini in 1989 Chose Ali Khameini in 1989

18 Council for the Expediency of the State Created 1998 Created 1998 32 leading political personalities appointed for 3 year terms, may now originate own legislation 32 leading political personalities appointed for 3 year terms, may now originate own legislation Members: Members: Heads of 3 branches of government (President, Chief Justice, Speaker of the Majles) Heads of 3 branches of government (President, Chief Justice, Speaker of the Majles) 6 Clerics of Guardian council 6 Clerics of Guardian council Anyone else Supreme Leader wants Anyone else Supreme Leader wants Resolves policy disputes between Guardian Council and Majlis Resolves policy disputes between Guardian Council and Majlis

19 Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majlis)-- Legislature 290 deputies, 4 yr terms, semi-free elections, must be 15 to vote 290 deputies, 4 yr terms, semi-free elections, must be 15 to vote All candidates must be cleared by “Council of Guardians” (council may veto any law not consistent with “the Revolution”) All candidates must be cleared by “Council of Guardians” (council may veto any law not consistent with “the Revolution”) Speaker has emerged as major position; Rafsanjani used it as springboard to Presidency. Now Akbar Nateq-Noori Speaker has emerged as major position; Rafsanjani used it as springboard to Presidency. Now Akbar Nateq-Noori Makes laws, interprets laws with Judiciary, 6 members on Guardian Council, investigations, removes Cabinet ministers but not President, approves budgets/treaties/appointees of President Makes laws, interprets laws with Judiciary, 6 members on Guardian Council, investigations, removes Cabinet ministers but not President, approves budgets/treaties/appointees of President Elections to the Majlis of Iran were held on February 20, 2004. A runoff was held on May 7, 2004, which filled 39 seats where no candidate gained sufficient votes to win in the first round. Elections to the Majlis of Iran were held on February 20, 2004. A runoff was held on May 7, 2004, which filled 39 seats where no candidate gained sufficient votes to win in the first round.Majlis of IranFebruary 202004May 72004Majlis of IranFebruary 202004May 72004 The elections took place amidst a serious political crisis that developed due to the January 2004 decision of the conservative vetting body, the Council of Guardians, to ban thousands of candidates from running -- nearly half of the total. The elections took place amidst a serious political crisis that developed due to the January 2004 decision of the conservative vetting body, the Council of Guardians, to ban thousands of candidates from running -- nearly half of the total.January 2004conservativeCouncil of GuardiansJanuary 2004conservativeCouncil of Guardians

20 A vast number of reformists, including some of their leaders, and particularly members of the Islamic Iran Participation Front (IIPF), were barred from running. In many parts of Iran, there weren't even enough independent candidates approved, so the reformists couldn't form an alliance with them. A vast number of reformists, including some of their leaders, and particularly members of the Islamic Iran Participation Front (IIPF), were barred from running. In many parts of Iran, there weren't even enough independent candidates approved, so the reformists couldn't form an alliance with them.Islamic Iran Participation FrontIranIslamic Iran Participation FrontIran Out of a possible 285 seats (5 seats are reserved for religious minorities: Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians), the participating reformist parties could only introduce 191 candidates. Some reformist parties, like the IIPF, announced that they would not vote. Moderate reformists, including President Mohammad Khatami, urged citizens to vote in order to deny the conservative candidates an easy majority. Out of a possible 285 seats (5 seats are reserved for religious minorities: Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians), the participating reformist parties could only introduce 191 candidates. Some reformist parties, like the IIPF, announced that they would not vote. Moderate reformists, including President Mohammad Khatami, urged citizens to vote in order to deny the conservative candidates an easy majority. ChristiansJewsZoroastriansMohammad Khatami ChristiansJewsZoroastriansMohammad Khatami While many pro-reform social and political figures, including Shirin Ebadi, had asked people not to vote, the official turnout was about 51%. Even in Tehran and its suburbs, a stronghold of reformist sympathies, turnout was about 28%, and one of the conservative alliances, Etelaf-e Abadgaran-e Iran-e Eslami, won all of the city's 30 seats. There are rumors that some voters were transferred to Tehran or other big cities from other areas by some of the parties, and a claim that the Municipality of Tehran, whose mayor backed the same alliance, was advertising for the alliance illegally, using the government's budget. While many pro-reform social and political figures, including Shirin Ebadi, had asked people not to vote, the official turnout was about 51%. Even in Tehran and its suburbs, a stronghold of reformist sympathies, turnout was about 28%, and one of the conservative alliances, Etelaf-e Abadgaran-e Iran-e Eslami, won all of the city's 30 seats. There are rumors that some voters were transferred to Tehran or other big cities from other areas by some of the parties, and a claim that the Municipality of Tehran, whose mayor backed the same alliance, was advertising for the alliance illegally, using the government's budget.Shirin Ebadi TehranShirin Ebadi Tehran Day before the election--reformist newspapers Yas-e-no and Shargh were banned. Day before the election--reformist newspapers Yas-e-no and Shargh were banned.Yas-e-noSharghYas-e-noShargh The preliminary results of the elections showed a victory by the conservatives. A basic comparison of the partial lists indicated that even among the seats where the reformist alliance had a candidate, only 28% (30 out of 107) were elected. The preliminary results of the elections showed a victory by the conservatives. A basic comparison of the partial lists indicated that even among the seats where the reformist alliance had a candidate, only 28% (30 out of 107) were elected.

21 Iranian Judiciary NOT an independent judiciary, enforces shari’a and qanun (statutory law). Judicial review in the sense that qanun may not violate shari’a NOT an independent judiciary, enforces shari’a and qanun (statutory law). Judicial review in the sense that qanun may not violate shari’a Supreme Leader appoints cleric to be head judge Supreme Leader appoints cleric to be head judge Religious zealots (hezbollahis) recruited from ranks of urban poor (bazaaris)= stormtroopers Religious zealots (hezbollahis) recruited from ranks of urban poor (bazaaris)= stormtroopers Enforces censorship laws to curtail public debates Enforces censorship laws to curtail public debates Shut down 100 newspapers/magazines 1997-2004 Shut down 100 newspapers/magazines 1997-2004 Banned interest on loans as usury Banned interest on loans as usury Death penalty mandated for adultery, homosexuality, drug dealing, and alcoholism Death penalty mandated for adultery, homosexuality, drug dealing, and alcoholism

22 Iranian Military 540,000 active troops (8 th largest) 540,000 active troops (8 th largest) Some long range missiles Some long range missiles Developing nuclear weapons Developing nuclear weapons Revolutionary Guards developed in case military gets reformist ideas Revolutionary Guards developed in case military gets reformist ideas

23 Political Parties/Elections Finally re-legalized in 1998 Finally re-legalized in 1998 Islamic Iran Participation Front: Reformist, formed after 1997 election of Khatami. Run by Muhammad Reza Khatami (his brother). Did well in 2000, many candidates blocked by Guardian Council in 2004. Helped Muhammad Khatami win re-election Islamic Iran Participation Front: Reformist, formed after 1997 election of Khatami. Run by Muhammad Reza Khatami (his brother). Did well in 2000, many candidates blocked by Guardian Council in 2004. Helped Muhammad Khatami win re-election Servants of Construction Party: Grouping of technocrats loosely allied with former President Rafsanjani Servants of Construction Party: Grouping of technocrats loosely allied with former President Rafsanjani Assembly of Combatant Clerics: Muhammad Khatami’s party. Left wing, pro-reform. Assembly of Combatant Clerics: Muhammad Khatami’s party. Left wing, pro-reform. Conservatives: several different parties, biggest is Ahmadinejad’s Islamic Society of Engineers Conservatives: several different parties, biggest is Ahmadinejad’s Islamic Society of Engineers Almost 1 election/year: ingrained Almost 1 election/year: ingrained 15 is voting age 15 is voting age High voter turnout High voter turnout Candidate to seat ratio is 10:1 or more Candidate to seat ratio is 10:1 or more Sharia, the canonical law of Islam, is the basis for the Constitution and therefore elections Sharia, the canonical law of Islam, is the basis for the Constitution and therefore elections

24 Bureaucracy Revolutionaries purged bureaucracy Revolutionaries purged bureaucracy Doubled in size since 1979 though Doubled in size since 1979 though College and Hs graduates College and Hs graduates Second strata is conservative technocrats Second strata is conservative technocrats Military= Regular Army + Revolutionary Guards (internal security) Military= Regular Army + Revolutionary Guards (internal security) New ministry: Culture and Islamic Guidance (censors media) New ministry: Culture and Islamic Guidance (censors media) Reconstruction: expands social services, sees that Islam expands into the countryside Reconstruction: expands social services, sees that Islam expands into the countryside Intelligence, Interior, Justice, Culture headed by clerics, often other posts go to their relatives Intelligence, Interior, Justice, Culture headed by clerics, often other posts go to their relatives Result= clientelism, corruption, mismanagement, patronage, ideological, nepotist Result= clientelism, corruption, mismanagement, patronage, ideological, nepotist Some semipublic institutions from confiscated pre-1979 wealth, “Martyr’s Foundation” Some semipublic institutions from confiscated pre-1979 wealth, “Martyr’s Foundation”

25 Political Culture Shiism: “Hidden Imam” will return. Union of religious and political authority through sharia (Islamic law). Sharia is an essentail base of legitimacy Shiism: “Hidden Imam” will return. Union of religious and political authority through sharia (Islamic law). Sharia is an essentail base of legitimacy Authoritarianism, but not totalitarianism (relieves some pressure for reform) Authoritarianism, but not totalitarianism (relieves some pressure for reform) Escaped from European colonization—will not be same as Mexico, Nigeria Escaped from European colonization—will not be same as Mexico, Nigeria Geographic limitations: Not much arable land, plenty of oil, most Iranians live in cities and the northwest Geographic limitations: Not much arable land, plenty of oil, most Iranians live in cities and the northwest Ancient Persian influences (architecture, literary works, decorative arts) Ancient Persian influences (architecture, literary works, decorative arts) Mass media severely curtailed, 20 newspapers shut down in 1979, 7 more by 1981. Mass media severely curtailed, 20 newspapers shut down in 1979, 7 more by 1981. 1981 law: crime to use “pen or speech” against the government 1981 law: crime to use “pen or speech” against the government 2000: Reformists elected, outgoing legislature enacted “press control law,” which Guardian Council has ordered cannot be overturned by the new legislature 2000: Reformists elected, outgoing legislature enacted “press control law,” which Guardian Council has ordered cannot be overturned by the new legislature

26 Cleavages Religion (10% Sunni, <1% Baha’I Religion (10% Sunni, <1% Baha’I Ethnicity (51% Persian, 24% Azeri), various ethnic uprisings have all been put down Ethnicity (51% Persian, 24% Azeri), various ethnic uprisings have all been put down Reformers vs. Conservatives Reformers vs. Conservatives Statists vs. Free marketers (Bill to allow 100% foreign ownership, up from 48%, vetoed by Guardian Council) Statists vs. Free marketers (Bill to allow 100% foreign ownership, up from 48%, vetoed by Guardian Council) Resistance to clerical rule by fiat is strongest among middle class– increasingly urbanized, educated, and young. Peasantry and lower class support the regime. Resistance to clerical rule by fiat is strongest among middle class– increasingly urbanized, educated, and young. Peasantry and lower class support the regime. Most upper class left the country in 1979 Most upper class left the country in 1979

27 Civil Society Cultural Revolution in schools—revolutionaries made schools teach orthodoxy. Western sympathizing professors fired and replaced (like Cultural Revolution in China) Cultural Revolution in schools—revolutionaries made schools teach orthodoxy. Western sympathizing professors fired and replaced (like Cultural Revolution in China) Intellectual prosperity has flourished under a repressive regime Intellectual prosperity has flourished under a repressive regime No criticism of Islam or clerics permitted No criticism of Islam or clerics permitted Mild criticism of government OK Mild criticism of government OK About 200 well respected journals present About 200 well respected journals present Participation high Participation high 1999 studenbt uprising crushed 1999 studenbt uprising crushed Revolutionaries tried to crush pre-1979 culture, eventually decided they would have to coexist/co-opt it Revolutionaries tried to crush pre-1979 culture, eventually decided they would have to coexist/co-opt it

28 Political Participation Huge gaps in values between different social groups Huge gaps in values between different social groups Western influence over upper/middle classes Western influence over upper/middle classes Millions took action during Revolution, elections— students and youth now have enormous political weight Millions took action during Revolution, elections— students and youth now have enormous political weight Women’s participation has gone up Women’s participation has gone up Dissuaded when government assassinated over 100 ethnic, leftist, and monarchist forces living in the WEST. Dissuaded when government assassinated over 100 ethnic, leftist, and monarchist forces living in the WEST. Protests remain (1999 shutdown of college newspaper), factory workers protest now Protests remain (1999 shutdown of college newspaper), factory workers protest now

29 Gender Divorce and custody laws now follow Islamic rules—bad for women “Equality with difference” Divorce and custody laws now follow Islamic rules—bad for women “Equality with difference” Veil a symbol of oppression Veil a symbol of oppression Scarf and long coat in public required Scarf and long coat in public required Women must have consent of male relatives to leave the country Women must have consent of male relatives to leave the country Occasional stonings for adultery, although they have been banned Occasional stonings for adultery, although they have been banned Runaway girls, prostitution widespread Runaway girls, prostitution widespread 27% of labor force is women 27% of labor force is women Boys and girls do attend school at same rate Boys and girls do attend school at same rate Not well represented in Majles Not well represented in Majles

30 Political Economy Khomeini: “Economics is for donkeys.” Khomeini: “Economics is for donkeys.” Pressures during 1980s: Pressures during 1980s: 1) Nationalization of many large firms 1) Nationalization of many large firms 2) Massive emigration of skilled workers 2) Massive emigration of skilled workers 3) Decline in Western investment 3) Decline in Western investment 4) Oil price drop 4) Oil price drop 5) 8 yr Iraq war 5) 8 yr Iraq war Pragmatists wanted economic recovery, opposed by conservatives who wanted no reforms, keep West out Pragmatists wanted economic recovery, opposed by conservatives who wanted no reforms, keep West out Guild and professional organizations are weak—citizenry have multiple occupations and rapid employment turnover Guild and professional organizations are weak—citizenry have multiple occupations and rapid employment turnover

31 Economy Oil 85% of exports—rentier state Oil 85% of exports—rentier state Suffers from lack of diversification, dependence on world market/price fluctuations, exacerbates income inequality, corrupt usage of rents Suffers from lack of diversification, dependence on world market/price fluctuations, exacerbates income inequality, corrupt usage of rents Lack of raw materials and spare parts Lack of raw materials and spare parts 16% Unemployment 16% Unemployment 15% inflation 15% inflation But education and health care have improved But education and health care have improved Bazaar merchants have constituted backbone of economic flows Bazaar merchants have constituted backbone of economic flows A myriad of quasi-private foundations and religious endowments manage state-owned enterprises to aid the poor (Shah’s old fortune) A myriad of quasi-private foundations and religious endowments manage state-owned enterprises to aid the poor (Shah’s old fortune) Iran has applied for WTO membership despite reservations about Western domination, nothing against cooperation, just domination. Iran has applied for WTO membership despite reservations about Western domination, nothing against cooperation, just domination. Iran will need outside help with infrastructure, developing additional oil resources Iran will need outside help with infrastructure, developing additional oil resources Declining birth rate will help; mandatory sex ed classes for engaged couples Declining birth rate will help; mandatory sex ed classes for engaged couples Iran did not sign Kyoto Treaty but has gotten World Bank aid to clean up air pollution Iran did not sign Kyoto Treaty but has gotten World Bank aid to clean up air pollution Afghan and other refugees have been a strain on the economy Afghan and other refugees have been a strain on the economy Country suffers from air polllution (not Kyoto signatory), deforestation, desertification, water contamination Country suffers from air polllution (not Kyoto signatory), deforestation, desertification, water contamination

32 Iranian Foreign Policy OPEC Member OPEC Member Some advocate warmer ties with foreign investors, possibly readmitting US dollars Some advocate warmer ties with foreign investors, possibly readmitting US dollars Tourism industry almost dormant now Tourism industry almost dormant now Money a coward; Iran the classic example Money a coward; Iran the classic example Large refugee population: Afghan, Iraqi, Kurd Large refugee population: Afghan, Iraqi, Kurd Large diaspora abroad—government tries to court them, most demand things the government cannot or will not provide Large diaspora abroad—government tries to court them, most demand things the government cannot or will not provide

33 Learning Objectives After mastering the concepts presented in this chapter, you will be able to: Understand the key moments of the historical formation of Persia and Iran. Understand the key moments of the historical formation of Persia and Iran. Recognize the importance of complex religious and political challenges in process of understanding of Iranian politics and society. Define the following: Shiites, Sunni, Muslim, Arab Recognize the importance of complex religious and political challenges in process of understanding of Iranian politics and society. Define the following: Shiites, Sunni, Muslim, Arab Discuss the complicated evolution of Iranian politics. Discuss the complicated evolution of Iranian politics. Comprehend the importance of religious intolerance and challenges in the Iranian state throughout the history. Comprehend the importance of religious intolerance and challenges in the Iranian state throughout the history. Discuss the role of theocracy in the process of Iranian political development. Discuss the role of theocracy in the process of Iranian political development. Understand the evolution of Iranian state in 20th century and define key elements of revolutions in Iran. Briefly discuss the role of the following leaders: Mahmoud Ahamdinejad, Ayatollah Ali Khameni, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Rafsanjani, Shah Mohamed Reza, Shah Reza Understand the evolution of Iranian state in 20th century and define key elements of revolutions in Iran. Briefly discuss the role of the following leaders: Mahmoud Ahamdinejad, Ayatollah Ali Khameni, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Rafsanjani, Shah Mohamed Reza, Shah Reza

34 Learning Objectives After mastering the concepts presented in this chapter, you will be able to: Define Iranian geography and current economic challenges. Define Iranian geography and current economic challenges. Understand the process of political, economic and social developments of Iran. Understand the process of political, economic and social developments of Iran. Understand the role of Constitutional Revolution and White Revolution in Iran. Understand the role of Constitutional Revolution and White Revolution in Iran. Discuss the key elements of Iranian state institution. Define the following: Assembly of Experts, Expediency Council, Guardian Council, Majlis, Supreme Leader Discuss the key elements of Iranian state institution. Define the following: Assembly of Experts, Expediency Council, Guardian Council, Majlis, Supreme Leader Understand the specifications of Iranian political culture and participation. Understand the specifications of Iranian political culture and participation. Understand the challenges of democratization in Iran. Understand the challenges of democratization in Iran. Comprehend the challenging process of the development of Iranian international positioning as an important regional and international challenges of international stability and nonproliferation. Comprehend the challenging process of the development of Iranian international positioning as an important regional and international challenges of international stability and nonproliferation.


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