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Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Regime Domestic Policies Daniel W. Blackmon IB HL History Coral Gables Senior High.

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Presentation on theme: "Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Regime Domestic Policies Daniel W. Blackmon IB HL History Coral Gables Senior High."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Regime Domestic Policies Daniel W. Blackmon IB HL History Coral Gables Senior High

2 Hitler joins the NSDAP (1920) Adolf Hitler joins the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) or Nazi Party in Munich, quickly dominating it by force of personality,.

3 The Twenty Five Points 1920 [excerpts] The union of all Germans into a single Reich on the basis of self- determination The acquisition of land and colonies.The annulment of the Treaty of Versailles

4 The Twenty Five Points 1920 [excerpts] Only those of German blood could be "comrades of the people" and the state..Only those of German blood could vote or hold official posts. (Carsten 96)

5 The SA (the Brownshirts) 1921 The most important commander of the SA is Ernst Röhm. Röhm entitled his autobiography “Confessions of an Archtraitor”

6 The SA (the Brownshirts) 1921 Creation of the Sturmabteilung, the SA, “brownshirts” or “stormtroopers,” a paramilitary organization that becomes Hitler’s weapon for gaining control of the streets.

7 The SA (the Brownshirts) 1921 Many are recruited from the Freikorps. These people are thugs.

8 The Munich Beer Hall Putsch November 8, 1923 Hitler tries to take advantage of the crisis in the Ruhr and take over the government of Bavaria, preparatory to seizing control of the government in Weimar.

9 The Munich Beer Hall Putsch November 8, 1923 The Bavarian police open fire. The man next to Hitler is hit and mortally wounded, pulling Hitler to the ground and saving his life. Sixteen Nazis and three police are killed.

10 Mein Kampf Hitler was arrested and tried for treason. He used the trial to attack the government and the Treaty of Versailles.

11 Mein Kampf The trial is an amazing tour de force, where he retrieved a catastrophic propaganda error. He effectively placed the government on trial.

12 Mein Kampf He was convicted and sentenced to 5 years in a comfortable prison. He served 9 months, during which he dictated Mein Kampf to Rudolf Hess.

13 Mein Kampf The best way to comprehend Hitler is to read what he actually wrote, rather than summarizing it. You will find the quotations I am about to give you to be very offensive.

14 Mein Kampf You should be offended. I would be very concerned if you are not offended. Hitler is driven by psychopathic hatred.

15 Mein Kampf Foreign observers who read Mein Kampf simply could not believe that, once in power, Hitler could seriously mean to implement the ideas and policies outlined or implied in the book.

16 Mein Kampf Unfortunately for everyone in the world, Hitler meant what he said. Hitler’s long term goals remained very constant throughout his life. He remained flexible as to tactics.

17 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Antisemitism “The cleanliness of this people [the Jews], moral and otherwise, I must say, is a point in itself. By their very exterior you could tell that these were no lovers of water, and, to your distress, you often knew it with your eyes closed....

18 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Antisemitism “All this could scarcely be called very attractive; but it became positively repulsive when, in addition to their physical uncleanliness, you discovered the moral stains on this ‘chosen people.’...

19 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Antisemitism “Was there any form of filth or profligacy, particularly in cultural life, without at least one Jew involved in it?

20 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Antisemitism “If you cut even cautiously into such an abscess, you found, like a maggot in a rotting body, often dazzled by the sudden light--a kike!” (Hitler Mein Kampf 57)

21 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Living Space Lebensraum [Living Space]: "The foreign policy of the folkish state must safeguard the existence on this planet of the race embodied in the state,

22 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Living Space by creating a healthy, viable natural relation between the nation's population and growth on the one hand and the quantity and quality of its soil on the other hand." (Hitler 643)

23 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Living Space "Only an adequately large space on this earth assures a nation of freedom of existence." (Hitler 643)

24 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Living Space "If the National Socialist movement really wants to be consecrated by history with a great mission for our nation, it... must find the courage to gather our people and their strength

25 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Living Space "for an advance along the road that will lead this people from its present restricted living space to new land and soil, and hence also free it from the danger of vanishing from the earth or of serving others as a slave nation." (Hitler 645-6)

26 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Living Space "The National Socialist movement must strive to eliminate the disproportion between our population and our area-- viewing this latter as a source of food as well as a basis for power politics....." (Hitler 646)

27 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Living Space "we National Socialists must hold unflinchingly to our aim in foreign policy, namely, to secure for the German people the land and soil to which they are entitled on this earth." (Hitler 652)

28 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Anti-Bolshevism "In Russian Bolshevism we must see the attempt undertaken by the Jews in the twentieth century to achieve world domination." (Hitler 661)

29 Mein Kampf [excerpt] Anti-Bolshevism "The fight against Jewish world Bolshevism requires a clear attitude toward Soviet Russia. You cannot drive out the Devil with Beelzebub." (Hitler 662)

30 The Great Depression in Germany 1930 Germany was extremely dependent upon short term loans from US banks to keep its economy going. The stock market crash in the US dried up that money,

31 The Great Depression in Germany 1930 The result was the failure of key German banks, which brought the Depression into central Europe. From there, it spread, since the collapse of the Central European economy dragged everyone else down with it.

32 The Elections of 1930 The elections are a disaster for Parliamentary democracy. Stresemann's German People's Party goes from 78 seats to 41.The National Liberals go from 45 seats to 30

33 The Elections of 1930.The Catholic Centre go from 16 seats to 19.The Left Liberals go from 25seats to 20.The Social Democrats go from 153 seats to 143

34 The Elections of 1930.The Communists gain 23 seats, from 54 to 77.The National Socialists (Nazis) gain 95 seats, from 12 to 107

35 The Elections of 1930 A Parliament that had a democratic majority is now replaced by one where the second and third largest parties are implacably opposed to parliamentary democracy.

36 The Elections of 1930 The Chancellor, Dr. Heinrich Brüning is determined to rule by decree. Brüning's government therefore marks the end of Parliamentary democracy in Germany.

37 Hindenburg’s Re-election 1932 Hitler decided to run for President against Hindenburg, who is now senile Hindenburg won 46.6% of the vote to Hitler's 30.1%,.Hindenburg wins the run-off by 53% to Hitler's 36.8%

38 The von Papen and von Schleicher Governments 1932 First, Franz von Papen and then Gen. Kurt von Schleicher attempt to form aristocratic, rightist governments without Nazi participation.

39 The von Papen and von Schleicher Governments 1932 Lacking a Reichstag majority, both will have to govern by decree, using Article 48. Von Schleicher maneuvers to discredit von Papen with Hindenburg, and von Papen then returns the favor to von Schleicher.

40 Hitler-von Papen Government January 30, 1933 The industrialists and landowners who surrounded Hindenburg urged him strongly to appoint a Hitler-Papen government: a Harzburg government of all the nationalist groups. The old man finally agrees.

41 Hitler-von Papen Government January 30, 1933 The new cabinet includes only 3 Nazis, Hitler himself, Wilhelm Frick as Minister of the Interior (includes the police) and Hermann Goering as Minister Without Portfolio (also Prussian Interior Minister).

42 Hitler-von Papen Government January 30, 1933 Papen and his people believe that they can control Hitler. They are wrong; the German Faust has made its pact with Mephistopheles.

43 Reichstag Fire February 27, 1933 Arsonists set fire to the Reichstag building. Hitler immediately blames the Communists for the "plot."

44 Reichstag Fire February 27, 1933 He moves with such speed that many historians believe that Hitler ordered the fire set, and set up van der Lubbe as a scapegoat. There isn't enough evidence to make this stick, however.

45 Reichstag Fire February 27, 1933 Hitler has Hindenburg issue an emergency decree under Article 48 suspending habeas corpus, freedom of assembly, freedom of speech, freedom of association, and the inviolability of property. The Nazi reign of terror begins.

46 The Enabling Act March 1933 Hitler submits the Enabling Act. This gave Hitler emergency dictatorial powers for 4 years. Both the Reichstag and the President are removed from legislative authority. The Reichstag voted 441 to 84 in favor. The Enabling Act passes.

47 The Enabling Act March 1933 Only one man, Otto Wels, head of the SDs, has the courage to speak up against the bill. He was arrested the next day and sent to Dachau concentration camp.

48 Gleichschaltung (Coordination) In 1933, Hitler begins to bring everything in the country under his control. Gleichschaltung does not occur overnight, however. It takes several years before Hitler is secure enough to turn to other issues.

49 Persecution of the Jews begins April 1933 “Hitler’s government issues an official boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany, purges the civil service, and restricts admission to public schools and universities.” (Levy xiii)

50 Persecution of the Jews begins April 1933 As we shall see, the destruction of the Jews takes place in stages, and is closely tied with foreign policy and Nazi successes in World War II

51 Terror The architect of the Nazi terror was Heinrich Himmler, the leader of the SS. His most important subordinate was Reinhard Heydrich

52 Terror In keeping with Hitler’s preferences, the jurisdictions of various state security organs overlapped.

53 Terror The RSHA (Reichssicherheitshauptamt) eventually included the SD (security police, or Sicherheitsdienst), the dreaded Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei, or Secret State Police) and the Kripo (criminal police).

54 Terror The SS was the elite of the Nazi state. Recruits (volunteers until late in the war) took as their motto, “My honor is loyalty.” SS troopers were answerable only to SS courts.

55 Terror Indoctrination and physical culture emphasized hardness. Which “expressed itself in the utter contempt and brutality with which these specimens of Aryan superiority mistreated their opponents.

56 Terror “For the SS man, the word ‘impossible’ was not supposed to exist; his life’s oxygen was struggle, unconditional obedience to authority, suppression of feelings or emotions because they implied softness,

57 Terror “contempt for inferiors, arrogant behavior towards outsiders, and internal bonding with his own kind.” (Fischer 338)

58 Terror The SS had three main divisions: the Allgemeine SS, or Ordinary SS, the Waffen SS, or Armed SS, and the Totenkopf SS (Death’s Head SS)

59 Terror The Waffen SS grew to be an army within the army, extremely well equipped and fanatical. With good reason, they were the most hated and feared of all Nazi units.

60 Terror Among the most famous (or infamous) of these divisions were 1 st SS Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler 2 nd SS Totenkopf 3 rd SS Das Reich 12 th SS Die Hitlerjugend

61 Terror The Death’s Head SS ran the concentration camps with calculated cruelty. There was frequent and free movement between the Waffen and Death’s Head SS

62 Terror The terror apparatus rested on the triangle of the SS, the Gestapo, and The concentration camps.

63 The Concentration Camps The concentration camp system was widespread and complex. Hundreds of camps were attached to factories around the country, and served to provide slave laborers for the German war effort.

64 The Concentration Camps Some, like Dachau (the first camp), were primarily for political prisoners. Some, like Treblinka, Sobibor, and Belzec were killing centers. Auschwitz-Birkenau was a complex of three camps, including factories as well as a killing center.

65 The Concentration Camps At no camp did the Nazis much concern themselves with whether the prisoners survived or not. The best of them was murderous and brutal.

66 The Concentration Camps Food, shelter, clothing, sanitation, housing all were shocking. If the Nazis did not kill you outright, they attempted to work and starve you to death.

67 The Concentration Camps The concentration camp system was widespread and complex. Hundreds of camps were attached to factories around the country, and served to provide slave laborers for the German war effort.

68 The Concentration Camps Some, like Dachau (the first camp), were primarily for political prisoners. Some, like Treblinka, Sobibor, and Belzec were killing centers. Auschwitz-Birkenau was a complex of three camps, including factories as well as a killing center.

69 The Concentration Camps At no camp did the Nazis much concern themselves with whether the prisoners survived or not. The best of them was murderous and brutal.

70 The Concentration Camps Food, shelter, clothing, sanitation, housing all were shocking. If the Nazis did not kill you outright, they attempted to work and starve you to death.

71 The Economy The economy went to a war footing even in peacetime. The key term is “autarky”: Hitler sought economic independence.

72 The Economy Lebensraum–the conquest of living space in the east–is a means of achieving autarky.

73 The Economy Hitler began a program of deficit spending (priming the pump), with the construction of the German Autobahnen becoming a show piece for the regime. In addition, Hitler encouraged the production of the Volkswagen, the “people’s car” for a price of $235. (Fischer 375)

74 The Economy Programs were begun to stock pile strategic materials (oil, rubber, alloys, etc.) And to produce synthetic (Ersatz) fuels and rubber.

75 The Economy A Four Year Plan was announced, and headed by Hermann Goering. Wage and price controls were set, imports reduced, and dividends restricted.

76 The Economy Yet this was never really socialism. Big business was never attacked. Instead, the Nazis found ways of engaging big German firms such as I.G. Farben, Krupp, Siemens, and Volkswagen as partners.

77 The Economy Hitler attempted a “guns and butter” policy and did not actually go to full scale total mobilization of the war economy until 1942, at the time of Stalingrad.

78 Labor All independent unions were destroyed, and the leaders sent to concentration camps. Workers were enrolled in the German Labor Front (DAF), headed by Robert Ley.

79 Labor Ley coordinated the “Strength Through Joy” program (KdF, or Kraft durch Freude) which provided subsidized vacations, theater, hiking trips, dances, and education classes. (Fischer 380)

80 Labor Workers were severely restricted in the jobs they could choose and their ability to change jobs.. All males were subject to six months compulsory labor service, (Fischer 381-2)

81 Religion The Nazis are radically hostile to Christianity. Martin Bormann: “National Socialism and Christianity are irreconcilable.” (Fischer 359)

82 Religion The heritage of Martin Luther had stressed the subordination of the Church to legal authority.

83 Religion Further, the rise of racialism in Germany had infected the German churches with a desire to purge Christianity of “Jewish” or “Roman” elements and a “New Heathenism” based upon nature / sun worship. (Fischer 358)

84 Religion The Church also tended to share the anti-Semitism that was widespread in German society (again, a heritage of Luther.)

85 Religion: The Lutherans The Nazis succeeded in penetrating the Lutheran Church to the extent that their supporters elected Ludwig Müller as Reichsbischof. Aryan origin became a requirement to hold clerical office. (Fischer 360)

86 Religion: The Lutherans "Resistance to the new authorities and the German Christians was organized by the Pastor's Emergency League founded at Berlin/Dahlem in September 1933 by Martin Niemöller,

87 Religion: The Lutherans "and by the Confessing church which developed from it and which first met as a body at Ulm on 22 April 1934." (Hildebrandt 12)

88 Religion: The Lutherans "The Confessing Church attacked the Nazis as anti-Christian and "stated that even the force of an oath is limited by the fact that God's word alone is absolutely binding," (Hildebrandt 39) a genuinely shocking position for a German cleric.

89 Religion: The Lutherans " Niemöller, who had won Germany’s highest decoration for valor in World War I, was arrested and sent to a concentration camp.

90 Religion: The Lutherans The Nazis kept up their pressure on the church, undermining its autonomy by decree and arresting 800 members in Hitler never abandoned his intention of suppressing the churches eventually. (Hildebrandt 40)

91 Religion: The Catholics The Catholics hoped to obtain concessions–particularly autonomy for the Church.

92 Religion: The Catholics Von Papen negotiated a Concordat with the Pope. The concordat granted protection of Catholic schools and institutions and priests, freedom of faith and public worship. In exchange, the Catholic Church gave up social and political organizations. (Holborn 743)

93 Religion: The Catholics The Nazis violated the concordat as soon as they felt they could get away with it. Hitler intended to establish control over every aspect of every German's life. The only question was timing (Hitler is inflexible as to goals, but opportunistic and flexible as to tactics.)

94 Religion: The Catholics The Nazis move against Catholic schools in 1935, and an open breach is "expressed in the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge ["With burning sorrow"] of 14 March 1937, in which the Pope voiced his 'increasing dismay' at the situation of the Catholic church in Germany, deplored the church's Calvary and attacked the anti-Christian regime." (Hildebrandt 39)

95 Religion I recall reading a doctoral dissertation by a nun while in college. She set out to examine what pastoral advice a Christian of troubled conscience would have received from either a Lutheran or a Catholic cleric.

96 Religion All pastoral handbooks continued to emphasize the duty of a Christian to obey duly constituted authority. Hitler, since he took power constitutionally, was duly constituted authority.

97 Religion Only those of very unusual strength of character and religious faith would rebel.

98 Education The curriculum was systematically conformed to Nazi ideology. Relativity, for instance, was rejected as a “Jewish science.” Textbooks stressed a Darwinian view of the world.

99 Education Teachers were required to join the National Socialist Teachers League (National-Sozialistische Lehrerbund).

100 Education University students joined the League of German Students.

101 Youth The Hitler Youth as a whole reached a membership of 8,870,000 (Fischer 345) with several subdivisions:

102 Youth German Young Folk (Deutsches Jungvolk, DJ) for boys from ages Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend, HJ) for boys League of Young Girls (Jungmädelbund, JM) for girls from ages The League of German Girls (Bund deutscher Mädel, BDM) for girls ages

103 Youth Membership was not optional.

104 Youth The Hitler Youth deliberately attempted to weaken parental authority and replace it with the authority of the state. Physical culture and propaganda were major parts of the program.

105 Youth Hitler: “No boy or girl shall leave school without having been fully instructed in the need for and nature of racial purity.” (Fischer 350)

106 Family “The Nazis looked upon the family primarily as a reproductive unit furnishing future soldiers for the Reich.” (Fischer 354)

107 Family The Nazis therefore encouraged large families by blocking women from jobs, outlawing abortion, persecuting homosexuality and prostitution, and by providing marriage loans, child subsidies and family allowances. (Fischer 354)

108 Family Joseph Goebbels: “The mission of women is to be beautiful and to bring children into the world.” (355)

109 Family Adolf Hitler: “A woman must be a cute, cuddly, naive little thing–tender, sweet, and stupid.”

110 Family Adolf Hitler: “If today a female jurist accomplishes ever so much and next door there lives a mother with five, six, seven children, who are all healthy and well-brought-up, then I would like to say:

111 Family “From the standpoint of eternal value of our people the woman who has given birth to children and raised them and who thereby has given back our people life for the future has accomplished more and does more.” (355)

112 Family When Martin Bormann boasted in a letter to his wife that he had finally succeeded in seducing a movie star, his wife proposed a ménage à trois, writing

113 Family “ ‘you have to see to it that Manja has a child one year and I have one the next, so that you always have one woman around who’s in good shape.’ [so daß du immer eine Frau hast, die gebrauchsfähig ist]

114 Family One historian has called this the Nazi principle of crop rotation.” (356)

115 Culture: Literature Heinrich Mann and Käthe Kollwitz protested Nazi control and were stripped of their positions in the Chamber. Gottfried Benn replaced Mann in literature. Thomas Mann and Alfred Döblin were among the writers who resigned their positions in protest.

116 Culture: Literature On March 10, 1933, Goebbels organized the infamous bookburning of “unGerman” books.

117 Culture: Literature Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Arnold and Stefan Zweig, and Franz Werfel left the country, along with 2500 others. (Fischer 364) This is the time when two of my German professors emigrated to the US

118 Culture: Literature Thomas Mann: “It may be superstitious belief, but in my eyes, any books which could be printed at all in Germany between 1933 and 1945 are worse than worthless and not objects one wishes to touch.

119 Culture: Literature “A stench of blood and shame attaches to them. They should be pulped.” (Fischer 368)

120 Culture: Architecture The Bauhaus School, including Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe, emigrated to the US since their work was now considered degenerate.

121 Culture: Architecture Hitler preferred a strictly neoclassical style on a monumental scale (which reduced the individual to insignificance)

122 Culture: Architecture The Party rallying grounds at Nuremberg and the Olympic Stadium at Berlin are the most typical works.

123 Culture: Painting The Nazis branded most modern art as Degenerate Art, (Entartete Kunst) and actually held an exhibition of it.

124 Culture: Painting They preferred heroic, muscular nudes such as those by Arno Breker.

125 Culture: Painting Painters such as Oscar Kokoschka fled.

126 Culture: Music Richard Wagner was the Nazi composer par excellence. Musicians who developed beyond Wagner musically were attacked.

127 Culture: Music Richard Strauß and Paul Hindemith came under fire. Kurt Fürtwängler lost his position as conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic for defending Hindemith

128 Culture: Music Jazz was classified as degenerate.

129 Culture: Film The Nazis saw film as a very valuable propaganda tool. All German film companies were combined under UFA.

130 Culture: Film Large numbers of films were produced, including SA-Mann Brand, and the viciously anti-Semitic Jüd Süß. Many films were on historical or mythological topics. News reels abounded.

131 Culture: Film One great director emerged, the controversial Leni Riefenstahl, who produced two masterpieces: Triumph of the Will (1935) and Olympia (1936)

132 Culture: Radio The Nazis excelled at “masscult.” They are pioneers in the use of modern technology for mass communication.

133 Culture: Radio All radio stations were expropriated and combined under the RRG (Reichsrundfunk Gesellschaft).

134 Culture: Radio The government encouraged the production of a cheap radio set, the Volksempfänger, in order to put a radio in every home. Germans were bombarded with carefully calculated radio programs carrying the Nazi message.

135 Culture: Radio After World War II broke out, it became forbidden to listen to any foreign broadcast.

136 Joseph Goebbels As the Minister for Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels oversaw virtually every aspect of Nazi culture. His influence should not be underestimated. More than anyone save Hitler himself, Goebbels reached the masses.

137 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Now that Hitler has achieved power, the SA has no useful function within the state.

138 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 "Après la révolution il se pose toujours la question des révolutionnaires." Mussolini to Oswald Mosley (Fest 449)

139 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Röhm does not believe the revolution is over, and he feels that the SA has been left out of the rewards.

140 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 He holds a philosophical difference with Hitler in that he dreamed of the SA forming the basis for a political militia which would replace the Army.

141 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Hitler believes that the future greatness of Germany requires the technical expertise of the Army since expansion means offensive war, and offensive war means modern technology.

142 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 In this, he was undoubtedly correct. This is a long-standing difference between the two which now cannot be papered over.

143 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 In effect, Röhm still leads a genuine popular movement of between 3.5 and 4 million men (Fest 450)(in contrast with the Army at 100,000). Like Robespierre, he is not yet ready for consolidation

144 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Röhm's actions could only viewed by Hitler and the Army as a challenge. He ostentatiously parades the SA in giant rallies; he intemperately attacks Göring, Hess, Goebbels, and even Hitler himself to his friends.

145 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 A sample of his rhetoric is: "Adolf is rotten. He's betraying all of us. he only goes around with reactionaries. His old comrades aren't good enough for him. So he brings in these East Prussian generals....

146 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, He'll make it [the revolution] National Socialist later on, he says. But first he's turning it over to the Prussian generals. Where the hell is revolutionary spirit to come from afterwards?

147 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 “From a bunch of old fogies who certainly aren't going to win the new war? Don't try to kid me, the whole lot of you. You're letting the whole heart and soul of our movement go to pot." (Fest 451-2)

148 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 More ominously, Röhm builds up the numbers of the SA, establishes unauthorized detention camps, began acquiring weapons, and stepped up military training, sought funds from industrialists,

149 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 built up an SA field police and an SA judiciary, and aggressively tried to penetrate local government, publishing, and academia.

150 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Clearly, he is laying the groundwork for a parallel government that would penetrate the existing one.

151 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Hitler begins accelerating German rearmament, which has powerful appeal to Blomberg and the generals. They will not, however, accept the SA on an equal basis (for good reason).

152 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 The reintroduction of conscription into the Reichswehr makes it clear that Hitler will favor the Army is he must choose.

153 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Nevertheless, he sought to placate Röhm, appointing him to the cabinet on December 1, 1932, and sending him an unusually warm letter of thanks shortly afterwards.

154 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 The issue comes to a head when Hitler is informed that Hindenburg would not live many more days. Hitler needs to secure his succession to the Presidency as well as his current office of Chancellor. He can no longer delay.

155 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 On a military cruise, Hitler cuts a deal with Blomberg and Werner von Fritsch, the Chief of the General Staff. The Army would support Hitler's succession in exchange for curbing the SA and a promise that the Army would not be involved in a civil war.

156 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 In the meantime, Göring and Röhm were on increasingly bad terms personally. Göring begins collecting a special police force at Lichterfelde (he is Prussian Minister of the Interior).

157 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 In January, shortly after his letter of thanks, Hitler orders the Gestapo to begin investigating Röhm and SA activities.

158 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 On February 21, Hitler told Britain's Anthony Eden that he would reduce the SA by 2/3s.

159 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Göring makes common cause with Himmler, and appoints Himmler to the head of the Gestapo (in addition to the SS). The SS at this time is a subdivision of the SA, and Himmler is technically Röhm's subordinate

160 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Hitler now sets Röhm up. On June 4, he held a long conference with him, assuring Röhm that he would not dissolve the SA but criticizing Röhm and the SA leadership for "their disorder, luxury and sexual perversion." (Bullock 160)

161 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 (It wasn't as if those charges were new.) He orders the SA to take a month's leave. Obviously without a suspicion, Röhm agrees to do so. It is an amazing display of personal magnetism by Hitler.

162 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Hitler waits until a weekend to strike. On June 25, von Fritsch canceled all leaves and placed the army on alert. On June 30, the Gestapo and SS move into place. Röhm is taken while on holiday.

163 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Other leaders are rounded up, taken to prisons in Berlin and Munich, and shot. Many die with "Heil Hitler!" on their lips. They never understood who had betrayed them. Unlike Stalin, Hitler did not indulge in show-trials.

164 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Hitler settles some old scores. Gen. Kurt von Schleicher and his wife were shot at his front door. Otto Strasser was arrested and executed. Gustav von Kahn was hacked to pieces.

165 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Also included were two conservative advisers to von Papen and the head of the Catholic Action in Berlin. (Hildebrandt 14, Bullock 168, Fest 465)

166 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 The story is spread that the SA had been about to stage a coup d'etat, and had been forestalled.

167 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 The commander of the Breslau district, Major-General (later Field Marshall) Ewald von Kleist told the Nuremberg Tribunal that he

168 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 "received information that presented a 'picture of feverish preparations on the part of the SA.'" However, in discussing the matter with SA commander in Silesia Edmund Heines,

169 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 "they came to the joint suspicion 'that we... were being incited against one another by a third party--I thought of Himmler--and that many of the reports came from him." (Fest 461, 792 no. 43)

170 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 (For what it's worth, Heines is the only SA leader to be arrested who struggled, despite being arrested while in bed with another man)

171 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 The alleged plot is a complete fabrication, as the very unpreparedness of the SA and the fact that they obeyed and took the 30 days' leave makes clear. After the fact, he has the Cabinet and the Reichstag rubber- stamp his version.

172 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Hitler announces: "In the state, there is only one bearer of arms, and that is the Army; there is only one bearer of the political will, and that is the National Socialist Party. " (Bullock 168, Fest 469)

173 The Night of the Long Knives June 25, 1934 Himmler is rewarded with full autonomy for his SS. He will turn it into an evil empire.

174 Der Führer Hindenburg dies on August 2, Hitler merges the office of President with Chancellor, and also becomes Supreme Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.

175 Der Führer Army Minister Werner von Blomberg orders the Army to swear an oath of "unconditional obedience" (“unbedingte Gehorsamkeit”) to the person of Adolf Hitler.

176 Der Führer For the proud officer caste (it truly was a caste), bound as they were by traditions of rigid obedience and honor, this is a very significant act.

177 Der Führer I have seen films of the oath taking. The oath left absolutely no wiggle room whatsoever.

178 Der Führer On August 19, Hitler holds a plebiscite. 95.7% of the electorate goes to the polls % cast ballots approving Hitler's office as Führer.

179 Der Führer Hitler is now in a position domestically to turn his chief attention to the acquisition of Lebensraum.

180 Der Führer He has approached his agenda in rational stages. First he must seize and consolidate his power. Then and only then does he turn to the fulfillment of his foreign policy agenda.

181 Der Führer It is clear from Mein Kampf that he intended to create a Racial Utopia. His domestic and his foreign policy are simply two sides of the same coin.

182 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 German citizenship is defined in racial terms. Jews are, in effect, stripped of citizenship and placed under the “protection” of the Nazi Reich. The legal framework is laid to strip Jews of their property and freedom before taking their lives.

183 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 The Reich Citizenship Law of September 15, 1935

184 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 1. (1) A subject of the state is one who belongs to the protective union of the German Reich, and who, therefore, has specific obligations to the Reich.

185 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 1. (2) The status of subject is to be acquired in accordance with the provisions of the Reich and the state Citizenship Law.

186 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 2. (1) A citizen of the Reich may be only one who is of German or kindred blood, and who, through his behavior, shows that he is both desirous and personally fit to serve loyally the German people and the Reich.

187 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 2. (2) The right to citizenship is obtained by the grant of Reich citizenship papers.

188 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 2. (3) Only the citizen of the Reich may enjoy full political rights in consonance with the provisions of the laws.

189 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 1. (1) Until further provisions concerning citizenship papers, all subjects of German or kindred blood who possessed the right to vote in the Reichstag elections when the Citizenship Law came into effect,

190 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 1. shall, for the present, possess the rights of Reich citizens. The same shall be true of those upon whom the Reich Minister of the Interior, in conjunction with the Deputy to the Fuehrer shall confer citizenship.

191 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 1. (2) The Reich Minister of the Interior, in conjunction with the Deputy to the Fuehrer, may revoke citizenship.

192 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 2. (1) The provisions of Article I shall apply also to subjects who are of mixed Jewish blood.

193 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 2. (2) An individual of mixed Jewish blood is one who is descended from one or two grandparents who, racially, were full Jews, insofar that he is not a Jew according to Section 2 of Article 5.

194 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 2. (2) Full_blooded Jewish grandparents are those who belonged to the Jewish religious community.

195 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 3. Only citizens of the Reich, as bearers of full political rights, can exercise the right of voting in political matters, and have the right to hold public office.

196 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 3. The Reich Minister of the Interior, or any agency he empowers, can make exceptions during the transition period on the matter of holding public office. The measures do not apply to matters concerning religious organizations.

197 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 4. (1) A Jew cannot be a citizen of the Reich. He cannot exercise the right to vote; he cannot hold public office.

198 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 4. (2) Jewish officials will be retired as of December 31, In the event that such officials served at the front in the World War either for Germany or her allies, they shall receive as pension, until they reach the age limit, the full salary last received, on the basis of which their pension would have been computed.

199 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 4. They shall not, however, be promoted according to their seniority in rank. When they reach the age limit, their pension will be computed again, according to the salary last received on which their pension was to be calculated.

200 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 4. (3) These provisions do not concern the affairs of religious organizations.

201 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 4. (4) The conditions regarding service of teachers in public Jewish schools remains unchanged until the promulgation of new laws on the Jewish school system.

202 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 5 (1) A Jew is an individual who is descended from at least three grandparents who were, racially, full Jews...

203 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 5 (2) A Jew is also an individual who is descended from two full_Jewish grandparents if:

204 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 5 (2) (a) he was a member of the Jewish religious community when this law was issued, or joined the community later;

205 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 5 (2) (b) when the law was issued, he was married to a person who was a Jew, or was subsequently married to a Jew;

206 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 5 (2) (c) he is the issue from a marriage with a Jew, in the sense of Section I, which was contracted after the coming into effect of the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor of September 15, 1935;

207 The Nuremberg Laws 1935 ARTICLE 5 (2) (d) he is the issue of an extramarital relationship with a Jew, in the sense of Section I, and was born out of wedlock after July 31, 1936.

208 Kristallnacht “Night of Broken Glass”: 91 Jews were killed, 26,000 sent to concentration camps, and 7500 Jewish businesses destroyed.

209 Kristallnacht Hitler blamed the Jews for the pogrom, and assessed the Jewish community RM 1,000,000,000 in damages.

210 Kristallnacht “On November 12, 1938, a decree was passed which prohibited Jews from attending theaters, cinemas, concerts, and public exhibitions. Jewish children were forbidden to attend public schools.

211 Kristallnacht “Shortly thereafter, the Nazis ushered in Phase 2 in their attacks on the jews, opening a Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration under Heydrich’s overall command.” (Fischer 653)

212 The End Part I


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