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Constantine and Milan Battle at the Milvian Bridge Edict of Milan Chi-Rho –In hoc signo vinces (In this sign you will conquer)

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Presentation on theme: "Constantine and Milan Battle at the Milvian Bridge Edict of Milan Chi-Rho –In hoc signo vinces (In this sign you will conquer)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Constantine and Milan Battle at the Milvian Bridge Edict of Milan Chi-Rho –In hoc signo vinces (In this sign you will conquer)

2 2 Schools of Thought Alexandrian School-focuses on Humanity of Christ. Logos/anthropos Antiochene School-focuses more on divinity of Christ. Logos/sarx

3 Council of Nicaea 325 AD Called by Constantine to resolve the disruption in the empire over the Arian controversy The Nicene Creed

4 Council of Constantinople Called in 381 Still controversy over the Arian Heresy ~327 St. Athanasius (22 when he writes treatise on the Incarnation) –(often the young guide history!! Eg. The ages of the men who wrote the Declaration of Independence)

5 Constantinople Cont’d Main participants: –Cappadocian Fathers –Macedonius –Apollonarius

6 Teachings of Constantinople Reiterated Nicea with new provisions To refute Apollonarius: –Christ has human soul and mind Mainly to refute Macedonians: –Attribute to HS titles Lord Life-giver –Supreme worship given to HS as to F and S

7 Aftermath St. Ambrose of Milan: –“Where Peter is, there is the Church.” St. Jerome: –“I follow no one as leader except Christ alone, and therefore I want to remain in union in the Church with you, that is, with the chair (office) of Peter. I know that on this rock the Church is founded.” Also key to note, council is in Constantinople and it is coming to be more of a prominent diocese

8 Christological Debates Stem from Jesus’ question in the Gospel: Who do people say that I am?…Who do you say that I am? -this question is and always will be a cause for debate

9 Nestorianism Nestorius (d. 451) –Patriarch of Constantinople –Uncomforatble with ‘theotokos’ –Leads to…

10 Council of Epehesus 431: Proclaims the Theotokos –We must understand that any Church teaching about Mary always is Christocentric! We only learn about Mary to deepen our understanding of Christ!

11 More Councils Council of Chalcedon (451) –Dealt with the Natures of Christ –150 bishops under Pope Leo the Great – Teaching: Christ has 2 Natures, HUMAN and DIVINE Theological term: hypostatic union –“Peter has spoken through Leo”

12 Constantinople II (553) –Reaffirms first 4 Councils Constantinople III ( ) –Condemns Monothelitism and proclaims that in Christ’s Person there are 2 wills: HUMAN and DIVINE Nicea II (787) –Condemns Iconoclasm, which banned the construction of images Importance: misunderstanding of Scripture…we have an incarnational faith!

13 Summary 1st 7 Councils are recognized by both Catholics and Orthodox (and even some Protestant sects) We see how our understadning of revelation is a process that takes time and is very human (God deals with us in a human manner) Main theological clarifications are on the doctrines of the Trinity and Incarnation

14 Splitting from the Church Some Eastern Churches split over these theological controversies 431 over Council Ephesus 451 over “” Chalcedon 1054 we will discuss later

15 Fall of Rome Migration from East to West occurring for some time Barbarians a present threat to Europe Groups:

16 Asiatic Huns Germanic Tribes Ostrogoths and Lombards- Italy Visigoths- Gaul and Spain Vandals-North Africa

17 Fall Cont’d. Causes for the Fall: –The relocation of the Empire moves economy and military strength away from Rome –Declining military strength –Invasion from the Barbarian Tribes –And…

18 The Spread of Christianity! With the prominence of Christianity, a shift occurs in the internal structure of the Roman Empire

19 The city falls in 455 to the Visigoths The official fall of the Empire is dated 476 when Odoacer deposes last Roman Emperor

20 The Influence of the Papacy With no central governance, people look to the only stable authority, which is the Pope. –This is how the Pope comes to take on more of a political role in history, not due to an abuse of power but an authentic necessity

21 People Pope Leo the Great ( ) –Takes on title “Pontifex Maximus” –Great ability to explain theological truth –Courage: the confrontation with Attila the Hun (451) Pope Gregory the Great ( )

22 The Conversion of France Reported that Mary, Martha and Lazarus go to modern-day France France is considered the first daughter of the Church The Conversion of Clovis –Frankish King –Baptized in 496 on Christmas Because of this, Catholicism gains a foothold among the Barbarians

23 Missionary Work Remember the Great Commission?? –It is now being lived out!! The Gospel message is now being spread throughout the known world –(Europe…remember St. Paul going to Macedonia?!)

24 Missionary Work St. Patrick ( ) –The Apostle to Ireland –16 y.o. kidnapped by Irish pirates and enslaved in Ireland. –Released but returns to Ireland as a Bishop and converts the Country

25 Excerpt from the Prayer of Patrick Christ with me, Christ before me, Christ behind me, Christ in me, Christ beneath me, Christ above me, Christ on my right, Christ on my left, Christ when I lie down, Christ when I sit down, Christ when I arise, Christ in the heart of every man who thinks of me, Christ in the mouth of everyone who speaks of me, Christ in every eye that sees me, Christ in every ear that hears me.

26 Missionary Work St. Augustine of Canterbury –Responsible for evangelizing Anglo-Saxons in Britain –Pope Gregory to Augustine: “Destroy as few pagan temples as possible; only destroy their idols, sprinkle them with holy water, build altars and put relics in the building, so that, if the temples have been well built, you are simply changing their purpose.”

27 Missionary Work St. Boniface ( ) –British monk –Apostle to Germany –“The Oak of Thor” From this comes many pagan converts –Good relationship with Frankish kings Charles Martel, Pepin, Charlemagne

28 Monasticism With the end of the persecutions, people looking for new ways to give radical witness to the Gospel Emphasis on spiritual perfection, i.e. living the life of Christ –Communal sharing (poverty) –Celibacy (chastity) –Obedience

29 St. Anthony Father of Monasticism Motivated by Mt 19:21: If you would be perfect…

30 St. Athanasius Writes a book: The Life of Anthony –This influences monasticism in the West

31 Monasticism in Ireland Irish monks introduce the practice of frequent devotional confession –This practice catches on in the Church

32 Benedictines St. Benedict of Nursia ( ) –Patron saint of Europe Motto: Ora et Labora –Two sources of sanctity Rule of St. Benedict –Excerpts Evangelical Counsels –These two pillars of the Benedictines become the framework for Western Monasticism even for today

33 Church Fathers 4th and 5th Centuries called the “Age of the Fathers” Responsible for shaping much of Church teaching both through their intellect/wisdom as well as their holiness of life

34 St. John Chrysostom ( ) “Golden Mouth” for his eloquent preaching Patriarch of Constantinople Exiled for speaking out against the Empress’ lifestyle

35 St. Ambrose Acclaimed bishop by people after guarding the cathedral after death of Arian Bishop Receives all Sacraments in procession Advocate for wealthy to share resources Convinced Emperor Gratian to outlaw heresy from Western Empire

36 St. Jerome Translates the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures into Latin…known as the “Vulgate” working out of a cave in Jerusalem “Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ”

37 St. Augustine 354 Greatest Church Father Is still considered an authority Extremely gifted, worldly intelligence Has a powerful conversion (pg. 87)

38 Islam Mohammed –610, claims angel Gabriel appears to him –His story –622 flees from Mecca to Medina Called Hegira Islam: ‘submission’ Dies in 632

39 Islam Consequences: –Ancient sees fall Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria –Eastern Empire fending off Muslims constantly –Muslim control of Mediterranean basin makes Europe culturally, socially and economically isolated

40 Consequences Muslims controlled Mediterranean basin –In West, axis shifts from Rome in the South to the North with the Frankish kings (Carolingians) who are allies with papacy

41 The 5 Pillars Faith: There is but one God. Allah is his name, Mohammed is his prophet Prayer: 5 times a day, facing Mecca Fasting: fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan Almsgiving: charitable giving to the poor, travelers, those engaged in jihad Pilgrimage: once in a lifetime, make a pilgrimage to Mecca

42 The Holy Roman Empire Comes about because of presence of Islam Charles Martel sees no benefit allying with the papacy, but his son Pepin does –Can see himself as Christian ruler of the Franks

43 Charlemagne Rules from , after he defeats the Lombards, Pope gices him title “Defender of the Papacy” Crowned by Pope Leo III as HRE in 800 Creation of HRE isolates Byzantine Empire, shows a break from the East. –Eventually a contributing cause to the split in 1054 Genuine love of the Church –Est. monasteries, schools, places for cleric formation –Copying of manuscripts etc

44 HRE For the next 400 years, popes crowned emperors showing the Catholic Faith is the source of unity HRE models and resembles what we know today as Europe


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