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The Enlightenment. Liberty is the right to do what the law permits. Montequieu.

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment. Liberty is the right to do what the law permits. Montequieu."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightenment

2 Liberty is the right to do what the law permits. Montequieu

3 The condition of man... is a condition of war of everyone against everyone. Hobbes

4 If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him. Voltaire

5 The end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom. For in all the states of created beings capable of law, where there is no law, there is no freedom. John Locke

6 Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. One man thinks himself the master of others, but remains more of a slave than they are. Rousseau

7 "Beauty is no quality in things themselves. It exists merely in the mind which contemplates them.“ – David Hume

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 8 Producing the Encyclopedie Denis Diderot ( ) wanted to present all valid knowledge--that is, knowledge based on reason and the senses and not on tradition and authority. This plate, one of 3,000 detailed illustrations accompanying the 70,000 essays in Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Craft, shows (from left to right) compositors setting type, arranging lines, and blocking down completed forms. Printed sheets dry above. (Division of Rare & Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library) Producing the Encyclopedie

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 9 Growth of the book trade Book ownership dramatically increased in the eighteenth century, and a wide range of secular works--from racy novelettes to philosophical tracts--were available in print. This painting of a bookshop, A L'Egide de Minerve, shows shipments of books that have arrived from around Europe. Notice the artist's optimism in the great variety of persons, from the peasant with a scythe to a white-robed cleric, who are drawn to the shop by "Minerva" (the Roman goddess of wisdom). (Musee des Beaux-Arts, Dijon) Growth of the book trade

10 The Enlightenment Started as a response to lack of political mobility in society (monarchy). Emphasizes humanism and inalienable rights of people. Established the first credible challenge to monarchical principle (Locke) followed by economic challenge to the system (Smith)

11 Key Areas Of Interest Political Science Economic Theory Humanistic Thought

12 Key Political Players John Locke – L,L,P / Inalienable Rights / Tabula Rasa (Two Tretsies on Gov’t) Baron de Montesquieu – Separation of Powers (Spirit of the Laws) Hobbes – Social Contract (Leviathan) Voltaire – Civil Liberties / Religious Freedom (Candide) J.J. Rousseau – Social Contract / Civil Lib. (The Social Contract Cesare Beccaria – Treatment of Prisoners (Of Crime and Punishment)

13 Key Economic Players Adam Smith – Famous Quotes » Man, an animal that makes bargains. » Every man, as long as he does not violate the laws of justice, is left perfectly free to pursue his own interest his own way, and to bring both his industry and capital into competition with those of any other man or order of men."

14 Adam Smith – Key Ideas » An Inquiry Into The Nature And Causes of the Wealth of Nations » Laissez Faire Economics » People, by pursuing their own end will help to promote the society » Invisible Hand » People would invest in lowest risk, highest return » Basis of all classical thought on Economics.

15 Humanistic Thought David Hume – Empiricist – believes that what we experience is reality. Supports the concept of this Rene Descartes – Cogito Ergo Sum – Believed that all things needed to proven and believed that philosophy could be proven like a science. Adam Smith – focus on human events Voltaire – de-emphaisezed religion and challenged the church at many different points – WITHOUT RETRIBUTION John Locke – Natural rights focused on humans not on “nature”

16 How did it spread? Salons Scientific Academies Freemasonry Debating Clubs Expansion of Literacy / Book Ownership

17 Influence on America The development of the US is tied to these philosophers – the founding fathers were all enlightenment thinkers. Take a look at these quotes…

18 The man who trades freedom for security does not deserve nor will he ever receive either Benjamin Franklin

19 A democracy is nothing more than mob rule, where fifty-one percent of the people may take away the rights of the other forty-nine. Thomas Jefferson

20 All tyranny needs to gain a foothold is for people of good conscience to remain silent. Thomas Jefferson

21 The basis of our political system is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government. George Washington

22 Liberty cannot be preserved without general knowledge among the people. John Adams

23 Government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil; in its worst state, an intolerable one. Thomas Paine

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 24 Statue of Voltaire The greatest portrait sculptor of his day, Jean-Antoine Houdon ( ) completed a statue of Voltaire in 1781, a statue commissioned by Catherine II of Russia. Voltaire posed for the sculpture as a frail old man, which is evident in the deep wrinkles of his face and the dry, papery skin of both his face and hands. Nonetheless, Houdon captures Voltaire's intellect and wit in his incisive gaze. (Scala/Art Resource, NY) Statue of Voltaire

25 Enlightened Despots Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education. Maria Theresa, Emperor Joseph II, Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 26 Catherine the Great, portrait Catherine was a German princess who had been brought to Russia to marry another German, Peter of Holstein- Gottorp, who was being groomed as heir to the Russian throne. Russia had crowned several monarchs of mixed Russian and German parentage since the time of Peter the Great's deliberate interest in and ties with other European states. (The Luton Hoo Foundation) Catherine the Great, portrait

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 27 Molding Prussian spirit Discipline was strict and punishment brutal in the Prussian army. This scene, from an eighteenth-century book used to teach schoolchildren in Prussia, shows one soldier being flogged while another is being beaten with canes as he walks between rows of troops. The officer on horseback proudly commands. (University of Illinois Library, Champaign) Modern Military was brought up on Enlightened concepts. Molding Prussian spirit

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 28 "Taking of Quebec City" The French successfully defended their capital from British attack in 1690 and again in But, as this anonymous color line engraving A View of the Taking of Quebec, September 13, 1759 shows, British troops landed, scaled the cliffs in the dead of the night, and defeated the French on the Plains of Abraham above Quebec. The battle gave Britain a decisive victory in the long struggle for empire in North America. (Courtesy of the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto) "Taking of Quebec City"

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 29 Map: European Claims in North America Before and After the Seven Years' War European Claims in North America Before and After the Seven Years' War France lost its vast claims in North America, though the British government then prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains in The British had raised taxes on themselves and the colonists to pay for the war, and they wanted to avoid costly conflicts with native Americans living in the newly conquered territory. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.)

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 30 Boston Tea Party The Boston Tea Party was only one of many angry confrontations between British officials and Boston patriots. On January 27, 1774, an angry crowd seized a British customs collector and then tarred and feathered him. This French engraving commemorates the defiant and provocative action. (The Granger Collection, New York) Boston Tea Party

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 31 Signing of Declaration of Independence This famous painting, The Signing of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776, by John Trumbull (American, ) shows the dignity and determination of America's revolutionary leaders. An extraordinarily talented group, they succeeded in rallying popular support without losing power to more radical forces in the process. (The Granger Collection, New York) Signing of Declaration of Independence

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 32 Slave ship This drawing from a parliamentary report on slavery shows that the revolting conditions on slave ships sailing to Caribbean and North American ports pale in barbarity beside conditions on the southern route to Brazil, where slaves were literally packed like sardines in a can. Slave ship

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 33 Caribbean Sugar Mill This painting, from William Clark's Ten Views in the Island of Antigua, 1823, depicts a Caribbean windmill crushing sugar cane whose juice is boiled down in the smoking building next door. (British Library) Caribbean Sugar Mill

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 | Slide 34 Map: European Claims in North America Before and After the Seven Years' War European Claims in North America Before and After the Seven Years' War France lost its vast claims in North America, though the British government then prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains in The British had raised taxes on themselves and the colonists to pay for the war, and they wanted to avoid costly conflicts with native Americans living in the newly conquered territory. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.)


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