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King Arthur and The Dark Ages King Arthur and The Dark Ages.

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Presentation on theme: "King Arthur and The Dark Ages King Arthur and The Dark Ages."— Presentation transcript:

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2 King Arthur and The Dark Ages King Arthur and The Dark Ages

3 You will be taking notes today. Get out a piece of paper and a pencil. You have 1:00 minute.

4 King Arthur and The Dark Ages King Arthur and The Dark Ages

5 To better understand the story of “King Arthur,” and to better appreciate the literature that surrounds him in this mythology, you need to understand a basic timeline of world history and world events around the time that the legends of King Arthur took place.

6 What is a timeline?

7 A representation or exhibit of key events within a particular historical period, often consisting of illustrative visual material accompanied by written commentary, arranged chronologically. What is a timeline?

8 Here’s an example of a timeline for the iPhone:

9 Here’s an example of a timeline for LEGO:

10 Here’s an example of a timeline for Sony Trinitron:

11 Here’s an example of a vertical timeline for the University of Pennsylvania Law School:

12 You will be creating a timeline.

13 This timeline will not be due for several weeks. I will establish a due date shortly. You need to take notes in class to gather the information you will need to create your timeline. You will be creating a timeline.

14 On the following slides, you will read newspaper articles based on historic events in history. These events will contain the information you will need to create your timeline. Timeline

15 Each newspaper article will show the year of the event. Write down this date. Copy the newspaper article, word for word, as quickly as possible. Your time will be limited. Timeline

16 These articles will contain the information you will need to create your timeline. Specific words, phrases, and names are important and will give you clues for your timeline. Timeline

17 When you see the word “circa” next to a date in history, it means “approximately” or “around.” Remember: the following events are important in establishing the story of King Arthur. Timeline

18 The initials A.D. (used with or without periods) is an abbreviation for the Latin term "Anno Domini", which translates to "the Year of Our Lord," referring to years after the birth of Jesus Christ. This is the modern calendar that most of the west uses (in fact, most of the world). Because the term is specific to the Christian religion, however, some scholars prefer to use "C.E." instead, which means "the Common Era.” Since the legend of King Arthur is thick with the religion of Christianity, I will use the term AD. A.D. or C.E. ???

19 Newspaper Article #1

20 Jesus of Nazareth Crucified! Golgatha, Jerusalem Reporting: Matthew, Disciple Associated Press Roman government officials sentenced Jesus of Nazareth to die by crucifixion yesterday, claiming they “have no king but Caesar.” Hours after being severely beaten with whips, Jesus was seen dragging a heavy wooden cross up to Golgatha hill, known as the “Place of the Skull.” He was then nailed to his cross and raised up for all to see. On either side of him, were two robbers being crucified as well. Eyewitnesses claim soldiers fought over Jesus’ clothes as he died on the cross. Many were on hand to witness this week’s crucifixions. Jesus’ mother, Mary, was seen in the crowd along with a few of Jesus’ disciples, most notably the wealthy, Sanhedrin judge, Joseph of Arimathea. When Jesus died, a soldier punctured his side with a spear and it was rumored that Joseph of Arimathea was seen running forward to capture the dripping blood with a wooden cup. Hours later, following an earthquake, Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate if he could remove Jesus from the cross and take the body to bury him in a tomb that he had already prepared. Pilate consented and released Jesus’ dead body into Joseph’s care. Olden Times The World’s Oldest Newspaper Circa 32 AD

21 Golgatha “Place of the Skull”

22 Golgatha “Place of the Skull” Crucifixion Site

23 Golgatha “Place of the Skull” “Skull” Face

24 Golgatha “Place of the Skull” “Skull” Face

25 Golgatha “Place of the Skull” Jerusalem

26 Golgatha “Place of the Skull” The “Face” Eyes Nose Mouth

27 Golgatha “Place of the Skull”

28 Golgatha “Place of the Skull”

29 Golgatha “Place of the Skull”

30 Jesus of Nazareth Crucified! Golgatha, Jerusalem Reporting: Matthew, Disciple Associated Press Roman government officials sentenced Jesus of Nazareth to die by crucifixion yesterday, claiming they “have no king but Caesar.” Hours after being severely beaten with whips, Jesus was seen dragging a heavy wooden cross up to Golgatha hill, known as the “Place of the Skull.” He was then nailed to his cross and raised up for all to see. On either side of him, were two robbers being crucified as well. Eyewitnesses claim soldiers fought over Jesus’ clothes as he died on the cross. Many were on hand to witness this week’s crucifixions. Jesus’ mother, Mary, was seen in the crowd along with a few of Jesus’ disciples, most notably the wealthy, Sanhedrin judge, Joseph of Arimathea. When Jesus died, a soldier punctured his side with a spear and it was rumored that Joseph of Arimathea was seen running forward to capture the dripping blood with a wooden cup. Hours later, following an earthquake, Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate if he could remove Jesus from the cross and take the body to bury him in a tomb that he had already prepared. Pilate consented and released Jesus’ dead body into Joseph’s care. Olden Times The World’s Oldest Newspaper Circa 32 AD

31 Newspaper Article #2

32 Christianity comes to Britain!! Glastonbury, Great Britain Reporting: Saint Gildus, British Cleric Associated Press Joseph of Arimathea has arrived on the shores of Britain guarding a wooden cup. Rumors are circulating around the countryside with wild claims that the wooden cup, being called the “Holy Grail,” contains the blood and sweat of recently crucified Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Joseph has been traveling to the most far-flung corners of the Roman Empire, including Gaul (France) and the Island of Britain to preach Christianity. He is accompanied by thirteen travelers, eleven of them also disciples of Jesus. HOME OF GREAT BRITAIN’S NEWS AND GOSSIP FOR 2000 YEARS Circa 33 AD THE GUARDIAN Traveling with Joseph and the disciples are two friends of Jesus: Lazarus (he died and Jesus brought him back to life) and Mary Magdalene. It is reported that Mary stopped traveling with the troupe and is currently staying in Marseilles. Local legend has it that Joseph sailed around Land's End and ran his boat ashore in the Glastonbury Marshes and, together with his followers, he climbed a nearby hill to survey the surrounding land. Having brought with him a staff grown from Christ's Holy Crown of Thorns, he thrust it into the ground and announced that he and his twelve companions were "Weary All". The thorn staff immediately took miraculous root, and it can be seen growing there on that hill.

33 Joseph of Arimathea Stained-glass window In Glastonbury Abbey

34 Joseph of Arimathea

35 Pictured:

36 Joseph of Arimathea Pictured: 1.Joseph planting Christ’s Holy Crown of Thorns at Wearyall Hill

37 Joseph of Arimathea Pictured: 1.Joseph planting Christ’s Holy Crown of Thorns at Wearyall Hill 2.The Holy Grail

38 Joseph of Arimathea Pictured: 1.Joseph planting Christ’s Holy Crown of Thorns at Wearyall Hill 2.The Holy Grail 3.Glastonbury Tor (“tor” means rocky hill)

39 Joseph of Arimathea Pictured: 1.Joseph planting Christ’s Holy Crown of Thorns at Wearyall Hill 2.The Holy Grail 3.Glastonbury Tor (“tor” means rocky hill) 4.St. Michael’s Tower

40 Joseph of Arimathea Pictured: 1.Joseph planting Christ’s Holy Crown of Thorns at Wearyall Hill 2.The Holy Grail 3.Glastonbury Tor (“tor” means rocky hill) 4.St. Michael’s Tower 5.Glastonbury Abbey

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42 Thorn tree at Wearyall Hill. This thorn tree was planted by Joseph of Arimathea using Christ’s Holy Crown of Thorns. Glastonbury Tor can be seen in the distance.

43 Thorn tree at Wearyall Hill. Glastonbury Tor can be seen in the distance.

44 Thorn tree at Wearyall Hill.

45 Glastonbury Tor with St. Michael’s Tower at the top. Glastonbury is the site of the legendary “Avalon”.

46 Glastonbury Tor

47 Glastonbury Tor with St. Michael’s Tower at the top.

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49 View from the top of Glastonbury Tor.

50 Glastonbury Tor with St. Michael’s Tower at the top.

51 Glastonbury Tor seen through the mist….. (the mists of Avalon)

52 Glastonbury Tor with St. Michael’s Tower at the top.

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54 Glastonbury, England

55 Christianity comes to Britain!! Glastonbury, Great Britain Reporting: Saint Gildus, British Cleric Associated Press Joseph of Arimathea has arrived on the shores of Britain guarding a wooden cup. Rumors are circulating around the countryside with wild claims that the wooden cup, being called the “Holy Grail,” contains the blood and sweat of recently crucified Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Joseph has been traveling to the most far-flung corners of the Roman Empire, including Gaul (France) and the Island of Britain to preach Christianity. He is accompanied by thirteen travelers, eleven of them also disciples of Jesus. HOME OF GREAT BRITAIN’S NEWS AND GOSSIP FOR 2000 YEARS Circa 33 AD THE GUARDIAN Traveling with Joseph and the disciples are two friends of Jesus: Lazarus (he died and Jesus brought him back to life) and Mary Magdalene. It is reported that Mary stopped traveling with the troupe and is currently staying in Marseilles. Local legend has it that Joseph sailed around Land's End and ran his boat ashore in the Glastonbury Marshes and, together with his followers, he climbed a nearby hill to survey the surrounding land. Having brought with him a staff grown from Christ's Holy Crown of Thorns, he thrust it into the ground and announced that he and his twelve companions were "Weary All". The thorn staff immediately took miraculous root, and it can be seen growing there on that hill.

56 Newspaper Article #3

57 Arthur’s Mistaken Identity? Leicester, Great Britain Reporting: Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historian and Monk Associated Press Lucius Artorius Castus, commander of a detachment of Sarmatian conscripts stationed in Britain, led his troops to Gaul (France) to quell a rebellion. This is the first appearance of the name, Artorius, in history and some believe that this Roman military man is the original, or basis, for the Arthurian legend. The theory says that Castus' exploits in Gaul, at the head of a contingent of mounted troops, are the basis for later, similar traditions about "King Arthur," and, further, that the name "Artorius" became a title, or honorific, which was ascribed to a famous warrior in the fifth century. Olden Times The World’s Oldest Newspaper 184 AD

58 2004 Disney movie based on Lucious Artorius Castus and his military and political exploits in Britain and Gaul. Was a Roman soldier really the real King Arthur? Or, is it a case of mistaken identity?

59 2004 Disney movie based on Lucious Artorius Castus and his military and political exploits in Britain and Gaul. Was a Roman soldier really the real King Arthur? Or, is it a case of mistaken identity?

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61 Arthur’s Mistaken Identity? Leicester, Great Britain Reporting: Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historian and Monk Associated Press Lucius Artorius Castus, commander of a detachment of Sarmatian conscripts stationed in Britain, led his troops to Gaul (France) to quell a rebellion. This is the first appearance of the name, Artorius, in history and some believe that this Roman military man is the original, or basis, for the Arthurian legend. The theory says that Castus' exploits in Gaul, at the head of a contingent of mounted troops, are the basis for later, similar traditions about "King Arthur," and, further, that the name "Artorius" became a title, or honorific, which was ascribed to a famous warrior in the fifth century. Olden Times The World’s Oldest Newspaper 184 AD

62 Newspaper Article #4

63 MAXIMUS LOSES HIS HEAD!! ROME, ITALY Reporting: Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historian and Monk Associated Press Five years ago, upstart general Magnus Maximus (Macsen Wledig), a Spaniard, was proclaimed Emperor in Britain by the island's Roman garrison. With an army of British volunteers, he quickly conquered Gaul, Spain and Italy, sweeping across the land like a horde of locusts. So, what’s next for this young Emperor? Last week, Maximus briefly occupied Rome itself! THE CAESARIAN Spilling the guts of the news for over 200 years! 388 AD But, in a gruesome clash of mighty warriors, Theodosius, the eastern Emperor, defeated Maximus in battle and beheaded him. Many of the remnant of Maximus' troops are rumored to be settling in Armorica. Besides losing a great leader and warrior, Britain has weakened their country to attack by losing many valuable troops needed for the island's defense.

64 Newspaper Article #5

65 THEODOSIUS THE GREAT DIES! ROME, ITALY Reporting: Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historian and Monk Associated Press Emperor Theodosius The Great has died at the age of 48. He is survived by two sons. After some confusion concerning the heir to the throne, it is discovered that Theodosius has willed that he be the last Roman emperor to rule over an undivided Roman empire. This is a controversial decision that could weaken the strength of the Roman Empire. THE CAESARIAN Spilling the guts of the news for over 200 years! 395 AD The Roman Empire will now be ruled by both of Theodosius’ sons. Arcadius, the older of the two sons, will take control and rule as emperor in the East, and Theodosius’ other son, the young Honorius, will be emperor in the West. At this point, the office of Roman Emperor is changing from a position of absolute power to one of being merely a head of state. It is rumored that the Olympics are now in a state of suspension.

66 Newspaper Article #6

67 Stilicho’s Military Campaigns Great Britain & Italy Reporting: Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historian and Monk Associated Press The Roman general, Stilicho, acting as regent (governor) in the western empire during Honorius' reign, reorganized British defenses decimated by the Magnus Maximus debacle and began transfer of military authority from Roman commanders to local British chieftains. While still in Britain, Stilicho repels attacks by the Picts, Irish and Saxons. But, events in Italy force Stilicho to take one of the two British legions to assist with the defense of Italy against Alaric and the Visigoths. He was successful and the barbarian Visigoths and Alaric were defeated, this time, but Alaric escaped into the surrounding mountains, to fight another day. The British troops, which had been taken along to assist Stilicho, were never returned to Britain as they had to stay in Italy to fight off more barbarian uprisings. Olden Times The World’s Oldest Newspaper 396-406 AD

68 Newspaper Article #7

69 Britain gains Independence !! Glastonbury, Great Britain Reporting: Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historian and Monk Associated Press After many years being governed under Roman rule, Britain has gained its independence. The last two years has seen Roman legions and officials being recalled to Italy to defend Rome from the Visigoths. They’ve all left, but just a few Samatian conscripts that are staying behind to train our troops. Now all Britain needs is a loyal and level- headed leader that’s not going to run off to Gaul, Spain, or Italy with all of our troops. HOME OF GREAT BRITAIN’S NEWS AND GOSSIP FOR 2000 YEARS 410 AD THE GUARDIAN

70 Important Timeline Dates:

71 410 ADAfter many years being governed under Roman rule, Britain has gained its independence. The last two years have seen Roman soldiers and officials being recalled to Italy to defend Rome from the Visigoths.

72 410 AD Alaric & the Visigoths sack Rome.

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76 c. 440-450 ADPeriod of civil war and famine in Britain. c. 445 ADVortigern comes to power in Britain.

77 Vortigern.

78 446 ADBritons appeal to Aetius, Roman governor of Gaul, for military assistance in their struggle against the Picts and the Irish (Scots). No help could be sent, at this time, as Aetius had his hands full with Attila the Hun.

79 c. 446 AD Vortigern authorizes the use of Saxon mercenaries, known as “foederati,” for the defense of the northern parts of Britain against barbarian attack.

80 c. 450 ADSaxon general, Hengest arrives on shores of Britain with "3 keels" of warriors, and are welcomed by Vortigern. This event is known in Latin as the “adventus Saxonum,” the coming of the Saxons.

81 “Adventus Saxonum” The Coming of the Saxons

82 Vortigern greets Hengest. “Adventus Saxonum” The Coming of the Saxons

83 Keel

84 c. 452 AD Increasing Saxon settlement in Britain. Hengest invites his son, Octha, from Germany with "16 keels" of warriors, who occupy the northern lands, to defend against the Picts. The Picts are never heard from, again.

85 Hengest and his son, Octha.

86 Saxon warriors

87 c. 453 ADIncreasing Saxon unrest. Raids on British towns and cities becoming more frequent.

88 c. 456 ADGeoffrey of Monmouth tells us of a probably fictitious, but entirely believable event in which Saxons massacre 300 leading British noblemen at phony "peace" conference.

89 c. 456 ADGeoffrey of Monmouth tells us of a probably fictitious, but entirely believable event, in which Saxons massacre 300 leading British noblemen at a phony "peace" conference. c. 457 ADDeath of Vortigern

90 c. 458 ADSaxon uprising in full- swing. Hengest finally conquers Kent, in southeastern Britain.

91 c. 458-60 ADFull-scale migration of British aristocrats and city-dwellers across the English Channel to Brittany, in northwestern Gaul. British army is being led by Riothamus, thought by some to be the original figure behind the legends of Arthur.

92 c. 460-70 ADAmbrosius Aurelianus takes full control of pro- Roman faction and British resistance effort; leads Britons in years of back-and-forth fighting with Saxons. British strategy seems to have been to allow Saxon landings and to then contain them, there.

93 Ambrosius Aurelianus

94 Merlin From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Merlin is best known as the wizard featured in the Arthurian legend. The standard depiction of the character first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”) written c. 1136, and is based on an amalgamation (combination) of previous historical and legendary figures. Geoffrey combined existing stories of Myrddin Wyllt (Merlinus Caledonensis) a North British madman with no connection to King Arthur, with tales of the Romano-British war leader Ambrosius Aurelianus to form the composite figure he called Merlin Ambrosius.Historia Regum Britanniae Ambrosius Aurelianus

95 c. 465 AD Arthur probably born around this time.

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97 c.466 ADBattle of Wippedesfleot, in which Saxons defeat Britons, but with great slaughter on both sides. Mutual "disgust and sorrow" results in a respite from fighting "for a long time."

98 c. 466-73 AD Period of minimal Saxon activity. Refortification of ancient hillforts and construction of the Wansdyke possibly takes place during this time. (Arthur would have been a young boy during this less turbulent time.)

99 Wansdyke

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106 c. 469 AD Roman emperor, Anthemius, appeals to Britons for military help against the Visigoths. The British force is being led by Riothamus. The bulk of the British force was wiped out in battle against Euric, the Visigothic king, and the survivors, including Riothamus, vanished and were never heard from, again.

107 c.470 AD At the Battle of Wallop (in Hampshire), Ambrosius defeats Vitalinus, head of the opposing faction. Ambrosius assumes High-kingship of Britain. (Arthur would now be five years old.)

108 473 AD Men of Kent, under Hengest, move westward, driving the Britons back before them "as one flees fire.” (Arthur would now be eight years old.)

109 477 AD Saxon chieftain, Aelle, lands on Sussex coast with his sons. Britons engage him upon landing but his superior force drives them into the forest (Weald). Over next nine years, Saxon coastal holdings are gradually expanded in Sussex. (Arthur would now be 12 years old.)

110 c. 485-96 AD Period of Arthur's "twelve battles" during which he gains reputation for invincibility. (Arthur would now be between the ages of 20 and 31.)

111 486 AD Aelle and his sons overreach their normal territory and are engaged by Britons at battle of Mercredesburne. The battle is bloody, but indecisive, and ends with both sides pledging friendship. (Arthur would now be 21.)

112 c. 490 AD Hengest dies. His son, Aesc, takes over and rules for 34 years. (Arthur would now be 25 years old.) c. 495 AD Cerdic and Cynric, his son, land somewhere on the south coast, probably near the Hampshire-Dorset border.

113 c. 496 AD Britons, under overall command of Ambrosius and battlefield command of the "war leader" Arthur, defeat Saxons at the Siege of Mount Badon. (Arthur would now be 31 years old and stories of his invincibility would be legendary.)

114 c.496-550 AD Following the victory at Mt. Badon, the Saxon advance is halted with the invaders returning to their own enclaves. A generation of peace ensues. Corrupt leadership, more civil turmoil, public forgetfulness and individual apathy further erode Romano-British culture over next fifty years, making Britain ripe for final Saxon "picking."

115 c.496-550 AD Following the victory at Mt. Badon, a generation of peace ensues. Corrupt leadership, more civil turmoil, public forgetfulness and individual apathy further erode Romano-British culture over next fifty years, making Britain ripe for final Saxon "picking."

116 c. 501 AD At the Battle of Llongborth, great British chieftain, Geraint, King of Dumnonia, was killed. Arthur is mentioned in a Welsh poem commemorating the battle. (Arthur would now be 36 years old.)

117 508 AD Cerdic begins to move inland and defeats British king Natanleod near present-day Southampton. c. 515 AD Death of Aelle. Kingdom of Sussex passed to his son, Cissa and his descendents, but over time, diminished into insignificance.

118 519 AD Kingdom of the West Saxons (Wessex) founded with Cerdic its first ruler. (Arthur would now be 54 years old.) c. 530-40 AD Mass migration of Celtic monks to Brittany (in northern France).

119 534 ADDeath of Cerdic. Cynric takes kingship of Wessex. (Arthur would now be 69 years old.) c. 542 AD Battle of Camlann. This battle would mark the death (or unspecified other demise) of Arthur (according to Geoffrey of Monmouth). (Arthur would have been 77 years old.)

120 c. 547 AD "Yellow" Plague hits British territories, causing many deaths. Ireland is also affected. The Saxons, for whatever reason, are unaffected by it.

121 c. 600 AD Welsh bard, Aneirin, writes poem titled, Y Gododdin, alluding to Arthur's prowess as a warrior. c. 830 AD Nennius compiles Historia Brittonum. Arthur is mentioned. Historia Brittonum

122 c. 890 AD Compilation of Anglo Saxon Chronicle is begun. Arthur is mentioned. c. 970 AD Annales Cambriae compiled. Arthur is mentioned.Annales Cambriae

123 c. 1019 AD Earliest possible date of composition for the Legend of St. Goeznovius, a Briton legend, which, in its preface, mentions Arthur and calls him the King of the Britons. Date is disputed as some scholars think this legend should be dated later than Geoffrey of Monmouth.

124 c. 1090 AD Professional hagiographers, such as Caradoc of Llancarfan, Lifris and others, write various saints lives, some (St. Gildas, St. Padarn, St. Cadog, St. Iltud) include mentions of Arthur and his exploits.

125 1125 ADWilliam of Malmesbury completes Gesta Regum Anglorum (Deeds of the Kings of England. Arthur is mentioned. 1129 ADHenry of Huntingdon's Historia Anglorum is based on Bede, Nennius and the AngloSaxon Chronicle. Arthur is mentioned.

126 1136 AD Geoffrey of Monmouth publishes the famous Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain), in Latin. His work would be used as the standard text for British history for the next 600 years.

127 1136 AD Geoffrey of Monmouth History of the Kings of Britain

128 1139 AD In a letter to Warinus, Henry of Huntingdon describes Arthur's last battle and mentions that the Bretons say that he didn't die and are still waiting for his return.

129 1155 AD Master (Robert) Wace completes Roman de Brut a version of Geoffrey's "History" in French. He’s remembered as being the first writer to introduce the concept of the "Round Table" to the Arthurian cycle.

130 c. 1160-80 AD Marie de France writes "Lais" (Lays), a collection of short poems. Two of the poems, "Chevrefueil" and "Lanval," include Arthurian characters and themes.

131 c. 1160-90 AD Chretien de Troyes, the greatest of the medieval romance writers, makes his five contributions to the Arthurian cycle. These become known as the Arthurian Romances.

132 Chretien de Troyes’ work is noteworthy, not only for its quality, but for the introduction and further development of certain characters and themes into the Arthurian literature. He is, also, the first to apply the literary form of the romance, to the transmission of the stories of Arthur.

133 It is Chretien de Troyes who first tells us of the Grail (Graal), but he never equated it with the cup of the Last Supper or the cup used to catch the blood of Christ. The word, grail, a commonly used term in the middle ages, simply referred to a dish or plate of a particular kind.

134 It is Chretien de Troyes who first tells us of the Grail (Graal), but he never equated it with the cup of the Last Supper or the cup used to catch the blood of Christ. The word, grail, a commonly used term in the middle ages, simply referred to a dish or plate of a particular kind.

135 Chretien de Troyes used the grail as a symbol of beauty and mystery, but he never presented it as an object of religious devotion (the spiritual aspect was introduced by later writers). Chretien is remembered as the first writer to give the name of Camelot to Arthur's headquarters and capital city. He, also, is responsible for the introduction of the famous knights, Lancelot, Gawain and Perceval, into the literature of Arthurian legend.

136 1184 ADGreat fire ravages the Glastonbury Abbey destroying Old Church 1190 AD Discovery of Arthur's grave between two pyramids in a cemetary at Glastonbury Abbey.

137 c. 1190 AD Layamon (pronounced "lawmon"), a priest of Arley Regis, Worcestershire, publishes Brut. Although the dating of "Brut" is uncertain, his work marks the first appearance of the Arthurian story in English.

138 1192-3 AD Gerald of Wales visits Glastonbury, reports on exhumation of Arthur's grave in Liber de Principis Instructione.

139 c. 1195-1205 AD Hartmann von Aue, a German court poet, produces two Arthurian romances, "Erek" and "Iwein," inspired by Chretien's "Eric et Enide" and "Yvain." Hartmann is the first to introduce Arthurian literature to Germany.

140 c. 1198 AD William of Newburgh writes "Historia Rerum Anglicarum," a history of Britain beginning with the Conquest of 1066. The preface, however, tries to place Arthur in a historical context and uses the works of Gildas and Bede to harshly criticize

141 Geoffrey of Monmouth's claims for him, concluding that Arthur and Merlin are fictitious.

142 c. 1198 AD William of Newburgh writes "Historia Rerum Anglicarum," a history of Britain beginning with the Conquest of 1066. The preface, however, tries to place Arthur in a historical context and uses the works of Gildas and Bede to harshly criticize


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