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英汉语对应词的 语义差异. 2 1. Hyponymy 上下义 An X is a kind of Y. Superordinate/hypernym: a more general term (food) Hyponym: more specific terms (meat, fish, fowl,

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Presentation on theme: "英汉语对应词的 语义差异. 2 1. Hyponymy 上下义 An X is a kind of Y. Superordinate/hypernym: a more general term (food) Hyponym: more specific terms (meat, fish, fowl,"— Presentation transcript:

1 英汉语对应词的 语义差异

2 2 1. Hyponymy 上下义 An X is a kind of Y. Superordinate/hypernym: a more general term (food) Hyponym: more specific terms (meat, fish, fowl, fruit, vegetables)

3 3 Fruit: apple, banana, pear, orange, pineapple, kiwifruit, peach, persimmon, apricot, grape, grapefruit, watermelon, coconut, pitaya, durin, … Furniture: table, chair, couch, sofa, bed, wardrobe, armchair, desk, bookcase, cupboard, …

4 4 牛 bovine?? ox 公牛 黄牛 cow 母牛 奶牛 buffalo 水牛 yak 牦牛 bison 野牛

5 5 羊 ??? goat 山羊 sheep 绵羊 ram 公羊 ewe 母羊 lamb 小羊 羊羔

6 6 2. Polysemy 一词多义 have: be in possession of: have a car be in a relationship to: have a daughter experience: have a headache cause: have the television repaired hold: have a party give birth to: have a baby

7 7 life 1. Biology.  a. The property or quality that distinguishes living organisms from dead organisms and inanimate matter, manifested in functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli or adaptation to the environment originating from within the organism.  b. The characteristic state or condition of a living organism.

8 8 2. Living organisms considered as a group: plant life; marine life. 3. A living being, especially a person: an earthquake that claimed hundreds of lives. 4. The physical, mental, and spiritual experiences that constitute existence: the artistic life of a writer.

9 9 5.  a. The interval of time between birth and death: She led a good, long life.  b. The interval of time between one's birth and the present: has had hay fever all his life.  c. A particular segment of one's life: my adolescent life.  d. The period from an occurrence until death: elected for life; paralyzed for life.  e. Slang. A sentence of imprisonment lasting till death.

10 10 6. The time for which something exists or functions: the useful life of a car. 7. A spiritual state regarded as a transcending of corporeal death. 8. An account of a person's life; a biography. 9. Human existence, relationships, or activity in general: real life; everyday life.

11  a. A manner of living: led a hard life.  b. A specific, characteristic manner of existence. Used of inanimate objects: “Great institutions seem to have a life of their own, independent of those who run them”.  c. The activities and interests of a particular area or realm: musical life in New York.

12 12 11.a. A source of vitality; an animating force: She's the life of the show. b. Liveliness or vitality; animation: a face that is full of life. 12.a. Something that actually exists regarded as a subject for an artist: painted from life. b. Actual environment or reality; nature. 13. Christian Science. God.

13 13 rose vs. 玫瑰,月季,蔷薇 都属于蔷薇科蔷薇属。 玫瑰的俗名是 hedgerow rose ,学名是 Rosa rugosa 。月季的俗名是 Chinese Rose ,学名 是 Rosa chinensis 。 War of roses?

14 14 月季 玫瑰 茎皮绿色茎皮灰褐色 茎干常带钩刺 茎干带绒毛,并密生 刚毛和倒刺 复叶 3-5 小叶,叶 面光滑不起皱 复叶 7-9 小叶,叶片 多皱 温暖的地区四季 开花 一季( 5-6 月)或一 季半开花(春夏盛花, 秋季零星开花)

15 15 rice vs. 稻,谷,米,饭 trunk vs. 干线, 树干, 躯干, 箱子, 主干, 象鼻 head vs. 头, 头脑, 领袖, ( 队伍, 名单等 ) 最前 的部分, 人, 顶点, ( 语法 ) 中心成分 桌子 书桌 课桌 餐桌 饭桌 desk table writing desk dinner table

16 16 手: 他手里拿着一本书。 He had a book in his hand. 他手里抱着个孩子。 He had a baby in his arms. 她手上带着一枚钻戒。 She wore a diamond ring on her finger. 他手上带着一块欧米茄表。 He wore an Omega on his wrist.

17 17 君子动口不动手。 A gentleman uses his tongue, not his fists.

18 18 3. Figurative meanings 比喻义 The project needed more hands. 人手 The painting shows the hand of a master. ( 大师的 ) 手法 He writes a blind hand. 笔迹 ( 潦草 ) The fabric has a cashmere-like hand. 手感 ( 像羊绒 ) The hour hand of the clock pointed at seven. ( 钟表 ) 指针

19 19 have an open hand 大方 throw up one’s hand 认输 play a lone hand 单枪匹马地干 set one’s hand to 着手 lay hands on 找到;伤害 live from hand to mouth 勉强糊口

20 20 4. Synonymy 同义词 “sameness” of meaning pavement, sidewalk youth, youngster underground, tube, subway, metro lawyer, barrister, attorney, legal counsel/adviser, advocate, solicitor, practitioner priest, vicar, churchman, clergyman, chaplain, pastor, minister, rector, presbyter, celebrant, cleric, ecclesiastic, father

21 21 They bought/purchased an expensive house. She bought me a birthday present. What a nice range of furnishings! There’s the mountain range.

22 22 A lioness and her cubs could be seen under a tree. The cats seemed unaware of our presence. We watched for several minutes, thinking how beautiful the animals were.

23 23 5. Collocation 搭配 Merry Christmas / Happy Christmas Happy New Year / *Merry New Year Happy Birthday / *Merry Birthday white wine / *yellow wine black coffee / *brown coffee brown sugar / *red sugar / *black sugar

24 24 Mutual expectancy: rancid butter stale bread callow youth gammy leg addled brains pungent smell Binominals: black and white cup and saucer free and easy ladies and gentlemen law and order men and women odds and ends pots and pans

25 25 6. Transparency 词义的透明度 hot dog sea horse sea cucumber eggplant pineapple Guinea pig 豚鼠,荷兰猪 ring worm 癣

26 26 天牛 longicorn 蜗牛 snail 壁虎 gecko 海豹 seal 海象 walrus 龙眼 longan

27 27 7. False friends 假朋友 send vs. 送 Please send my breakfast to my room. 请把 早饭送到我的房间。 为了送他上大学,他父母省吃俭用。 In order to send him to college his parents saved every penny possible. His lessons sent the students to sleep. 他讲课 太没劲,学生都睡着了。

28 28 I’ll send you a book. The goods will be sent through the rail. Who sent you here? The company sent a car to the airport to pick me up. You’d better send him to bed and send for the doctor. Your sister sends you her love. You are welcome to send for our free catalogue.

29 29 他送了我一本新字典。 早上谁送弟弟上幼儿园? 邮递员今天送过信了吗? 请你送这位小姐回家。 “ 送客! ” 经理对我说。


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