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Chapter 18 Toward a New World-view Cover Slide. The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century was the major cause of the new view Scientific thought.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Toward a New World-view Cover Slide. The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century was the major cause of the new view Scientific thought."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Toward a New World-view Cover Slide

2 The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century was the major cause of the new view Scientific thought in the early 1500s was based on ancient and medieval ideas. –European notions about the universe were based on Aristotelian principles. (Aristotelian View) –A chief feature of this view was the belief in a motionless, static earth at the center of the universe. –The four elements / fit with Christianity / science was a branch of theology –Ten crystal spheres moved around the earth. The Scientific Revolution / a new world View

3 Copernicus overturned the medieval view of the universe. (Copernican Hypothesis) –He postulated that the earth revolved around the sun and that the sun was the center of the universe. –This heliocentric view was a departure from the medieval view and created serious misgivings about traditional Christianity. The Scientific Revolution / a new world View

4 Copernican System This illustration of the Copernican System from the published text of Copernicus's treatise On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) shows the earth and the planets revolving around the sun. Copernicus challenged traditional astronomy and its earth-centered universe. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY) Copernican System

5 Scholars from Brahe to Galileo contributed to the new world view. –Tycho Brahe built an observatory and collected data. –Johannes Kepler / the Three laws of planetary motion Elliptical planet orbit / non-uniform speed Orbit time related to distance from the sun –Galileo discovered the laws of motion using the experimental method. Law of inertia (at rest is not the natural state) Dialogue on two systems …. –Poked fun at Aristotle / church Bankrolled by the Medici The Scientific Revolution / a new world View

6 Galileo This 1624 engraved portrait by Ottavio Mario Leoni ( ) of Galileo Galilei ( ) shows the Italian scientist in full vigor at age 60, before he was hounded by the Roman Inquisition. Galileo

7 Galileo's moon paintings When Galileo Galilei ( ) published the results of his telescopic observations of the moon, he added these paintings to illustrate the marvels he'd seen. Galileo's moon paintings

8 With math Newton synthesized the integral parts into a whole. –Principia (Newtonian Physics) Newton integrated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo. He formulated a set of mathematical principles to explain motion. Law of universal Gravity The Scientific Revolution / a new world View

9 Madame du Chatelet Gabrielle-Emilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet ( ) was an intellectually gifted women from the high aristocracy with a passion for science. She was fascinated by the new world system of Isaac Newton. She helped to spread Newton's ideas in France by translating his Principia and by influencing Voltaire, her companion for fifteen years until her death. (Giraudon/Art Resource, NY) Madame du Chatelet

10 Causes of the scientific revolution. –Medieval universities had provided the framework for the new view. –The Renaissance stimulated science by rediscovering ancient mathematics. –Better ways of obtaining knowledge about the world improved the scientific method. –Bacon advocated empirical, experimental research. –Descartes emphasized deductive reasoning. The Scientific Revolution / a new world View

11 Descartes in Sweden Louis Michel Dumesnil ( ) painted Queen Christina of Sweden surrounded by her court, listening to Descartes give a lecture on geometry. She encouraged art and science, and she invited many foreign artists and scholars to visit her court. The daughter of Protestant hero Gustavus Adolphus, Christina rejected marriage, abdicated in 1654, and converted to Catholicism. (Photographie Bulloz) Descartes in Sweden

12 Enlightenment ideas expressed this new world-view The overriding idea was that natural science and reason could explain all aspects of life. –The scientific method can explain the laws of mankind. –Progress is possible if the laws are understood and followed. Gresham College –Put science on par with religion study –Forerunner of Royal Society of London

13 Many scholars made Enlightenment thought accessible to a wide range of people. –Fontenelle stressed the idea of progress. –Skeptics such as Bayle believed that nothing could be known beyond all doubt. –Locke stressed that all ideas are derived from experience. Enlightenment ideas expressed this new world-view

14 Science from Fontenelle's work The most famous and influential popularizer of science was a versatile French man of letters, Bernard de Fontenelle ( ). The frontispiece illustration of his Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds invites the reader to share the pleasures of astronomy with an elegant lady and an entertaining teacher. The drawing shows the planets revolving around the sun. Science from Fontenelle's work

15 The philosophies = Elites committed to the fundamental reform of society. –Montesquieu’s theory of the separation of powers was fundamental. –Voltaire challenged traditional Catholic theology. –The later Enlightenment writers created inflexible and dogmatic systems. Enlightenment ideas expressed this new world-view

16 Statue of Voltaire The greatest portrait sculptor of his day, Jean-Antoine Houdon ( ) completed a statue of Voltaire in 1781, a statue commissioned by Catherine II of Russia. Voltaire posed for the sculpture as a frail old man, which is evident in the deep wrinkles of his face and the dry, papery skin of both his face and hands. Nonetheless, Houdon captures Voltaire's intellect and wit in his incisive gaze. (Scala/Art Resource, NY) Statue of Voltaire

17 Producing the Encyclopedie Denis Diderot ( ) wanted to present all valid knowledge--that is, knowledge based on reason and the senses and not on tradition and authority. This plate, one of 3,000 detailed illustrations accompanying the 70,000 essays in Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Craft, shows (from left to right) compositors setting type, arranging lines, and blocking down completed forms. Printed sheets dry above. (Division of Rare & Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library) Producing the Encyclopedie

18 Urban Culture and Public Opinion Writing transformed urban culture The market for books grew –Selling books /promoting ideas (like the internet issues today) –Based on increased literacy rate –Non-religious books –Censorship became an issue –Immanuel Kant support Fredrick II because he did not censor books

19 Urban Culture and Public Opinion The Salons and their influence –Usually run by women –Salons circumvented censorship –Brought together the best and brightest –Discussed the enlightenment and philosophy –Functioned as informal schools for women In France Books became the issue –Books were banned / based on topic –Only Agriculture and industry were safe –The Govern / church maintained control over thought

20 Growth of the book trade Book ownership dramatically increased in the eighteenth century, and a wide range of secular works--from racy novelettes to philosophical tracts--were available in print. This painting of a bookshop, A L'Egide de Minerve, shows shipments of books that have arrived from around Europe. Notice the artist's optimism in the great variety of persons, from the peasant with a scythe to a white-robed cleric, who are drawn to the shop by "Minerva" (the Roman goddess of wisdom). (Musee des Beaux-Arts, Dijon) Growth of the book trade

21 The philosophes believed that enlightened monarchs would create the necessary reforms. –Not political at first / some believed that curbing the monarchy would increase liberty –The philosophes believed that enlightened monarchs would create the necessary reforms. –They believed that a benevolent absolutism offered the best chance for progress. The Enlightenment and Absolutism

22 Enlightened Absolutism allowed Kings to govern well. Monarchs were trained in this system –Frederick II (Great) of Prussia an enlightened monarch. –Started the war of Austrian Succession Invaded Silesia / Broke the Pramatic Sanction Maria Theresa lost –The Seven Years War – almost lost but won over all other powers GB/Rus/Fr became the Great German Power –Frederick allowed religious freedom and promoted education and legal reform / used the legal system and bureaucracy –Did not like Mendelssohn and did not believe that Jews should be given freedom and civil rights The Enlightenment and Absolutism

23 Moses Mendelssohn Embracing the Enlightenment and seeking a revitalization of Jewish religious thought, Moses Mendelssohn concluded that reason could complement and strengthen his religion. In his works he reflected the way the German Enlightenment differed from the French Enlightenment by generally supporting established religion. A Christian zealot named Lavater challenged Mendelssohn in a pamphlet to accept Christianity or to demonstrate how the Christian faith was not "reasonable." This painting by Moritz Oppenheim depicts an imaginary encounter between the two men. Moses Mendelssohn

24 Catherine imported western culture to Russia and supported the philosophes. –German by birth / deposed her husband and took over and empress / Catherine westernized the thinking of the Russian nobility –Domestic reform / good intentions but failed Reduced torture / religious toleration / tried to improve education and local government Pugachev’s serf rebellion stopped the reform Gave nobles complete control over serfs afterward –Territorial expansion –subjugated the Tartars /Mongols Along with Prussia and Austria Russia partitioned Poland The Enlightenment and Absolutism

25 Catherine the Great, portrait Catherine was a German princess who had been brought to Russia to marry another German, Peter of Holstein-Gottorp, who was being groomed as heir to the Russian throne. Russia had crowned several monarchs of mixed Russian and German parentage since the time of Peter the Great's deliberate interest in and ties with other European states. (The Luton Hoo Foundation) Catherine the Great, portrait

26 The Partition of Poland / Expansion of Russia Catherine the Great acquired present-day Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine, which had once constituted the duchy of Lithuania, part of the multi-ethnic Polish kingdom. Map: The Partition of Poland and the Expansion of Russia

27 The Austrian Hapsburgs and impact of the Enlightenment Maria Theresa Lost Silesia but started reforms to make the state stronger –Limited papal influence –Administrative reforms to strengthen the bureaucracy / reformed the tax system –Improved the agricultural people by reducing the power of the lords over the serfs and partial free peasants Joseph II –the (revolutionary emperor) and son of Maria Theresa introduced reforms Promoted religious toleration of Jews and protestants Abolished serfdom / required peasant payments in cash not work / nobles and peasants rebelled because of lack of money Leopold II (son) reinstated peasant forced labor and rolled back other reforms

28 Absolutism in France Monarchy kept absolutism –Philosophes were split over supporting the king –Nobles challenged the system after Louis XV –High courts system called parliaments were restored (ability to evaluate laws in writings prior to be put into place Allowed them to circumvent taxes (nobility and clergy) by not paying / nobility won and taxes withdrew / will cause the French revolution Beginning of common dislike of the king / propaganda / made king look human and lost the aura of leadership Louis XVI will pay for the loss

29 The impact of the Enlightenment By the mid eighteenth century, Enlightenment ideas foreshadowed momentous changes. –In France, the rise of aristocratic opposition and liberalism signaled the death knell of absolutism. Created bureaucratic machine survives to today –In Eastern Europe the results of the Enlightenment were modest. Reform to strengthen the state but not social reform for the people were paramount Successful in: religious toleration for minorities / simplifying legal codes / promoting practical education Expanded the role of the state in society / made the people more dependent

30 Vernet, Building Highway An expanding system of all-weather roads improved French communications, promoted trade, and facilitated relief in time of famine. This majestic painting by Claude-Joseph Vernet ( ) captures the spirit of the Enlightenment's cautious optimism and its faith in hard-won progress. (Giraudon/The Bridgeman Art Library International) Vernet, Building Highway

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