Presentation on theme: "Toward a New World-view"— Presentation transcript:
1Toward a New World-view Cover SlideChapter 18Toward a New World-view
2The Scientific Revolution / a new world View The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century was the major cause of the new viewScientific thought in the early 1500s was based on ancient and medieval ideas.European notions about the universe were based on Aristotelian principles. (Aristotelian View)A chief feature of this view was the belief in a motionless, static earth at the center of the universe.The four elements / fit with Christianity / science was a branch of theologyTen crystal spheres moved around the earth.
3The Scientific Revolution / a new world View Copernicus overturned the medieval view of the universe. (Copernican Hypothesis)He postulated that the earth revolved around the sun and that the sun was the center of the universe.This heliocentric view was a departure from the medieval view and created serious misgivings about traditional Christianity.
4Copernican SystemThis illustration of the Copernican System from the published text of Copernicus's treatise On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) shows the earth and the planets revolving around the sun. Copernicus challenged traditional astronomy and its earth-centered universe. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY)Copernican System
5The Scientific Revolution / a new world View Scholars from Brahe to Galileo contributed to the new world view.Tycho Brahe built an observatory and collected data.Johannes Kepler / the Three laws of planetary motionElliptical planet orbit / non-uniform speedOrbit time related to distance from the sunGalileo discovered the laws of motion usingthe experimental method.Law of inertia (at rest is not the natural state)Dialogue on two systems ….Poked fun at Aristotle / churchBankrolled by the Medici
6GalileoGalileoThis 1624 engraved portrait by Ottavio Mario Leoni ( ) of Galileo Galilei ( ) shows the Italian scientist in full vigor at age 60, before he was hounded by the Roman Inquisition.
7Galileo's moon paintings When Galileo Galilei ( ) published the results of his telescopic observations of the moon, he added these paintings to illustrate the marvels he'd seen.
8The Scientific Revolution / a new world View With math Newton synthesized the integral parts into a whole.Principia (Newtonian Physics)Newton integrated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo.He formulated a set of mathematical principles to explain motion.Law of universal Gravity
9Madame du ChateletGabrielle-Emilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet ( ) was an intellectually gifted women from the high aristocracy with a passion for science. She was fascinated by the new world system of Isaac Newton. She helped to spread Newton's ideas in France by translating his Principia and by influencing Voltaire, her companion for fifteen years until her death. (Giraudon/Art Resource, NY)Madame du Chatelet
10The Scientific Revolution / a new world View Causes of the scientific revolution.Medieval universities had provided the framework for the new view.The Renaissance stimulated science by rediscovering ancient mathematics.Better ways of obtaining knowledge about the world improved the scientific method.Bacon advocated empirical, experimental research.Descartes emphasized deductive reasoning.
11Descartes in SwedenLouis Michel Dumesnil ( ) painted Queen Christina of Sweden surrounded by her court, listening to Descartes give a lecture on geometry. She encouraged art and science, and she invited many foreign artists and scholars to visit her court. The daughter of Protestant hero Gustavus Adolphus, Christina rejected marriage, abdicated in 1654, and converted to Catholicism. (Photographie Bulloz)Descartes in Sweden
12Enlightenment ideas expressed this new world-view The overriding idea was that natural science and reason could explain all aspects of life.The scientific method can explain the laws of mankind.Progress is possible if the laws are understood and followed.Gresham CollegePut science on par with religion studyForerunner of Royal Society of London
13Enlightenment ideas expressed this new world-view Many scholars made Enlightenment thought accessible to a wide range of people.Fontenelle stressed the idea of progress.Skeptics such as Bayle believed that nothing could be known beyond all doubt.Locke stressed that all ideas are derived from experience.
14Science from Fontenelle's work The most famous and influential popularizer of science was a versatile French man of letters, Bernard de Fontenelle ( ). The frontispiece illustration of his Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds invites the reader to share the pleasures of astronomy with an elegant lady and an entertaining teacher. The drawing shows the planets revolving around the sun.Science from Fontenelle's work
15Enlightenment ideas expressed this new world-view The philosophies = Elites committed to the fundamental reform of society.Montesquieu’s theory of the separation of powers was fundamental.Voltaire challenged traditional Catholic theology.The later Enlightenment writers created inflexible and dogmatic systems.
16Statue of VoltaireThe greatest portrait sculptor of his day, Jean-Antoine Houdon ( ) completed a statue of Voltaire in 1781, a statue commissioned by Catherine II of Russia. Voltaire posed for the sculpture as a frail old man, which is evident in the deep wrinkles of his face and the dry, papery skin of both his face and hands. Nonetheless, Houdon captures Voltaire's intellect and wit in his incisive gaze. (Scala/Art Resource, NY)Statue of Voltaire
17Producing the Encyclopedie Denis Diderot ( ) wanted to present all valid knowledge--that is, knowledge based on reason and the senses and not on tradition and authority. This plate, one of 3,000 detailed illustrations accompanying the 70,000 essays in Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Craft, shows (from left to right) compositors setting type, arranging lines, and blocking down completed forms. Printed sheets dry above. (Division of Rare & Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library)
18Urban Culture and Public Opinion Writing transformed urban cultureThe market for books grewSelling books /promoting ideas(like the internet issues today)Based on increased literacy rateNon-religious booksCensorship became an issueImmanuel Kant support Fredrick II because he did not censor books
19Urban Culture and Public Opinion The Salons and their influenceUsually run by womenSalons circumvented censorshipBrought together the best and brightestDiscussed the enlightenment and philosophyFunctioned as informal schools for womenIn France Books became the issueBooks were banned / based on topicOnly Agriculture and industry were safeThe Govern / church maintained control over thought
20Growth of the book trade Book ownership dramatically increased in the eighteenth century, and a wide range of secular works--from racy novelettes to philosophical tracts--were available in print. This painting of a bookshop, A L'Egide de Minerve, shows shipments of books that have arrived from around Europe. Notice the artist's optimism in the great variety of persons, from the peasant with a scythe to a white-robed cleric, who are drawn to the shop by "Minerva" (the Roman goddess of wisdom). (Musee des Beaux-Arts, Dijon)
21The Enlightenment and Absolutism The philosophes believed that enlightened monarchs would create the necessary reforms.Not political at first / some believed that curbing the monarchy would increase libertyThey believed that a benevolent absolutism offered the best chance for progress.
22The Enlightenment and Absolutism Enlightened Absolutism allowed Kings to govern well. Monarchs were trained in this systemFrederick II (Great) of Prussia an enlightened monarch.Started the war of Austrian SuccessionInvaded Silesia / Broke the Pramatic SanctionMaria Theresa lostThe Seven Years War – almost lost but won over all other powers GB/Rus/Fr became the Great German PowerFrederick allowed religious freedom and promoted education and legal reform / used the legal system and bureaucracyDid not like Mendelssohn and did not believe that Jews should be given freedom and civil rights
23Moses MendelssohnEmbracing the Enlightenment and seeking a revitalization of Jewish religious thought, Moses Mendelssohn concluded that reason could complement and strengthen his religion. In his works he reflected the way the German Enlightenment differed from the French Enlightenment by generally supporting established religion. A Christian zealot named Lavater challenged Mendelssohn in a pamphlet to accept Christianity or to demonstrate how the Christian faith was not "reasonable." This painting by Moritz Oppenheim depicts an imaginary encounter between the two men.Moses Mendelssohn
24The Enlightenment and Absolutism Catherine imported western culture to Russia and supported the philosophes.German by birth / deposed her husband and took over and empress / Catherine westernized the thinking of the Russian nobilityDomestic reform / good intentions but failedReduced torture / religious toleration / tried to improve education and local governmentPugachev’s serf rebellion stopped the reformGave nobles complete control over serfs afterwardTerritorial expansion –subjugated the Tartars /Mongols Along with Prussia and Austria Russia partitioned Poland
25Catherine the Great, portrait Catherine was a German princess who had been brought to Russia to marry another German, Peter of Holstein-Gottorp, who was being groomed as heir to the Russian throne. Russia had crowned several monarchs of mixed Russian and German parentage since the time of Peter the Great's deliberate interest in and ties with other European states. (The Luton Hoo Foundation)Catherine the Great, portrait
26Map: The Partition of Poland and the Expansion of Russia The Partition of Poland / Expansion of RussiaCatherine the Great acquired present-day Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine, which had once constituted the duchy of Lithuania, part of the multi-ethnic Polish kingdom.Map: The Partition of Poland and the Expansion of Russia
27The Austrian Hapsburgs and impact of the Enlightenment Maria TheresaLost Silesia but started reforms to make the state strongerLimited papal influenceAdministrative reforms to strengthen the bureaucracy / reformed the tax systemImproved the agricultural people by reducing the power of the lords over the serfs and partial free peasantsJoseph II –the (revolutionary emperor) and son of Maria Theresa introduced reforms Promoted religious toleration of Jews and protestantsAbolished serfdom /required peasant payments in cash not work / nobles and peasants rebelled because of lack of moneyLeopold II (son) reinstated peasant forced labor and rolled back other reforms
28Absolutism in France Monarchy kept absolutism Philosophes were split over supporting the kingNobles challenged the system after Louis XVHigh courts system called parliaments were restored (ability to evaluate laws in writings prior to be put into placeAllowed them to circumvent taxes (nobility and clergy) by not paying / nobility won and taxes withdrew / will cause the French revolutionBeginning of common dislike of the king / propaganda / made king look human and lost the aura of leadershipLouis XVI will pay for the loss
29The impact of the Enlightenment By the mid eighteenth century, Enlightenment ideas foreshadowed momentous changes.In France, the rise of aristocratic opposition and liberalism signaled the death knell of absolutism.Created bureaucratic machine survives to todayIn Eastern Europe the results of the Enlightenment were modest.Reform to strengthen the state but not social reform for the people were paramountSuccessful in: religious toleration for minorities / simplifying legal codes / promoting practical educationExpanded the role of the state in society / made the people more dependent
30Vernet, Building Highway An expanding system of all-weather roads improved French communications, promoted trade, and facilitated relief in time of famine. This majestic painting by Claude-Joseph Vernet ( ) captures the spirit of the Enlightenment's cautious optimism and its faith in hard-won progress. (Giraudon/The Bridgeman Art Library International)