Presentation on theme: "Religion -Hindu Nationalism and Social Actors- Goto Takeshi -Department of Multi Cultural Society- Presentation for Mediated Society Feb. 3 rd 2006."— Presentation transcript:
Religion -Hindu Nationalism and Social Actors- Goto Takeshi -Department of Multi Cultural Society- Presentation for Mediated Society Feb. 3 rd 2006
Contents 1. Introduction 2. Hindu Nationalism 3. Democracy and Hindu Nationalism 4. The Activities and Social Mobilizations 5. Counteraction of Social Actors
1. Introduction India is the biggest democratic state in the world. In the past decade, Hindu nationalist movement in India has grown into the most powerful political organizations within the framework of parliamentary democracy. The rise of Hindu nationalism was regarded hitherto as “antidemocratic” political movement. However, its another understanding have been offered by recent scholars. Those state that the rise of Hindu nationalism is rather the consequence of Indian democracy. The aim of this presentation is to show how the religion-based political movement mobilizes the emerging middle classes and the lowers into the “nation”.
Communal conflicts Common recognition about Hindu nationalism is like pictures below. These are the scenes of communal conflict. Left : Destruction of Babri Mosque in Ayodhya Right: Attack to Muslim pilgrim’s train
2. Hindu Nationalism Organizations and upholders Rashtriya Swayamseak Sangh (RSS) Hindu supremacist organization which bases itself on the principles of Hindutva (Hinduness). The aims is build up the solidarity of Hindu society Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Indian People’s Party. One of the biggest political party in India supported by RSS. Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP) World Hindu Council. Hindu cleric body created by RSS.
3. Democracy and Hindu Nationalism Prehistory Since the independence National Congress had been the dominant party in Indian politics. The feature was elitist, secularist, socialistic in economics, and nonalignened in diplomacy. The rise of Hindu nationalism Since 70s India moved into the populist politics with the emergence of middle class. Hindu nationalist parties gradually gained its support among middle class. Since late 80s BJP grew into the biggest opposition and finally in 1996 BJP government was formed. The policy of BJP government is populism, religion-based nationalism, liberalist economy and coercive diplomacy.
The tactics of Hindu nationalistThe tactics of Hindu nationalist The extension of democracy in postcolonial India enable for the lower classes to approach to the political power, which previously monopolized by privileged class. Early period of Indian democracy was still controlled by high class, but gradually with the growth of middle class, the power balance shifted from elite to plebs. The shift was significant to the transformation of political ideology. Through the nationalist and xenophobic (or anti Islamic) discourse was exploited for the integration and mobilization of the mass. Consequently, India was “reform” as the Hindu Nation.
4.The Activities and Social Mobilization RSS organizes multiple activities for the mass Establishment of private schools Social welfare for rural and urban poor(Sewa bharati) Medical service and volunteer Women empowerment activities Organizing economic body and labor union Shakha, etc. These network of activities are called “Sangh Pariwar (family group)”, and BJP and VHP is one of these.
The Shakha training Shakha is everyday military-like training for boys, which is organized by RSS. It trains healthy body and spirit through self-control and stoicism. This is typical kind of modern apparatus to create homogenous, disciplined and mobilizable Hindu nation.
5. Counteraction of Social Actors The ideological activities of RSS target to mobilize the lower classed in rural and urban area into the Hindu nationalist movement. Though ideology of RSS of Hindu nationalism is spread through Sangh Pariwar, not every individual follows the ideology itself. People are using the opportunities to profit themselves. If the Cultural Studies theory of social actor as agency would be suited to the phenomena, it shows that these nationalist movements cannot be perceived as top-down exercise of power.