Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Review Terms and Applications. Terminology of Literary Criticism Realism—a literary movement in which writers represented ordinary people in extraordinary,"— Presentation transcript:
Terminology of Literary Criticism Realism—a literary movement in which writers represented ordinary people in extraordinary, but real situations, rejecting the fantastic, heroic, mythic, etc. Began in the 19 th century Free Will—the ability to choose the course of your actions and your life Determinism—denies free will and sees humans as animalistic, controlled more by our environment, genes, and biologic drives than logic and thought—if we can’t see the soul, then it must not exist.
Terminology of Literary Criticism Levels of Interpretation Action—what happens in the story Characters’ Motivation—why the characters do what the do Author’s Motivation—why the author does what he/she does Evaluation—is the literature successful at what it attempts to do Narrative (Literary) Frame—that stands for something else, as a flag symbolizing a country
Terminology of Moral Systems Utilitarianism—the greatest good for the greatest number (quality of “good” considered) Absolute Ethics—ethical precepts that you believe apply to everyone in every situation Relative Ethics—ethical precepts that may change depending on the person or situation involved
Terminology of Moral Systems Shermer’s Secular Morality The Ask First Principle—ask the affected person(s) if behavior is moral; the Golden Rule with more emphasis on avoiding harm The Happiness Principle—always seek happiness with someone else’s happiness in mind; never seek happiness when it leads to someone else’s unhappiness
Terminology of Moral Systems Shermer’s Secular Morality The Liberty Principle—it is a higher moral principle to always seek liberty with someone else’s liberty in mind, and never seek liberty when it leads to someone else’s loss of liberty The Moderation Principle—when innocent people die, extremism in the defense of anything is no virtue, and moderation in the protection of everything is no vice
Terminology of Moral Systems Four Standards of “Right Action” Obedience to Authority—”do it because I say so” Effect on Others—consider how an action helps or harms other people Model of an Ideal Figure—”WWJD,” “WWMCD,” basing ethical choices on someone you admire Intention—considering what the motive was rather than merely the result of an action
Practice Try to figure out which of the terms above best represent the following: Take no actions that hurt others Ethan Frome My Antonia reflects the lack of economic choice immigrants face in American society You can do whatever you choose It is wrong to murder—always! To know right, emulate Buddha
Practice Refraining from fighting a religious war If Daisy had confessed to the accident The first and last sections of Ethan Frome Finish your ABP because Mr. Cook said so Choosing to raise taxes only on the rich Choosing to forego the last cookie because you know your little sister wants it Forgiving your brother for hitting you because he was only trying to knock a bee off
Practice This could be seen as an introduction and conclusion to a novel, in a way Ethan Frome is about a farmer, not a king Our “decisions” are only biological imperatives Democracy, in theory, anyway Mattie shouldn’t have used the pickle dish without Zeena’s approval Capitalism, in theory, anyway The death penalty in relation to the 10 Commandments
Practice Ray chooses to go against society and build a ball field in his corn You follow the law because you fear jail Purposely hurting an infant always results in jail time My Antonia is about farmers and immigrants You’re not charged with arson although you mistakenly threw gas on the fire to put it out You do your school work because you know it will make your parents happy
“The Mill” —Edwin Arlington Robinson The miller’s wife had waited long, The tea was cold, the fire was dead; And there might yet be nothing wrong In how he went and what he said: “There are no millers any more,” Was all that she had heard him say; And he had lingered at the door So long that it seemed yesterday. Sick with a fear that had no form She knew that she was there at last; And in the mill there was a warm And mealy fragrance of the past. What else there was would only seem To say again what he had meant; And what was hanging from a beam Would not have heeded where she went. And if she thought it followed her, She may have reasoned in the dark That one way of the few there were Would hide her and would leave no mark: Black water, smooth above the weir Like starry velvet in the night, Though ruffled once, would soon appear The same as ever to the sight.
My Antonia At the beginning of the novel, what do Jim and Antonia have in common? What is the geography where Jim and Antonia live? What is the Shimerda’s first winter like? What adventures do Jim and Antonia share? Who are Otto and Jake? What causes the “feud”? How does the feud end?
My Antonia What religious conflicts are developed in the novel? Why do the Burdens move to the town? How does the town treat the immigrant girls? Why are the dances a problem? Why does Antonia go to work for Wick Cutter? Why does Wick Cutter pummel Jim? Describe Jim’s sojourn in Lincoln. Who is Gaston Cleric?
My Antonia Why does Jim decide to go to Harvard? Why do some people think Antonia should be ashamed? What is she instead? Why doesn’t Jim go back to see Antonia for 20 years? What makes him go back? What does he find when he goes back? What are Jim’s future plans? What do he and Antonia share?
Ethan Frome What is Starkfield like, according to the narrator? How does Ethan Frome act in the opening frame section? What is the state of Ethan and Zeena’s marriage as the “past” section begins? What is Zeena’s illness? What attracts Ethan to Mattie? What are Ethan’s plans for his night alone with Mattie?
Ethan Frome What happens during their night alone? What news does Zeena bring back from Bettsbridge? Why can’t Ethan run away with Mattie? Where will Mattie most likely go? What is the first and only time Ethan stands up to Zeena? What do Ethan and Mattie talk about on their ride to the train station?
Ethan Frome Why do they decide to take the final sled ride? What does the narrator find at Ethan’s house? What is Ruth Hale’s judgment of life at the Frome’s? Explain the symbolism of the pickle dish. Explain the simile of the butterfly in winter. In what ways could Ethan be considered a tragic hero?