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From Caedmon to Caxton Thomas Honegger

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1 From Caedmon to Caxton Thomas Honegger

2 db-thueringen.de/ content/top/ index.xml History of English www. db-thueringen.de/www. db-thueringen.de/

3 The Celtic Non-influence 1 Celtic settlement of Britain during the 5th-3rd centuries BC. Celtic settlement of Britain during the 5th-3rd centuries BC. Romanised Celtic Britain A.D. Romanised Celtic Britain A.D. Christian Britain since the 4th cent. A.D. Christian Britain since the 4th cent. A.D. Anglo-Saxon settlement and occupation since beginning of 5th century A.D. Anglo-Saxon settlement and occupation since beginning of 5th century A.D.

4 The Celtic Non-influence 2 Close contact between the two peoples, but: hardly any linguistic impact of the Celtic language on the English language Close contact between the two peoples, but: hardly any linguistic impact of the Celtic language on the English language Place-names & landscape features: Thames, Avon, Exe, Esk, Usk Place-names & landscape features: Thames, Avon, Exe, Esk, Usk What do Whisky and the river Usk have in common? What do Whisky and the river Usk have in common? answer: water (usq-) answer: water (usq-) whisky < usquebaugh = water of life whisky < usquebaugh = water of life

5 The Celtic Non-influence 3 Landscape features: Landscape features: bar (= hill), bre (= hill) => cf. Barr, Brendon bar (= hill), bre (= hill) => cf. Barr, Brendon cumb (= deep valley), torr (= peak) => cf. Duncombe, Holcombe, Torr, Torcross cumb (= deep valley), torr (= peak) => cf. Duncombe, Holcombe, Torr, Torcross

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8 The Celtic Non-influence 4 Words from daily contact: Words from daily contact: binn = basket, crib; brocc = badger; luh = lake; ?dun? = dark; bratt = cloak binn = basket, crib; brocc = badger; luh = lake; ?dun? = dark; bratt = cloak

9 The Celtic Non-influence 5 Celtic mission (St. Columba & 12 fellow-monks came over from Ireland to Iona in 563 A.D.) => ‘Christian’ words Celtic mission (St. Columba & 12 fellow-monks came over from Ireland to Iona in 563 A.D.) => ‘Christian’ words ancor = hermit; dry\ = magician; clugge = bell; cursian = to curse ancor = hermit; dry\ = magician; clugge = bell; cursian = to curse

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11 The Danelaw

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13 Sundial Inscription ORM GAMALSUNA BOHTE SCS GREGORIVS MINSTER ÎONNE HIT WES AEL TOBROCAN 7 TO FALAN 7 HE HIT LET MACAN NEWAN FROM GRUNDE XPE 7 SCS GREGORIVS IN EDWARD DAGUM CNG 7 IN TOSTI DAGUM EORL 7 HAWARÎ ME WROHTE 7 BRAND PRS ORM GAMALSUNA BOHTE SCS GREGORIVS MINSTER ÎONNE HIT WES AEL TOBROCAN 7 TO FALAN 7 HE HIT LET MACAN NEWAN FROM GRUNDE XPE 7 SCS GREGORIVS IN EDWARD DAGUM CNG 7 IN TOSTI DAGUM EORL 7 HAWARÎ ME WROHTE 7 BRAND PRS

14 Some Characteristics of ON Loss of initial w- Loss of initial w- wulf => ulf wulf => ulf -son as patronymic element vs. AS -ing -son as patronymic element vs. AS -ing Brownson vs. Browning Brownson vs. Browning metathesis: -z to -r metathesis: -z to -r wulfaz => ulfr wulfaz => ulfr

15 Alfred the Great (reigned )

16 Aelfred mec heht gewyrcan

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18 Alfred’s ‘New Deal’ for Education Translation (into Old English) of works central for the education of an Anglo- Saxon elite Translation (into Old English) of works central for the education of an Anglo- Saxon elite Trigger: Destruction of former centres of learning and scholarship (monastery schools, monastery libraries) => hardly any competent Latin scholars survived the troublesome decades of the Viking invasions (cf. Alfred’s Preface to PC) Trigger: Destruction of former centres of learning and scholarship (monastery schools, monastery libraries) => hardly any competent Latin scholars survived the troublesome decades of the Viking invasions (cf. Alfred’s Preface to PC)

19 Alfredian Translations & Writings 1 Gregory the Great ( ): Cura Pastoralis & Dialogues Gregory the Great ( ): Cura Pastoralis & Dialogues Boethius ( ): De consolatio Philosophiae (later also translated by Chaucer and Elizabeth I) Boethius ( ): De consolatio Philosophiae (later also translated by Chaucer and Elizabeth I) St. Augustine ( ): Soliloquies St. Augustine ( ): Soliloquies Orosius (5th cent.): Historia adversus paganos Orosius (5th cent.): Historia adversus paganos

20 Alfredian Translations & Writings 2 Beda Venerabilis (Bede, ): Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum Beda Venerabilis (Bede, ): Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum Law Code Law Code Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Sample entries from the ASC: Year 1. Octavian ruled 56 years, and in the 42 year of his rule Christ was born. 2. The astrologers from eastern parts came in order to worship Christ. Sample entries from the ASC: Year 1. Octavian ruled 56 years, and in the 42 year of his rule Christ was born. 2. The astrologers from eastern parts came in order to worship Christ.

21 Sample Entries from the ASC 3. Here Herod passed away, and the Christ child was carried back from Egypt. 11. From the beginning of the world to this year, 5 thousand and 200 years had gone. 33. Here Christ was hanged, 5 thousand and 200 and 26 years from the beginning of the world. 47 [43]. Here Claudius, king of the Romans, went with a raiding army to Britain. 3. Here Herod passed away, and the Christ child was carried back from Egypt. 11. From the beginning of the world to this year, 5 thousand and 200 years had gone. 33. Here Christ was hanged, 5 thousand and 200 and 26 years from the beginning of the world. 47 [43]. Here Claudius, king of the Romans, went with a raiding army to Britain.

22 Sample Entries from the ASC 410 [409]. Here the stronghold of Rome was destroyed by the Goths, 11 hundred and 10 years after it was built. Afterwards, beyond that, the kings of the Romans no longer ruled in Britain [...] Hengest and Horsa, invited by Vortigern, king of the Britons, sought out Britain [...] at first helped the Britons, but later they fought against them. 410 [409]. Here the stronghold of Rome was destroyed by the Goths, 11 hundred and 10 years after it was built. Afterwards, beyond that, the kings of the Romans no longer ruled in Britain [...] Hengest and Horsa, invited by Vortigern, king of the Britons, sought out Britain [...] at first helped the Britons, but later they fought against them.

23 The Latin Influence Zero Period (up to 450 A.D.) Zero Period (up to 450 A.D.) First Period (c A.D) First Period (c A.D) Second Period (c A.D.) Second Period (c A.D.)

24 The Latin Influence 2 Zero Period (up to 450 A.D.) Zero Period (up to 450 A.D.) goes back to the time when the Angles, Saxons and Jutes still lived on the Continent goes back to the time when the Angles, Saxons and Jutes still lived on the Continent

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26 The Latin Influence 3 Zero Influence Zero Influence contact with Roman civilisation (merchants, military) contact with Roman civilisation (merchants, military) How can we determine the date of the loan? How can we determine the date of the loan? Phonetic form: i-mutation affected words in English during the 7th century. Phonetic form: i-mutation affected words in English during the 7th century.

27 The Latin Influence 3 i-mutation (7th century) i-mutation (7th century) Back vowels æ, a, o, and u are raised and/or fronted by a pre-Old English i/j in the following syllable. This i/j was later weakened to e or disappeared altogether. Back vowels æ, a, o, and u are raised and/or fronted by a pre-Old English i/j in the following syllable. This i/j was later weakened to e or disappeared altogether. *badja > *bædja > bed *mann-iz > menn *badja > *bædja > bed *mann-iz > menn pulvinus > ? pulvinus > ?

28 The Latin Influence 4 i-mutation (7th century) i-mutation (7th century) pulvinus > pyle > pillow pulvinus > pyle > pillow puteus > OE *puti > ? puteus > OE *puti > ? puteus > OE *puti > pytt > pit puteus > OE *puti > pytt > pit

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30 The Latin Influence 5 i-mutation (7th century) i-mutation (7th century) moneta > OE *munit > ? moneta > OE *munit > ? moneta > OE *munit > mynet > mint moneta > OE *munit > mynet > mint moneta > OFr moneie > ME monei > money moneta > OFr moneie > ME monei > money

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33 The Latin Influence 6 Words taken over during the Zero Period Words taken over during the Zero Period 1) War: camp (‘battle’) < L. campus; segn (‘banner’) < L. signum; pil (‘javelin’) < L. pilum; straet (‘street’) < L. via strata 1) War: camp (‘battle’) < L. campus; segn (‘banner’) < L. signum; pil (‘javelin’) < L. pilum; straet (‘street’) < L. via strata 2) Trade: ceap (‘trade’) < L. caupo (‘inn- keeper’); mangere (‘trader’) < L. mango 2) Trade: ceap (‘trade’) < L. caupo (‘inn- keeper’); mangere (‘trader’) < L. mango cf. ironmonger, fishmonger cf. ironmonger, fishmonger eced (‘acid’) < L. acetum; cuppe (‘cup’) < L. cuppa eced (‘acid’) < L. acetum; cuppe (‘cup’) < L. cuppa

34 The Latin Influence 7 Words taken over during the First Period ( AD) Words taken over during the First Period ( AD) Latin words via Celtic language (which had borrowed more than 600 words) or reinforcement of already existing Latin loans from the Zero Period. Latin words via Celtic language (which had borrowed more than 600 words) or reinforcement of already existing Latin loans from the Zero Period. name-element ceaster < L. castra (enclosed space for habitation, not necessarily a military camp) name-element ceaster < L. castra (enclosed space for habitation, not necessarily a military camp) Winchester, Colchester, Dorchester, etc. Winchester, Colchester, Dorchester, etc.

35 The Latin Influence 8 First Period ( AD) First Period ( AD) port < L. portus (‘harbour’) munt < L. mons, montis (‘mountain’) wic < L. vicus (‘village’) cf. Warwick, Gatwick port < L. portus (‘harbour’) munt < L. mons, montis (‘mountain’) wic < L. vicus (‘village’) cf. Warwick, Gatwick

36 The Latin Influence 9 Second Period ( AD): loans mainly due to Christianisation Second Period ( AD): loans mainly due to Christianisation 1) Early influences ( AD): new concepts need to be expressed in new words 1) Early influences ( AD): new concepts need to be expressed in new words 2) Later influence ( AD): learned words, connection with Benedictine Reform 2) Later influence ( AD): learned words, connection with Benedictine Reform

37 The Latin Influence 10 Early influences ( AD): new concepts need to be expressed in new words Early influences ( AD): new concepts need to be expressed in new words religion: abbot, alms, altar, angel, ark, candle, canon, chalice, cleric, disciple (also loan-translation: leorning-cniht), epistle, litany, manna, martyr, mass, minster, noon, nun, organ, priest, psalter, relic religion: abbot, alms, altar, angel, ark, candle, canon, chalice, cleric, disciple (also loan-translation: leorning-cniht), epistle, litany, manna, martyr, mass, minster, noon, nun, organ, priest, psalter, relic

38 The Monastic Day 1 Ps. 118, 164: Seven times a day I will sing your praise! Ps. 118, 62: I get up at midnight to sing your praise! Ps. 118, 164: Seven times a day I will sing your praise! Ps. 118, 62: I get up at midnight to sing your praise! wake up call wake up call 1) Matutin (Mette) sleep 4.30 wake up call 1) Matutin (Mette) sleep 4.30 wake up call

39 The Monastic Day 2 2) Laudes 2) Laudes 3) Prim (Hora Prima) ) Prim (Hora Prima) ) First Mass 4) First Mass Work and study Work and study ) Terz (Hora Tertia) ) Terz (Hora Tertia) [6) High Mass (Day Mass)] [6) High Mass (Day Mass)]

40 The Monastic Day 3 7) Sext (Hora Sexta) lunch, siesta etc ) Sext (Hora Sexta) lunch, siesta etc )None (Hora Nona) work and study, dinner 8)None (Hora Nona) work and study, dinner 9)Vesper (Vesprae)18.00 (19.00) 9)Vesper (Vesprae)18.00 (19.00) 10) Complete (Completorium) go to sleep ) Complete (Completorium) go to sleep19.30

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42 St John Nepomuk ( )

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44 Relics Parts of the body (bones, hair, teeth, blood etc.) of the saint or holy person. Parts of the body (bones, hair, teeth, blood etc.) of the saint or holy person. Items that have been in contact with the saint or holy person (splinters from the Holy Cross, the Grail, pieces of cloth, Turin Shroud, crown of thorns, rings etc.) Items that have been in contact with the saint or holy person (splinters from the Holy Cross, the Grail, pieces of cloth, Turin Shroud, crown of thorns, rings etc.) Curiosa: feather of the Holy Ghost, umbilical cord of Christ Curiosa: feather of the Holy Ghost, umbilical cord of Christ

45 Relics 2 ‘Sympathetic magic’: the items that have come in close contact with the saint/holy person have taken over some of his/her power - and continues to ‘give off’ power => a believer can ‘participate’ in the saint’s power via the relic ‘Sympathetic magic’: the items that have come in close contact with the saint/holy person have taken over some of his/her power - and continues to ‘give off’ power => a believer can ‘participate’ in the saint’s power via the relic relics often used to consecrate altars relics often used to consecrate altars

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48 The Latin Influence 11 Early influences ( AD): new concepts need to be expressed in new words Early influences ( AD): new concepts need to be expressed in new words domestic life: cap, sock, silk, chest, mat, lentil, pear, radish, oyster, lobster, mussel, fennel, lily, myrrh domestic life: cap, sock, silk, chest, mat, lentil, pear, radish, oyster, lobster, mussel, fennel, lily, myrrh schooling: school, master, grammar, verse, gloss, notary schooling: school, master, grammar, verse, gloss, notary

49 The Latin Influence 12 Later influences ( AD): of learned nature, due to Benedictine Reform Later influences ( AD): of learned nature, due to Benedictine Reform Flowering of monastic culture (8th & 9th centuries) cut short in Northumbria and Mercia due to Viking invasion. Flowering of monastic culture (8th & 9th centuries) cut short in Northumbria and Mercia due to Viking invasion. In the aftermath, monastic discipline and culture suffered from neglect => In the aftermath, monastic discipline and culture suffered from neglect =>

50 The Latin Influence 13 Benedictine Reform in the 10th century. Benedictine Reform in the 10th century. Strict observance of the Benedictine Rule ‘ora et labora’! Strict observance of the Benedictine Rule ‘ora et labora’! chastity, obedience, poverty chastity, obedience, poverty effects: improvement of education and monastic discipline effects: improvement of education and monastic discipline

51 The Latin Influence 14 New vocabulary: New vocabulary: learning and science: history, paper, pumice, ginger, camel, tiger, cancer, paralysis, plaster learning and science: history, paper, pumice, ginger, camel, tiger, cancer, paralysis, plaster religion: apostle, cell, cloister, creed, demon, dirge, font, idol, prophet, synagogue etc. religion: apostle, cell, cloister, creed, demon, dirge, font, idol, prophet, synagogue etc. missing: words of everyday life missing: words of everyday life

52 The Latin Influence 15 strategies to express new concepts: strategies to express new concepts: loans loans loan-translations (disciple vs. leorning- cniht; patriarch vs. heahfaeder; martyr vs. throwere [‘sufferer‘]; saint vs. halga; baptism vs. fulluht) loan-translations (disciple vs. leorning- cniht; patriarch vs. heahfaeder; martyr vs. throwere [‘sufferer‘]; saint vs. halga; baptism vs. fulluht) fulluht-baeth? fulluht-baeth? fulluht-nama? fulluht-nama? adaptation of existing terms: Hel > hell adaptation of existing terms: Hel > hell

53 The Latin Influence 16 Effects of the Latin influence: Effects of the Latin influence: some 450 Latin words appear in English writings before the end of the OE period. some 450 Latin words appear in English writings before the end of the OE period. integration of most elements into the language => became active elements themselves integration of most elements into the language => became active elements themselves martyr => gemartyrian = ‘to martyr’; martyrhad or martyrdom = ‘martyrdom’ martyr => gemartyrian = ‘to martyr’; martyrhad or martyrdom = ‘martyrdom’


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