Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Revolution The Rise of Science (16 th – 18 th cents.) –The Ancient and Medieval Mindset “Natural philosophy” Dependent on Greco-Roman thinkers."— Presentation transcript:
The Scientific Revolution The Rise of Science (16 th – 18 th cents.) –The Ancient and Medieval Mindset “Natural philosophy” Dependent on Greco-Roman thinkers No clear-cut lines between science and pseudoscience Europe still very “religious” and “superstitious” –Science became more “modern” (by 17 th cent.)
The Scientific Revolution Revolution in Astronomy –Ptolemaic Theory Derived from Ptolemy (2 nd cent.) The Cosmos –Group of concentric spheres –GEOCENTRIC –Spheres revolve around Earth Bible, human observation “support” this –Celestial bodies contain “ether” perfect, incorruptible, immutable
The Scientific Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus ( ) –Polish cleric –Studied philosophy, law, math, and science –On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs (1543) Based on mathematics Proposed HELIOCENTRIC universe –Remained hypothesis initially Many astronomers hesitated to adopt it Mathematical concerns
The Scientific Revolution The Copernican system
The Scientific Revolution Johann Kepler ( ) –Court mathematician of emperor –Provided mathematical confirmation for Copernicus’s theory –Taught Laws of Planetary Motion Planets follow elliptical orbits, not circular Distance and time of revolution in constant ratio
The Scientific Revolution Galileo Galilei ( ) –Studied medicine, mechanics, mathematics –Professor at U. of Padua –Fascinated with astronomy –Discoveries with telescope Imperfections on moon Sunspots –Demonstrate uniformity between heavens and Earth
The Scientific Revolution
Galileo: Outspoken and Defiant Advocate of Copernican Theory –Asked to treat theory as hypothesis, not fact… –Did not! summoned to Rome (1632), house arrest –Trial before Inquisition (1633) Charged with challenging authority of Scripture heresy Abjured Copernican theory Punishment: house arrest; daughter ended up saying penitential psalms in his stead –Died within Catholic Church (1642)
The Scientific Revolution 2009
The Scientific Revolution Questions?
Further Advances –Physics: Law of Gravity Sir Isaac Newton ( ) Gravity: same force that holds object on Earth holds planets in orbits –Chemistry: use chemicals to treat disease Old theory: disease the result of imbalance in humors bloodletting New proposition: use chemicals!
The Scientific Revolution Discoveries in Biology –Human anatomy Dissect cadavers! –Blood circulation –Bacteria discovered with microscope Vesalius and students
The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution Generalized –“THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD” Popularized by Francis Bacon ( ) Empirical observation and experimentation conclusions Inductive reasoning: let theories emerge only after accumulation and analysis of data
The Scientific Revolution Scientific Discoveries Revolution in Thought –Old paradigms swept away Humans no longer center of universe Cosmos are orderly and mechanistic based on God’s design –Faith in human reason optimism –Skepticism beginning to brew need for evidence
The Scientific Revolution John Locke ( ) –English writer, political theorist –People possess “natural rights”: life, liberty, property –Function of government Protect everyone’s rights Mutual contract between ruler and ruled Break in contract ruled have right to reconsider ruler, even rebel!