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Maps and Images for McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 18 Toward a New World- view Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights.

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Presentation on theme: "Maps and Images for McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 18 Toward a New World- view Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 Maps and Images for McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 18 Toward a New World- view Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2 Copernican System This illustration of the Copernican System from the published text of Copernicus's treatise On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) shows the earth and the planets revolving around the sun. Copernicus challenged traditional astronomy and its earth- centered universe. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY) Copernican System Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

3 Descartes in Sweden Louis Michel Dumesnil ( ) painted Queen Christina of Sweden surrounded by her court, listening to Descartes give a lecture on geometry. She encouraged art and science, and she invited many foreign artists and scholars to visit her court. The daughter of Protestant hero Gustavus Adolphus, Christina rejected marriage, abdicated in 1654, and converted to Catholicism. (Photographie Bulloz) Descartes in Sweden Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

4 Galileo This 1624 engraved portrait by Ottavio Mario Leoni ( ) of Galileo Galilei ( ) shows the Italian scientist in full vigor at age 60, before he was hounded by the Roman Inquisition. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) Galileo Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 Galileo's moon paintings When Galileo Galilei ( ) published the results of his telescopic observations of the moon, he added these paintings to illustrate the marvels he'd seen. (Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence/Art Resource, NY) Galileo's moon paintings Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

6 Catherine the Great, portrait Catherine was a German princess who had been brought to Russia to marry another German, Peter of Holstein- Gottorp, who was being groomed as heir to the Russian throne. Russia had crowned several monarchs of mixed Russian and German parentage since the time of Peter the Great's deliberate interest in and ties with other European states. (The Luton Hoo Foundation) Catherine the Great, portrait Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

7 Growth of the book trade Book ownership dramatically increased in the eighteenth century, and a wide range of secular works--from racy novelettes to philosophical tracts--were available in print. This painting of a bookshop, A L'Egide de Minerve, shows shipments of books that have arrived from around Europe. Notice the artist's optimism in the great variety of persons, from the peasant with a scythe to a white-robed cleric, who are drawn to the shop by "Minerva" (the Roman goddess of wisdom). (Musee des Beaux-Arts, Dijon) Growth of the book trade Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

8 Madame du Chatelet Gabrielle-Emilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet ( ) was an intellectually gifted women from the high aristocracy with a passion for science. She was fascinated by the new world system of Isaac Newton. She helped to spread Newton's ideas in France by translating his Principia and by influencing Voltaire, her companion for fifteen years until her death. (Giraudon/Art Resource, NY) Madame du Chatelet Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

9 Moses Mendelssohn Embracing the Enlightenment and seeking a revitalization of Jewish religious thought, Moses Mendelssohn concluded that reason could complement and strengthen his religion. In his works he reflected the way the German Enlightenment differed from the French Enlightenment by generally supporting established religion. A Christian zealot named Lavater challenged Mendelssohn in a pamphlet to accept Christianity or to demonstrate how the Christian faith was not "reasonable." This painting by Moritz Oppenheim depicts an imaginary encounter between the two men. (Collection of the Judah L. Magnes Museum, Berkeley) Moses Mendelssohn Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

10 Producing the Encyclopedie Denis Diderot ( ) wanted to present all valid knowledge--that is, knowledge based on reason and the senses and not on tradition and authority. This plate, one of 3,000 detailed illustrations accompanying the 70,000 essays in Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Craft, shows (from left to right) compositors setting type, arranging lines, and blocking down completed forms. Printed sheets dry above. (Division of Rare & Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library) Producing the Encyclopedie Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

11 Science from Fontenelle's work The most famous and influential popularizer of science was a versatile French man of letters, Bernard de Fontenelle ( ). The frontispiece illustration of his Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds invites the reader to share the pleasures of astronomy with an elegant lady and an entertaining teacher. The drawing shows the planets revolving around the sun. (By permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Lilbrary) Science from Fontenelle's work Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

12 Statue of Voltaire The greatest portrait sculptor of his day, Jean-Antoine Houdon ( ) completed a statue of Voltaire in 1781, a statue commissioned by Catherine II of Russia. Voltaire posed for the sculpture as a frail old man, which is evident in the deep wrinkles of his face and the dry, papery skin of both his face and hands. Nonetheless, Houdon captures Voltaire's intellect and wit in his incisive gaze. (Scala/Art Resource, NY) Statue of Voltaire Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

13 Vernet, Building Highway An expanding system of all-weather roads improved French communications, promoted trade, and facilitated relief in time of famine. This majestic painting by Claude-Joseph Vernet ( ) captures the spirit of the Enlightenment's cautious optimism and its faith in hard-won progress. (Giraudon/The Bridgeman Art Library International) Vernet, Building Highway Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

14 The Partition of Poland and the Expansion of Russia Catherine the Great acquired present-day Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine, which had once constituted the duchy of Lithuania, part of the multi-ethnic Polish kingdom.(Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.) Map: The Partition of Poland and the Expansion of Russia Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


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