5 TargetsCharacterize the new European civilization formed by the Germanic peoples, the legacy of the Romans and the Church.Discuss how Charlemagne expanded the Frankish kingdom and created the Carolingian Empire.
7 I. The New Germanic Kingdoms Visigoths, occupied Spain and Italy until the Ostrogoths, another Germanic tribe, took control of Italy in the 5th century.By 500 Western Roman Empire was replaced by states ruled by German kings.
11 A. The Kingdom of the Franks The Frankish kingdom was established by Clovis, a strong military leader around 500 became the first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity.
12 A. The Kingdom of the Franks By 510, Clovis had established a powerful new Frankish kingdom that stretched from the Pyrenees in the southwest to German lands in the east (modern day France and western Germany)
14 B. Germanic SocietyCrucial social bond among the Germanic people was the family, especially the extended familyThe extended family worked the land together and passed it down to future generationsAlso provided protection
15 B. Germanic Society Crime and Punishment Wergild - “money for a man”, the value of a person in money, depending on social status; in Germanic society, a fine paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed (pg. 287)
16 B. Germanic Society Crime and Punishment Ordeal - a means of determining guilt in Germanic law, based on the idea of divine intervention: if the accused person was unharmed after a physical trial, he or she was presumed innocent (pg. 287)
18 II. The Role of the Church As the official Roman state fell apart, the Church played an increasingly important role in the growth of the new European civilization.
19 A. Organization of the Church Bishopric - a group of Christian communities, or parishes, under the authority of a bishopUnder the direction of an archbishop
20 A. Organization of the Church Peter, who was considered the chief apostle and the first bishop of Rome.Popes - the bishop of Rome & head of the Roman Catholic Church (pg. 287)
21 A. Organization of the Church Gregory I, 1) strengthened the power of the papacy (office of the pope), 2) served as leader of the city of Rome and its surrounding territories (Papal states) 3) he increased his spiritual authority over the church in the west, 4) active in converting non-Christian people of Germanic Europe to Christianity
22 B. The Monks & Their Missions Monk - a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to dedicate himself to God; monks live in monasteries headed by abbots
23 B. The Monks & Their Missions Monasticism – the practice of living life of a monkMonasticism was based on the model of the hermit who pursues an isolated spiritual lifeEmphasis on prayer and manual labor
24 The Monks & Their Missions Saint Benedict founded a community of monks for which he wrote a set of rules“Ate, worked, slept and worshiped”Monasteries became center of learning.
25 The Monks & Their Missions Missionaries – people sent out to carry a religious message – who understood the conversion of non-Christian peoples
26 The Monks & Their Missions Nuns, female monks who began to withdraw from the worldNuns lived in convents headed by abbesses. Many of the abbesses belonged to royal houses.Responsible for giving learning an important role in the life of the monastery
27 III. Charlemagne & the Carolingians During the 600’s and 700’s, the kings of the Frankish kingdom gradually lost their power to the Mayors of the palace, who were the chief officers of the king’s household
28 III. Charlemagne & the Carolingians One of these mayors, Pepin, son of Charles Martel, the leader who defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732.Took the logical step of assuming the kingship of the Frankish state for himself and his family
29 III. Charlemagne & the Carolingians Charlemagne, or Charles the GreatA dynamic and powerful kingHighly intelligent and curious, fierce warrior, strong statesman and a pious ChristianWise patron of learning
30 A. The Carolingian Empire Charlemagne, Frankish King from 768 to 814Established the Carolingian Empire (Frankish Kingdom)
31 B. Charlemagne as Roman Emperor In 800, Charlemagne became emperor of the Romans.Demonstrated the strength of the idea of an enduring Roman Empire.The coronation also symbolized the coming together of Roman, Christian and Germanic elements.
35 C. An Intellectual Renewal Carolingian Renaissance, or rebirthThe revival involved renewed interest in Latin culture, and classical works of the Greeks and RomansMonasteries est. scriptoria, or writing rooms, where monks copied the bible, & Latin classical authors
36 C. An Intellectual Renewal Their work was a crucial factor in the preservation of the ancient legacy
37 Pepin the ShortCharles MartelMany rulers had the same name, so an adjective such as “bald,” or “short” could help people identify them; sometimes numbers were used.
39 ObjectivesDiscuss the Vikings, Magyar and Muslim invasions of Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries.Summarize how the collapse of central authority in the European world led to a new political system known as feudalism.
41 I. Invaders1. Muslims, attacked the southern coast of Europe and sent raiding parties into southern France2. Magyars, people from western Asia, moved into central Europe at end of the ninth century, settled on the plains of Hungary, and invaded western Europe.
43 I. Invaders 3. Vikings, Northmen or Norsemen of Scandinavia Germanic people, warriorsLoved adventure, spoils of war and new avenues of tradeSacked villages, and towns, destroyed churches, and easily defeated small local armies.
45 I. InvadersBeginning in 911, the ruler of the west Frankish lands gave one band of Vikings land at the mouth of the Seine River forming a section of France that came to be known as Normandy.
46 II. The Development of Feudalism Feudalism – political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages, when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service.
48 A. Knights & VassalsWarriors swore an oath of loyalty to their leaders and fought for them, the leaders, in turn, took care of the warriors’ needs.Vassal – a man who served a lord in a military capacity.
49 A. Knights & VassalsKnights – a member of the heavily armored cavalry.They wielded long lances that enabled them to act as battering rams (the stirrups kept them on their horses)
50 The Castles of the Aristocrats The growth of the European nobility in the High Middle Ages (1000 to 1300) was made visible by a growing number of castles scattered across the landscape. Castles varied considerably but possessed two common features: they were permanent residences for the noble family, its retainers, and servants, and they were defensible fortifications.
51 A. Knights & VassalsWhen the these lords wanted me to fight for them, they granted each vassal a piece of land that supported the vassal and his family.Where there was little trade and wealth was based primarily on land, land was the most important gift a lord could give to a vassal.
52 B. The Feudal ContractFief – a grant of land made to a vassal; the vassal held political authority within his fief.
53 B. The Feudal ContractFeudal contract – the unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal.Military service, give advice to the lord, making financial payments to the lord.
54 III. The Nobility of the Middle Ages Kings, dukes, counts, barons, even bishops and archbishops formed an aristocracy, or nobilityTournaments – contests where knights could show their fighting skills (joust)
55 III. The Nobility of the Middle Ages chivalry – code of ethics that knights were suppose to uphold.Fight only for glory and not for material rewards, an ideal that was not always followed.
56 IV. Aristocratic WomenWhen the lord was away at war or court, the lady of the castle had to manage the estateCared for the financial accountsResponsible for overseeing the food supply
57 IV. Aristocratic WomenEleanor of Aquitaine, married King Louis VII of FranceMarriage was annulled, then married King Henry II of EnglandHad eight children, Richard & John became kings of England
60 ObjectivesDescribe how European monarchs began to extend their power and build strong states during the High Middle Ages.Identify the three distinct groups formed by the Slavic peoples and locate where they settled in eastern Europe.
63 A. The Norman Conquest*1066, William of Normandy landed on the coast of England and soundly defeated King Harold and his foot soldiers at the Battle of Hastings.Merged Anglo-Saxon and French into a new English culture.The Normans also took over existing Anglo-Saxon institutions, such as the office of sheriff.
64 B. Henry II 1154 to 1189 Henry II, English monarch Henry increased the number of criminal cases tried in the king’s court & devised means for taking property cases from local courts*Common law- a law that the whole kingdom began to replace law codes that varied from place to place.
65 B. Henry II*Thomas a’ Becket was an archbishop of Canterbury and the highest ranking English cleric, claimed that only Roman Catholic Church courts could try clerics.Henry publicly expressed the desire to be ride of BecketFour knights murdered the archbishop in the cathedral
67 C. The Magna Carta & the First Parliament *King John of England was forced to sign the Magna Cartathe Magna Carta was, above all, a feudal document that *strengthened the idea that a monarch’s power was limited, not absolute
68 C. The Magna Carta & the First Parliament In the thirteenth century, during the reign of *Edward I, an important institution in the development of representative government-the English Parliament-also emerged.House of Lords & House of Commons
70 II. The French KingdomThe Capetian dynasty was made up of French kingsPhilip II Augustus, waged war against the rulers of EnglandExpanded the income of the French monarchy and greatly increased its powers
71 II. The French Kingdom Louis IX, saintly Philip IV, expanded the royal bureaucracyThe three *estates, or classes - the clergy, (first estate), the nobles (second estate), the townspeople, and the peasants (third estate).
72 III. The Holy Roman Empire The Frankish kingdom which came to be known as GermanyOtto I best known Saxon king of GermanyCrowned emperor of the Romans in 962
74 A. Struggles in ItalyGerman kings (Fredrick I & II) attempted to rule both German and Italian landsGerman kings were opposed by the popeNorthern Italy, were also unwilling to become his subjectsWon many battles, but ultimately losing the war
75 B. Effect on the EmpireGerman emperors left Germany in the hands of powerful German lordsGerman monarchy is weak and incapable of maintaining a strong monarchial stateGerman Holy Roman Emperor had no real powerGermany and Italy consisted of many small independent states
76 IV. Central & Eastern Europe Three major groups: the western, southern and eastern SlavsWestern Slavs – Poles, Czechs and SlovaksSouthern Slavs – Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs
77 IV. Central & Eastern Europe Eastern Slavs - Moravia
79 V. The Development of Russia Eastern Slavic peoples had settled in the territory of present-day Ukraine and Russia.Vikings moved into their lands and eventually came to dominate the native peopleVikings called the Rus, from which the name Russia is derived
80 A. Kievan RusViking leader, Oleg, settled in Kiev and created the Rus stateViking ruling class was gradually assimilated into the Slavic populationEastern Orthodox Christianity became the religion of the state
81 Examine the map below showing the expansion of Moscow from 1300 to 1462 and answer the following questions.
83 B. Mongol Rule In the 13th century, the Mongols conquered Russia Forced Russian princes to pay tribute to themAlexander Nevsky, prince of Novgorod became the grand princeHis successors became the eventual leaders of Russia
88 I. The Reign of Justinian Justinian became the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in 527The eastern roman empire had inherited a vast quantity of legal materials, which Justinian wished to simplify.
89 I. The Reign of Justinian Justinian’s most important contribution was his codification of Roman lawThe Body of Civil LawThis code of roman laws was the basis of imperial law in the eastern Roman Empire until it ends in 1453.
91 II. From Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire Serious problems:To much territory to protect far from Constantinoplean empty treasurya decline in population after plaguerenewed threats to its frontiersthe most serious challenge came from the rise of Islam
92 II. From Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire Greek and Christian stateEastern Orthodox ChurchEmperor, considered absolutePatriarch –the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church, originally appointed by the Byzantine emperor.
93 III. Life in Constantinople Constantinople was the largest city in Europe during the Middle Ages
94 A. TradeConstantinople was the greatest center of commerceChief center for the exchange of products between West and EastSilk, spices, jewelry, ivory, wheat, furs
95 B. BuildingJustinian’s program of rebuilding in the 6th centuryImmense palace complex, hundreds of churches, huge arena (Hippodrome)Roads, bridges, walls, public baths, law courts, schools
96 B. BuildingHis greatest achievement was the famous Hagia Sophia – the Church of Holy Wisdom – completed in 537
98 IV. New Heights & New Problems The Byzantine Emperors known as the Macedonians, emperors expanded the empire and fostered a burst of economic growth
99 IV. New Heights & New Problems Growing split between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic ChurchSchism- or separation, between the two great branches of Christianity that has not been completely healed to this day.
100 IV. New Heights & New Problems Greatest challenge came from the Seljuk Turks (Muslims) who moved into Asia Minor
102 V. The CrusadesCrusades - military expedition carried out by European Christians in the middle ages to regain the holy land from the MuslimsInfidels - an unbeliever, a term applied to the Muslims during the Crusades
103 V. The CrusadesKnights motivated by 1. religious fervor, some sought 2. adventure and welcomed the chance to pursue their favorite pastime fightingOthers saw an opportunity to gain 3. territory, riches and a possible 4. titleMerchants sought new trading opportunities
104 A. The Early CrusadesThe first crusade captured the holy city of Jerusalem in 1099By 1140 the Muslims had struck backThe second crusade was a total failure1187, the Holy City fell to Muslim forces under Saladin
106 A. The Early CrusadesThe Third Crusade involved Emperor Frederick of Germany, Richard I of England and Philip II Augustus of FranceThe third crusade permitted Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem
108 B. The Later CrusadesThe fourth Crusade was initiated by Pope Innocent IIThe fourth crusade didn’t make it to the holy landThe crusaders sack the city of Constantinople in 12041212, Children's Crusade