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U.S. History 3 Chapter 22 “A Crisis in Confidence: 1968-1980” Chapter 22-1: Nixon and the Watergate Scandal.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History 3 Chapter 22 “A Crisis in Confidence: 1968-1980” Chapter 22-1: Nixon and the Watergate Scandal."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. History 3 Chapter 22 “A Crisis in Confidence: 1968-1980” Chapter 22-1: Nixon and the Watergate Scandal

2 Nixon’s Policies Target Middle America Silent Majority: Nickname Nixon gave to middle class Americans who wanted to see an end to the chaos of the 1960’s Silent Majority: Nickname Nixon gave to middle class Americans who wanted to see an end to the chaos of the 1960’s New Federalism: Nixon’s plan to reverse the trend of growing federal power by given power “back to the states” New Federalism: Nixon’s plan to reverse the trend of growing federal power by given power “back to the states” Revenue Sharing: Federal Gov’t. gave states money to spend on special projects Revenue Sharing: Federal Gov’t. gave states money to spend on special projects OSHA, EPA, Medicare, and Medicaid all increased federal power OSHA, EPA, Medicare, and Medicaid all increased federal power

3 The Economy Struggles Stagflation: economic stagnation and high inflation Stagflation: economic stagnation and high inflation *Rapid increase in the price of oil was that main concern *Rapid increase in the price of oil was that main concern 1973: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC placed an oil embargo on the United States 1973: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC placed an oil embargo on the United States Gas prices increased 400% Gas prices increased 400%

4 Nixon Follows a “Southern Strategy” Controversy rages over busing: 1971: federal courts forced school districts to “bus” students in order to desegregate public schools: Nixon opposed idea Controversy rages over busing: 1971: federal courts forced school districts to “bus” students in order to desegregate public schools: Nixon opposed idea Nixon Proposes New Civil Rights Initiatives: Affirmative Action: policy that gives preference to women and minority applicants in jobs/education to make up for past discrimination Nixon Proposes New Civil Rights Initiatives: Affirmative Action: policy that gives preference to women and minority applicants in jobs/education to make up for past discrimination

5 Nixon’s Strategy Succeeds 1972: Nixon ran as a “moderate” while Anti-war Democrat (George McGovern) and Segregationist George Wallace (Wallace was shot and paralyzed during campaign) were seen as “extremists” 1972: Nixon ran as a “moderate” while Anti-war Democrat (George McGovern) and Segregationist George Wallace (Wallace was shot and paralyzed during campaign) were seen as “extremists”

6 The Watergate Scandal Brings Nixon Down Watergate: Complex that housed Democratic Campaign Headquarters Watergate: Complex that housed Democratic Campaign Headquarters June 1972: Burglars were arrested for breaking into the head quarters June 1972: Burglars were arrested for breaking into the head quarters James McCord: Burglar who admitted that Nixon Administration ordered the break in James McCord: Burglar who admitted that Nixon Administration ordered the break in *After this confession, the Senate began to investigate and the scandal went public *After this confession, the Senate began to investigate and the scandal went public

7 “Deep Throat” Washington Post: Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein followed the tips of a government informant (the press named him “Deep Throat” after an adult film of the era) Washington Post: Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein followed the tips of a government informant (the press named him “Deep Throat” after an adult film of the era) Woodward and Bernstein kept the informants name a secret and continued to write articles about the scandal Woodward and Bernstein kept the informants name a secret and continued to write articles about the scandal Nixon: “I am not a crook” Nixon: “I am not a crook”

8 Watergate Scandal Archibald Cox: Prosecutor Archibald Cox: Prosecutor John Dean: stated that Nixon ordered a cover-up John Dean: stated that Nixon ordered a cover-up John Mitchell: Attorney General who ordered the break-in John Mitchell: Attorney General who ordered the break-in Executive Privilege: After it was revealed that Nixon had White House discussions taped, he was ordered to hand them over; Nixon refused for “national-security” concerns (United States v. Nixon) Executive Privilege: After it was revealed that Nixon had White House discussions taped, he was ordered to hand them over; Nixon refused for “national-security” concerns (United States v. Nixon) Saturday Night Massacre: Nixon fired Cox and other high ranking officials Saturday Night Massacre: Nixon fired Cox and other high ranking officials Supreme Court Rules that Nixon has to turn over all tapes Supreme Court Rules that Nixon has to turn over all tapes August 9 th, 1974: Richard M. Nixon became the first president to resign from office August 9 th, 1974: Richard M. Nixon became the first president to resign from office *Vice President Spiro Agnew had also resigned over a bribery scandal *Vice President Spiro Agnew had also resigned over a bribery scandal *Gerald Ford became the President (Only man to become president after NOT being elected President OR Vice President *Gerald Ford became the President (Only man to become president after NOT being elected President OR Vice President 25 th Amendment: Presidential Succession: Nixon nominated Ford (House Minority Leader) to become his VP after Agnew resigned 25 th Amendment: Presidential Succession: Nixon nominated Ford (House Minority Leader) to become his VP after Agnew resigned

9 Watergate Has a Lasting Impact Public’s confidence in their government was shaken Public’s confidence in their government was shaken 1950: 80% of Americans trusted their government 1950: 80% of Americans trusted their government 1974: 33% 1974: 33% *Congress passed laws to limit Presidential Power (Independent Counsel) to investigate wrongdoing *Congress passed laws to limit Presidential Power (Independent Counsel) to investigate wrongdoing *Watergate also showed that the American system of “Checks and Balances” DOES WORK *Watergate also showed that the American system of “Checks and Balances” DOES WORK *Time: “Watergate Demonstrated that no person, not even the President, is above the law.” *Time: “Watergate Demonstrated that no person, not even the President, is above the law.”

10 U.S. History 3 Chapter 22 “A Crisis in Confidence: 1968-1980” Chapter 22-2: The Ford and Carter Years

11 Ford Faces Political and Economic Woes Gerald Ford: Wanted to restore people’s faith in government as fast as possible Gerald Ford: Wanted to restore people’s faith in government as fast as possible *Pardon: Ford officially forgave Nixon in an attempt to move past the Watergate Scandal *Pardon: Ford officially forgave Nixon in an attempt to move past the Watergate Scandal Critics saw it as a way to help Nixon escape justice Critics saw it as a way to help Nixon escape justice Whip Inflation Now WIN: Ford’s plan to end inflation: Failed Whip Inflation Now WIN: Ford’s plan to end inflation: Failed

12 A Washington “Outsider” Becomes President Jimmy Carter: Americans saw Carter as an honest politician who had not been “corrupted” by the career politicians in Washington Jimmy Carter: Americans saw Carter as an honest politician who had not been “corrupted” by the career politicians in Washington Election of 1976: Carter Defeated Ford (297 Electoral Votes to 240) Election of 1976: Carter Defeated Ford (297 Electoral Votes to 240) Christian Fundamentalists- Group that believed in “literal” interpretation of the bible supported Carter Christian Fundamentalists- Group that believed in “literal” interpretation of the bible supported Carter Carter called himself the “Citizen’s President” Carter called himself the “Citizen’s President” Carter had a hard time passing bills because he did not have many “friends” in Washington Carter had a hard time passing bills because he did not have many “friends” in Washington Amnesty: Carter polarized Americans when he pardoned Vietnam Draftees who “dodged” the draft Amnesty: Carter polarized Americans when he pardoned Vietnam Draftees who “dodged” the draft

13 Problems Sap the Nations Confidence Economic trouble continued to drag down the economy Economic trouble continued to drag down the economy Crisis in Confidence Speech: Carter called on Americans to conserve Crisis in Confidence Speech: Carter called on Americans to conserve *Many Americans thought that Carter was “blaming” them and not the “corrupt” government for the nation’s problems and became furious with carter *Many Americans thought that Carter was “blaming” them and not the “corrupt” government for the nation’s problems and became furious with carter Federal Reserve: Under Carter, the Federal Reserve raised interest rates to help with inflation Federal Reserve: Under Carter, the Federal Reserve raised interest rates to help with inflation “In a nation that was proud of hard work, strong families, close- knit communities, and our faith in God, too many of us now tend to worship self-indulgence and consumption. Human identity is no longer defined by what one does, but by what one owns. But we’ve discovered that owning things and consuming things does not satisfy our longing for meaning. We’ve learned that piling up material goods cannot fill the emptiness of lives which have no confidence or purpose. The symptoms of this crisis of the American spirit are all around us. For the first time in the history of our country a majority of our people believe that the next five years will be worse than the past five years.”

14 Changing Values Stir Unease Demography Affects Politics Demography Affects Politics Immigration trends and migration patterns shift political focus of country Immigration trends and migration patterns shift political focus of country

15 The “Me” Generation Comes of Age 1965-1979: Divorce rate had doubled 1965-1979: Divorce rate had doubled Twice as many children born out of wedlock Twice as many children born out of wedlock Meditation, Personal Fitness, Body Building and other “self-indulging” trends became more popular Meditation, Personal Fitness, Body Building and other “self-indulging” trends became more popular 1970: NYC Marathon= 100 People 1970: NYC Marathon= 100 People 1980: 14,000 1980: 14,000

16 T.V. Breaks New Ground M*A*S*H*: Resonated with a society raised on war M*A*S*H*: Resonated with a society raised on war Chico and the man: Minorities Chico and the man: Minorities Sanford and Son: Minorities Sanford and Son: Minorities All in the Family All in the Family 60 Minutes 60 Minutes

17 Conservatives Reassert Traditional Values Televangelists: Television Preachers: Jerry Falwell, Oral Roberts, Pat Robertson Televangelists: Television Preachers: Jerry Falwell, Oral Roberts, Pat Robertson *many conservatives saw America’s “social ills” as the direct cause of all of its problems (Drug use= crime; hippie lifestyle= high divorce rate; homosexual activity = AIDS…etc) *many conservatives saw America’s “social ills” as the direct cause of all of its problems (Drug use= crime; hippie lifestyle= high divorce rate; homosexual activity = AIDS…etc) 1973: Roe v. Wade: Legalized Abortion 1973: Roe v. Wade: Legalized Abortion

18 Are Affirmative Action Programs Unfair? Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) Supreme Court ruled that race can be a factor in education admissions but general quotas were unfair (race could be one of many factors; not the only factor) Supreme Court ruled that race can be a factor in education admissions but general quotas were unfair (race could be one of many factors; not the only factor)

19 U.S. History 3 Chapter 22 “A Crisis in Confidence: 1968-1980” Chapter 22-3: Foreign Policy Troubles

20 Ford Continues Nixon’s Foreign Policies Pursuing Détente: Ford wished to improve relations with the USSR Pursuing Détente: Ford wished to improve relations with the USSR Helsinki Accords: European Nations (Including USSR) and U.S. officially acknowledge the common goal of protecting “human rights”-basic rights: Life, Liberty, Pursuit of Happiness Helsinki Accords: European Nations (Including USSR) and U.S. officially acknowledge the common goal of protecting “human rights”-basic rights: Life, Liberty, Pursuit of Happiness SALT II: United States and USSR agree to limit nuclear arms SALT II: United States and USSR agree to limit nuclear arms

21 Trouble in Southeast Asia U.S. did NOT intervene while the Khmer Rouge killed 1,500,000 of its own people U.S. did NOT intervene while the Khmer Rouge killed 1,500,000 of its own people Mayaguez Incident: Khmer Rouge siezed an American Merchant ship off the coast of Cambodia: Ford ordered Marines to rescue the crew Mayaguez Incident: Khmer Rouge siezed an American Merchant ship off the coast of Cambodia: Ford ordered Marines to rescue the crew Boat People: Vietnamese who fled Vietnam in 1975; over 1,000,000 fled and many eventually resettled in the United States Boat People: Vietnamese who fled Vietnam in 1975; over 1,000,000 fled and many eventually resettled in the United States

22 Carter Changes Course Relations with the Soviet Union “cool” Relations with the Soviet Union “cool” 1979: USSR Invaded Afghanistan 1979: USSR Invaded Afghanistan Carter withdrew from SALT II and imposed sanctions: penalties on the USSR Carter withdrew from SALT II and imposed sanctions: penalties on the USSR 1980: Carter Boycotted the Summer Olympics in Moscow and quit selling grain to the USSR 1980: Carter Boycotted the Summer Olympics in Moscow and quit selling grain to the USSR

23 Carter Supports Human Rights in the Developing World Developing World: Poor nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America Developing World: Poor nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America Carter began to pull support from ruthless dictators the U.S. supported as a “buffer” from the USSR Carter began to pull support from ruthless dictators the U.S. supported as a “buffer” from the USSR Sandinistas: Came to power after U.S. pulled support of Nicaraguan Dictator Sandinistas: Came to power after U.S. pulled support of Nicaraguan Dictator

24 Carter’s Policies Get Mixed Results in Latin America 1980: Carter tried to improve relations with Cuba 1980: Carter tried to improve relations with Cuba 1980: Fidel Castro: Dictator of Cuba sent Prisoners from Cuba to the U.S. – Americans were outraged 1980: Fidel Castro: Dictator of Cuba sent Prisoners from Cuba to the U.S. – Americans were outraged Panama Canal Zone: U.S. had control since 1903 Panama Canal Zone: U.S. had control since 1903 1977: Carter negotiated to give canal zone back to Panama in 1999 1977: Carter negotiated to give canal zone back to Panama in 1999

25 Success and Setback in the Middle East Israel and Egypt Agree to Peace Israel and Egypt Agree to Peace Camp David Accords: Egypt formally recognized Israel as a nation- First Arab Nation to do it Camp David Accords: Egypt formally recognized Israel as a nation- First Arab Nation to do it Israel withdrew its troops from the Sinai Peninsula between the two nations (Gained in 1967 War) Israel withdrew its troops from the Sinai Peninsula between the two nations (Gained in 1967 War) Egyptian President: Anwar Sadat (later assassinated) Egyptian President: Anwar Sadat (later assassinated) Israeli Prime Minister: Menachem Begin Israeli Prime Minister: Menachem Begin

26 Iran Seizes American Hostages 1950’s: U.S. supported the Shah of Iran 1950’s: U.S. supported the Shah of Iran 1979: The Shah was dying of cancer and fled the country 1979: The Shah was dying of cancer and fled the country Islamic Extremists took control of Iran Islamic Extremists took control of Iran Ayatollah Khomeini: Muslim Cleric who took control Ayatollah Khomeini: Muslim Cleric who took control Carter allowed the Shah to enter the U.S, for Cancer Treatment Carter allowed the Shah to enter the U.S, for Cancer Treatment Radical students stormed the U.S. Embassy, in Tehren, and took 66 Hostages. Radical students stormed the U.S. Embassy, in Tehren, and took 66 Hostages. After Carter failed to negotiate the release of the Hostages, he ordered a rescue attempt After Carter failed to negotiate the release of the Hostages, he ordered a rescue attempt * The helicopter crashed killing 8 Americans * The helicopter crashed killing 8 Americans *Americans were outraged that Carter allowed “students” to defy the United States without consequences *Americans were outraged that Carter allowed “students” to defy the United States without consequences * Hostages were held for 444 days * Hostages were held for 444 days * They were released the same day Ronald Reagan was sworn in as President * They were released the same day Ronald Reagan was sworn in as President

27 444 Days


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